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Keynote address by Dr.KSR Prasad - Avenues for Research & Updates in Ayurveda at Abhijna-2012 on 8-3-2012 at Govt. Ayurveda Medical College, Bangalore.

Keynote address by Dr.KSR Prasad - Avenues for Research & Updates in Ayurveda at Abhijna-2012 on 8-3-2012 at Govt. Ayurveda Medical College, Bangalore.

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    Ayur-research avenues Ayur-research avenues Presentation Transcript

    • Avenues for & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda “Develop something what people want and NOT What you can do.” Abhijna 2012 . . . A journey towards Anweshana on 8th March 2012at Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dedicated to the Ayurveda Scientist –Who followed “Doing Nothing” in his Life time Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaMay be the distance obstruct my visionMay be the scene is limited to my MindMay be it is realized or not to my HeartWhat I see is the only Ayurveda . . .. . . . . through my window An Ayurvedist perception Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Ayurveda Research Updates are many – but to narrate them becomes difficult - • As many of them are not published in any media or known to any body • Today we (try to) deal with Research - Researcher – Research Typology – Avenues – Updates Examples – Future Research proposalsDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda• India has a vast history of Human, Animal & Plants healing techniques as – Ayurveda, Vrukshayurveda, Pashu Ayurveda, Hastyayurveda, etc.• The healing techniques are based on fundamentals and principles - that are derived after a long term research and observation.• Basement and Roots are neglected and the Beauty of Tree or Building is prized• In Ayurveda Siddhanta, Dravyaguna, Rasashastra, etc. are Basement departments• We try to open “Nut principles” and “Products” that are kept for the validation with the present day philosophy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearch . . .• The research is defined as - systematic investigation and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach conclusions or a search for knowledge.• Research is not just a method, it is a system of organised knowledge• Research is a social activity carried out by groups of competing / co-operating / communicating scientists (persons) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearch:Increasing Options in Ayurveda• Dissolving Boundaries between Sciences ! – ‘Interdisciplinary / Trans-disciplinary’ approach• Dept of AYUSH / CCRAS – Require Research Officers / Project staff• ICMR institutes – Requires trained in clinical research• CSIR: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: www.csir.res.in – JRF / SRF program, Project staff Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearch Related Courses available for Ayur-Graduate• MD./MS• Ph.D.• M.Sc. – Health Sciences – Dietetics – Bioinformatics – Clinical Research (www.icriindia.com)• Clinical Toxicology – Directorate of Forensic Laboratory, Mumbai• Short Courses in various institutes• M.Tech (Bio-geosciences) atTamilnadu Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaTeaching levels for PGsUG level 1. Concept & principles 2. Clinical uses 3. Research insightsPG level 4. Innovative ideas, Newer applications 5. Development of technologies, products 6. Value addition to scientific knowledge Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaA Post-graduate is . . . • In-depth knowledge of subject • Good clinical experience & application • Research Methodology & Biostatistics + • Update informationA Graduate • Soft skills • Innovative approach = A Post-graduate Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research : Key issues• Methodology is important• Standard Design developed as per research question raised – Each situation demand different methodology• Availability of Opportunities in Ayur-research Eye can see when brain knows ! - Dr Abhay Bang Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Lacunae at Ayurveda Research• Choosing a topic and a • Research protocol supervisor • Ethical approval• Reviewing the literature • Funding• Stating the hypothesis • Data collection• Project outline • Interpretation of data• Record keeping and note • Writing the report making • Presenting a paper• Registering your research • Writing a paper for project publication Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaChecklist for Success (Do I Have?)• Impressive Background• Sound Language (Sanskrit, Hindi, English)• Communication skills• Attitude & Experience• Passion / Strong desire• Knowledge of Current Medical / Scientific Affairs• Knowledge of Computers Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda What counts as research?• Analysis of data from a patient’s medical notes (includes use of medical notes to identify potential participants re eligibility criteria)• Observations• Conducting surveys/ interviews• Using non-invasive imaging• Using blood or tissue samples• Trials of “interventions” (drugs, devices, surgical procedures or any other treatments / therapies) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Safeguards & Vetting• Scientific value – Proper research question, methodology, sample size Vetting• Ethical aspects – Recruitment – Sample size – Informed consent• Monitoring of research: – Quality control Maintenance – Adherence to protocol – Avoiding Misconduct in Research Monitoring Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearch is a process made up of many small steps. Steps in the Research Process 1. Define your research needs 2. Develop a research strategy 3. Conduct searches for information 4. Evaluate the resources that you find 5. Incorporate and cite the information you use Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Defining Your Research Needs • Make sure that you understand your assignment. • The next step in the process is defining what you need. • Then distinguish between different types of resources to decide which to use.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda1.Definition Protocol of a clinical trial2.Importance3.Format (a) Title page (b) background and hypothesis (c) Study design (d) Materials and methodology (e) Data collection and handling (f) Statistical analysis (g) References (h) Summary Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearcher ResponsibilitiesThe researchers have day-to-day responsibility for research conduct• Need to ensure: • Adherence to agreed protocols • Appropriate care of research participants (working with health care professionals) • Protection of the integrity and confidentiality of data • Reporting of adverse events or suspected misconductDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Researcher Misconduct • Falsification, fabrication, Plagiarism (theft of data or samples) • Unauthorized use of privileged information • Abuse of authorship • Significant failure to comply with federal, state, or University rules regarding researchDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Data Items in Clinical Trials Prone to Fraud • Eligibility criteria, Repeated measurements, Adverse events, Compliance & Subject diariesCare these sentences 1. Never discard original research data. 2. Missing data and outliers are very real phenomena in contemporary medical research. 3. Have faith in the wondrously stochastic (Being or having a random variable) and random nature of real human data, features most difficult to capture with fraud. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaResearch Misconduct- FFP • As defined by Office of Research Integrity • Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted in the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research • Not honest error or differences in opinionDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.webs.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaFabrication• Intentionally creating records that do not exist and for which there is no truth with the intent to mislead or deceive – Interviewer completing a questionnaire for a fictitious subject that was never interviewed – Preparing records for follow-up calls or contacts to subjects who were really lost to follow-up – Creating notes for a subject visit that never took place• Eric Poehlman, PhD - UVM College of Medicine – fabricated data in 17 grant applications for federal funding as well as in journal articles - Barred for life from receiving any federal funds for research – plead guilty to fraud –sentenced in 6/06 to a year and one day in prison (NY Times article “An Unwelcome Discovery” - 10/22/06) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Falsification• Alteration of data collected in the conduct of scientific investigation• Omission/deletion/suppression of conflicting data without scientific justification – Back-dating interviews to fit within the timeline provided in protocol – Changing a subject’s age in data records by an unimportant amount to fit enrollment criteria• Joy Bryant and Diana Layman - Falsified research in study by substituting their own blood for the 10-15 blood samples of child study participants as required by the protocol - Entered into Voluntary Exclusion Agreement for 3 years Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaPlagiarism – “Self-plagiarism” • Intentional use of someone else’s words, thoughts, or ideas, as though they are your own • Also includes “self-plagiarism” – author using his/her own published material in another work without citation • Ali Sultan, MD, PhD -From Harvard School of Public Health - - Plagiarized text and figures from emails from his post-doctoral student - - Also falsified results of research, and fabricated parts of emails from the student to falsely implicate the student • For 3 years – debarred from contracting or subcontracting w/ any US Gov’t agencyDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaConsider… • Who developed the concept of the paper? • Who conducted the actual research? • Who wrote and/or edited the draft? • Who calculated the statistics? Should these people be listed as authors? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research Validation• Validation / Understanding of Ayurveda Principles• Inventing / Discovery Newer techniques – Computers in research – Pharmaceutical sciences – Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology• Types & Designs – Traditional and modern aspects – Relevance, utility and feasibility for Unani / Siddha / Homeopathy / Nature cure /Yoga research Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Concerns for All Designs – Choosing Subjects • Ethical Principles – Target population – Measurements – Study sample – Continuous/Discrete/Categ – Generalizing orical/Ordinal – Inclusion/Exclusion – Precision/Reproducible/Rel• Recruitment iable – Accuracy• Effect size – Sensitivity/Specificity• Formulas – Objectivity• Software – Sample size/Power• Data collection – Hypothesis• Data cleaning – Errors (Type I, Type II)• Data analysis Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Error Types• Type I error • Causes of measurement error – Occurs if the null hypothesis 1. Observer error is rejected. (a) Inter-observer inaccuracies – False positive (b) Digit preference – The probability of making a (c) Question variation type I error is denoted as  2. Subject inaccuracies• Type II error (a) Natural variation – A type II error occurs if the (b) Unconscious bias null hypothesis is accepted, i.e. (c) Recall and motivation an insignificant result is (d) Compliance obtained, when the null 3.Equipment inaccuracies hypothesis is in fact not true. (a) Zero errors – The probability of making a type II error is denoted as β. (b) Gain errors (c) Precision Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Possible Ayurvedic Researches-The Ayurvedic field has a vast scope for researchin variety of ways.- Inviting the Ethnic Knowledge or/and principlesynchronizing knowledge in to Ayurveda- All what is needed that, it should benefit Ayurvedaand the society at large. A) Literary Research B) Fundamental Research C) Clinical Research D) Drug Research E) Inter Disciplinary Research Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Discuss your research with a statistician – BEFORE you begin your research – WHILE you are collecting data – WHEN you are ready to analyze – WHEN you are writing your manuscript• Stratified randomization should be used for factors that are believed to significantly influence the outcome. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Types of Research Designs• Descriptive research• Correlational research - Involves measuring whether there is a relationship between two or more variables• Experimental research - Generally considered the most powerful tool for determining cause-and-effect relationships between variables – Independent variable (IV) – Dependent variable (DV) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaCompare the methodDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda LITERARY RESEARCH RESOURCES Vedas UpanishadsAYURVEDIC NON-AYURVEDIC PuranasLITERATURE LITERATURE Arthashastra Published Unpublished Catalogues Non cataloguesDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaThree dimensions of academic research community ‘meeting’ ‘authority’ ‘controversy’ ‘publication’ ‘sincerity’ ‘theory’ ‘experiment’ person knowledgeDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Observational Longitudinal Cross-sectionalProspective Retrospective SurveyCohort studies Case control studies Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Clinical research• Research involving human• Many types 1. Preventive (Pollution and traffic police) 2. Diagnostic (AIDS, Ca on Unani parameters) 3. Treatment intervention (Sports and regimental therapies) 4. Safety and efficacy (Kushta) 5. Newer applications (Massage for chronic fatigue syndrome) 6. New scales, measurements, techniques Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda PHASES OF CLINICAL TRIALTRIAL PHASE NO. OF LENGTH PURPOSE SUBJECTSPhase I Clinical 20 – 50 Several Mainly safety in Pharmacology months volunteers (healthy volunteers/ volunteer patients)Phase II Clinical 50 – 300 Months Short term safety, mainly Investigation to years effectiveness in patientsPhase III Formal 250 – 1000+ 1 –4 Safety, effectiveness in Therapeutic years large no. of patient Trials population, multi-centric studyPhase IV Post-licensing 2000 – 10 000+ Post marketing studies surveillance to detect ADR etc. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Experimental Research• Experimental group – Group that is subjected to the independent variable • Cognitive-behavioral treatment group or new anti-depressant group• Control group – Group that is similar in every way to the experimental group except for the manipulation of the independent variable • Random assignment makes control group to be similar in every way • Untreated wait-list control group• Placebo group – Group that does NOT receive treatment including active ingredient (special type of control group) – Double-blind design is often used ( sugar pill ) • Or supportive group therapy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Basic skills for a laboratory scientist• Basic Computer skill, Paper reading & writing, Understanding and use of the literature, Productivity• Scientific attitude: Desire to get the bottom of things – NO premature conclusion – Spending time & effort to make things better and /or more efficient – Not afraid of learning new things – Full understanding of instruments in the experiment – Not willing to leave any “mysteries” or poorly understood phenomenon behind in Research – Low tolerance for “black box”• Good citizenship in a laboratory – Willingness to help and collaborate with colleagues – Being a considerate colleague Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Animals in Medicine started long back … 150 AD. Galen begins systematic study of animal physiology, vivisection begins. What he learns is used in the practice of human medicine for the next 1000+ years.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda 19821726 Treatment for leprosyStephen Hales developed usingfirst measures Armadillos 1982blood pressure 1901-1939 Prions are discovered inin a horse Animal research hamsters. Subsequent advances our studies in mice have shown understanding of that these misshaped, blood, making disease-causing proteins can transfusions be inherited 2012 Prions are an infectious possible ??? protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Number and kinds of animals used• The Office of Technology Assessment estimates that 17-23 million animals are used in the United States for research every year.• The vast majority of these – about 95% – are rats and mice specifically bred for research.• In 2000, there were 69,516 dogs and 25,560 cats used in research.• By comparison, wildlife biologists estimate that over one million animals are killed every day by automobiles – over 365 million per year.• Dogs, cats, and non-human primates combined account for less than 3/4 of a percent of the total and their numbers has been declining for nearly 30 years.• The number of dogs used in biomedical research has declined 67% since 1973, and the number of cats used in biomedical research has declined 63% since 1973. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaTYPES OF ANIMALS USED IN ANIMAL RESEARCH 1. 84% Rats, mice and other rodents 2. 12% Fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds 3. 1.5% Small mammals,mostly rabbits 4. 2.1% Sheep, cows, pigs and other large mammals 5. 0.3% Dogs and cats. 6. 0.15% Monkeys, such as marmosets and macaques Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda How can research results derived from animal testing be extrapolated to humans?• There are striking similarities between the physiological systems of humans and various species of animals.• Much of what we know about the immune system has come from studies with mice,• Much of what we know about the cardiovascular system has come from studies with dogs.• Research results from animals also provide the information necessary to design human trials that must be completed for legal approval of new devices, drugs or procedures.• It is important to be able to gauge how a new drug or procedure will affect a whole biological system before using it on humans. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaWhy is it important to conduct product safety tests on animals when "cruelty-free" products are available? • As recently as several decades ago, consumers were subjected to products that were not adequately tested prior to use, resulting in reports of permanent harm, including blindness. • Product safety testing ensures that products are safe when used as directed. • Testing provides scientific data for poison control centers and emergency room physicians in the event a product is misused. • Adequate testing of products is a legal obligation to the public. • It is important to remember the circumstances that led to safety testing of all new consumer ingredients and products, particularly cosmetics.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda •The use of animals in product safety testing provides a whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body. •The term "cruelty-free" is often misused and misunderstood. •Companies that claim they conduct no animal testing either contract testing to an outside laboratory or use compounds known to be safe through previous animal testing.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda – A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a typeCohort Study of observational study) used in medicine Eg: Birth cohort – It is an analysis of risk factors and follows a group of people who do not have the disease, and uses correlations to determine the absolute risk of subject contraction. – It is one type of clinical study design and should be compared with a cross-sectional study. – In medicine, a cohort study is often undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and effect; failure to refute a hypothesis strengthens confidence in it. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda – Nested case-control study – eg:Cohort Study Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women, – Household panel survey – eg: These draw representative samples of households and survey them, following all individuals through time on a usually annual basis.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Who gets sick and who stays Healthy? Observed Healthy and sick people Time Passes Healthy people with Study Question: different experiences Time Passes What happened in the past to give such differentStart with two similar groups of people. One result.Group has a disease and the other is healthy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Survey Study• Researchers ask people about their habits – – Do you have sweet tooth? – Do you use condoms? – Do you eat 5 vegetables a day?• Surveys give a snapshot of the present / past and tell us what people say they do / did – Response bias? – Cause vs. effect? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Ayurveda told in New Language – To look new Avenues• “Ayur-Veda” = “Life-knowledge”, evolved in India long back focuses more on life style than symptoms, where the background is - Three Doshas viz. Vata, Pitta & Kapha• Are we able to tell all the words of Ayurveda conveniently in another language? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Vata • “Vaa” is Gati and Gandhana = to move things & Perceive • Most influential Dosha • Cell membrane transport, electrolyte balance, waste elimination, and cell division, etc are examples of its activity • Aggravated by dryness • Reduced by foods with building blocksThought of Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society, University of Alabama School of Medicine Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Pitta • Tap = to shine • Metabolism and molecules of energy are equated • Body temperature maintenance, optic nerve impulses, feelings of hunger and thirst are functions • Aggravated by heat • Reduced by “cooling it”Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Kapha• “Shlish” = that which holds things together & derived from “Klid” – the water• Provides structure and lubrication• Carbohydrates and polysaccharides, mucous, spinal fluid, and synovial fluid• Aggravated by sweet and fatty foods• Reduced by hot, dry, and light things Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Basic Level• The Siddhanta, Kriya, Rachana departments are running around either Clinical experiments or the preventive models• They have to pay attention on -• Many concepts are duplicated or controversial at Ayurveda.- they need cross examination• The Language used in many texts are critical and require explanation• Many manuscripts are in cold storage – require to focus and bring them in to lime light• The shift from “Principles” to “Prabhava” is reduced with their guidelines Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Dravyaguna• Undergraduate syllabus has 240 drugs for study out of Plant Kingdom• We are loosing many out of them even – either with negligence or by Govt. order• As the “Ayurveda Acharyas” say – all herbs are of medicinal importance -• Why the Dravyaguna department is not including the new herbs isolated, experimented in to the Ayurveda Glossary?• We require to add as many as Herbs possible in to Ayurveda Literature Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at RT/BK • The Pharmacy in Ayurveda require us to give many answers • We often confused or unable to answer at scientific community about the Ayurveda Drug absorption – Target – action – adversity – reaction – toxicity - excretion – etc. • Step by step individual researches should guide us for these answers and included in the curriculum instead of lingering around established validations • Today we have new routes of administration of Drug – eg: Inhalers, Patches, Injections, etc.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Injections in Ayurveda• In 1982 when I started my GP in Ayurveda there were around 5000 generic Ayurveda Medicines available in the Market• Along with Ayurveda Injections manufactured by Aravind Pharma of North India and Imis Pharma of South India• We fight for the introduction of Injections in to GAD for 116 days and included them in to AP-GADs• Now – the scene is reversed and not even 500 generics are available in the market and no medicines in GADs Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Clinical Areas • In these areas the public faith at Ayurveda is necessary to develop along with confidence in drug action • Adaptations of new technology is admissible but not to change the entire principle migration on which we are prescribing the medicine • A thorough adopted intervening investigation Interpretation required to clinical experiments to boost diagnostic techniques • Methodical but not Result oriented Research in needDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Swasthavritta • Swastavritta is meant for prevention and Life style development. • Today we face lots of Lifestyle disorders and Occupational difficulties • The focus of Swastavritta department should be on validating the Foods, Occupation, Lifestyle in respect with psychological and physical problems faced by either a child or an AdultDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Panchakarma • The Panchakarma even though a part of Chikitsa – is specialized with its procedural method • It require instrumentation development along with observational study of validating the principles and establishing new schedules in “Running World”. • Adaptations of Manipulation Medicine, Sowa-Rigpa (Tibetan Medicine), “Stone Massage”, “Kalupadaghat Massage”, etc. in to Panchakarma is required.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Surgical areas• An Engineer is the best who runs the machine without few of its parts – A Surgeon is also like an Engineer – who runs the Body without few parts• Ayurveda Surgery imitating the Allopathic surgery• We have the Knowledge of Marma, Siravyadha, etc. in addition – requires to adopt the Marma Anastasia & Pinhole Surgery on Ayurveda Measures Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaNew Design Structure for Ayurveda Research Design Need Evaluation Brief Realization Investigation Proposition DesigningDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Steps to Good Design• 1. Identify and understand the problem - “What does this product need to do?”• 2. Conceptual Design - “How will this product do this?”• 3. Design Optimization -“ Is this the best way to do this?”• 4. Detail Design - “How will the product work?”• 5. Build - “Build the product.”• 6. Test and Evaluation - “Does the product do what we want?”• 7. Return to step 1 if evaluation is not positive - “If not, start over.” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda• Do not only see Observe• Do not hear  Listen• Do not just prescribe  Document• Do not just treat Follow them Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda ASU Drugs to be used in RCH Program • AYUSH developed 17 drugs for Anti-natal, Post-natal, Infant and Female Health management. • No drug is available in the CCIM curriculum of BAMS or market • Rasayana, Astikshaya, Sleepada, Manoroga (Mental Retardation), Sickle Cell Anemia, Improvement of quality of Life in Cancer patients – projects are under processhttp://ccras.nic.in/Research_Actvities/20081103_NewDrug_Development.htm Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda New dimensions of Market • Many Ayurveda companies started launching their products as – – OTC Commodity products like Toothpaste, Talks, Balms, etc. – Cosmeceuticals – to improve beauty like Facial Creams, scrubs, etc. – Neutriceuticals – Nutrition supplementations like Tonics, Paste, etc. – pharmaceuticals – new drug combinations or patent medicines by combining two or more traditional drugsDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Updates in Research• Ayurveda is dependent on the Pharmacy Department for updates rather than Ayurveda Research• Long ago Kirthikar Basu, Nadkarni, etc. added few additions in to the Herbal science – but none of those materials are added for the curriculum• Real Update in Ayurveda is seen as shift from “Tridosha” to “Prabhava” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Namburi Spot Test - To evolve suitable methods to lay standards relevant to concept of Rasashastra. - To help ultimately in implementing the drug act in its full sense of utility.• To identify & differentiate various Bhasma and Sindhoora which are chemically identical but therapeutically different by their specific names known in Ayurveda i.e.• To find out whether the contents of a given container are the same qualitatively and quantitatively as claimed on its labels i.e. to find out whether the product is a standard, sub-standard or spurious one. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Few updates on Pumsavana • Ayurvedic technique of genetic engineering to ensure healthy progeny and to determine the sex of the child is Pumsavana. • Pumsavana is one of the 16 Karmas (Sixteen rituals) practiced in various stages of life in ancient India. • Ayurveda uses many Gender selection drugs such as – Putramjeevi, Vatankura (Ficus Benghalensis),Apamarga” (Achyranthus aspara), “Shahachara” (Berleria prionitis), Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria) etc. • This should be done only during astrological constellation of “Pushya nakshatram”Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • A total of 22 key informants werePumsavana interviewed during the Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria) study period. Out of 50 subjects, 48 (96%) reported giving birth to male babies after taking SSDs. Failure in two cases was attributed to consumptionShivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) of SSD after 3rd month of gestation. All the male children were reportedly normal. • [S Bandyopadhyay, AJ Singh, Sex Selection Through Majuphal Traditional Drugs in Rural North India, Indian Journal of (Gtuercus Community Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007- infectoria) 03) ] Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaUpdates on • and lactation - safe for long term use, even during pregnancy Toxic effects Herb - • Gastrointestinal effects - Decreased volume and reduced pH of the secretions in drug treated rats suggest a increasedAsparagus responsiveness agents.gastric parietal cells to secretogogues and narcotizing of theracemosus • Cytoprotective effect has been suggested to be due to increased output of mucus. • Galactogogue effect - A significant increase in milk yield has also been observed in guinea pigs and goats after feeding lactare which also increased growth of the mammary glands, alveolar tissues and acini in guinea pigs [23]. • Effects on uterus - uterine sedative • Immunomodulatory activities - reported to produce leucocytosis and predominant neutrophilia along with enhanced phagocytic activity of the macrophages and polymorphs. • Respiratory system - reported to cause dilatory effect on bronchial musculature of guinea pigs but failed to antagonise the histamine induced broncho-constriction. • CNS - Neither stimulant nor depressant action of lactare on central nervous system has been reported in albino mice [Amit Chawla*, Payal Chawla, Mangalesh, R C Roy, Asparagus racemosus (Willd): Biological Activities & its Active Principles, Indo-Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011, Vol 1., Issue 2: Page No. 113-120] Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Updates on Herb - Asparagus racemosus• Antibacterial Activities - showed maximum inhibition against A. hydrophila, P. fluorescencs and K. pneumoniae. Chloroform extract of A.racemosus showed higher inhibition (1.9cm/200 μl) against. K.pneumoniae Methanol extract of A. racemosus showed considerable invitro antibacterial efficacy against E.coli, V. cholerae,B.subtilis and S.aureus, and it increases phagocytic activity of macrophages (Mandal, 2000). [1]• Anti-diarrhoeal activity - The ethanol and aqueous extract of A. racemosus exhibited significant anti-diarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats. [2]• Phytoestrogen effect - A. racemosus root extract exerted a mammotropic and/or lactogenic influence on normal as well as on oestrogen primed animals thereby rendering the mammary epithelium refractory to the carcinogen. [3].[1] M.Sithi Jameela et.al, Antibacterial Activities of three medicinal plant extract against Fish Pathogens, International Journal of Biological Technology (2011)2(2):57-60.] [2] N. Venkatesan et.al. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in laboratory animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci(www.cspscanada.org) 8(1):39-45, 2005 [3] V. Ashajyothi et.al. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS – A PHYTOESTROGEN, Int.Journal Of Pharmacy&Technology Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Herb • Sadapushpa / Sadabahar / Vinca rosea (Periwinkle) is an evergreen Update - common shrub seen all around us blooming in every season. UsuallyPeriwinkle the plant is of 1 meter tall with oval to oblong leaves. • A clinical trial was conducted in 1998 with Vinca rosea on diabetes as a part of M.D. Ayurveda Thesis under my supervision. The results were excellent. Each one ml of the oil prepared has a power of regulating the 125-250 mg of Blood Glucose. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Herb • A study was carried on alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The methanolic extracts showed improvement in parameters like body weight and Update - lipid profile as well as regeneration of beta-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studiesPeriwinkle reinforce the healing of pancreas, by methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity [1] • Aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. They are useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential [2]. [1] Mohammed Fazil Ahmed et. al., Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats, International Journal of Endocrinology, Volume 2010, Article ID 841090, 6 pages [2] M. KALEEM, SHEEMA, H. SARMAD AND B. BANO, “PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PIPER NIGRUM AND VINCA ROSEA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49 (1) : 65–71 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaInstrument Update –Januvasti Yantra• Januvasti is done either on the knee joint or at the back with a brim filled with oil• The drawback is – entire knee joint is not exposed to treatment especially the ligaments• To cover the entire knee surface – a tube is inserted with both ends closed tightly with Masha paste cloth where on top opening for oil management added with a Thermometer to standardize the procedure Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Tridax • Extracted - Isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as b-sitosterol 3- procumbens O-b-D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn. [1] where do you see? • Bioactivity studies – • The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. • A whole aerial part was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. • None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: AspergillusVishalya Karani flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. andFamily: Asteraceae Trichophyton rubrum.[2]Tribe: Heliantheae [1] V K SAXENA and SOSANNA ALBERT, J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 117, No. 3, May 2005, pp. 263–266. ©Genus: Tridax Indian Academy of Sciences. [2] Taddei A, Rosas-Romero AJ. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens. DepartamentoSpecies: T. procumbens de Química, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela. ataddei@usb.ve Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Tridax • Anti-Diabetic activity – • T.procumbens leaves (200 mg/kg) orally procumbens administered for 7 days produced a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the model where do you see? of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Petroleum extract exhibits a very weak anti-diabetic activity[3] • Antioxidants – • T. procumbens plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. T. procumbens has a percentage antioxidant activity (AA %) of 96.70 which was observed to be higher than those of gallic (92.92%) and ascorbic acids (94.81%) used asVishalya Karani standards.Family: AsteraceaeTribe: Heliantheae [3] Bhagwat DA, Killedar SG, Adnaik RS. Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:126-8Genus: Tridax [4] J. D. Habila, et.al. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens Linn.Species: T. procumbens African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(3), pp. 123-126, March 2010 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Nadi Impulse Simulogram • Nadi Impulse Simulogram is a unique advanced Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis software, that monitors impulses of molecules and cells in pulse developed by Dr. N.D. Raju of Hyderbad. • This program works on the basis of Nadi input values decoded in to Kurma Nadi and Vasuli Nadi outputs. It develops various graphs of Dosha Gati index, Sroto pravrutti, krama and dusti, Chakra activity, Dhatuparinama Index, etc. in graphical manner, where the interpretation is made simple. • Contact Dr. N. Dharmanandan Raju at idid_raju@yahoo.com or +9885040369.Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Nadi Impulse Simulogram OutputDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaGeneral • The general practitioner in Ayurvedapractitioner Provides personal, primary and continuingin Ayurveda medical care to individuals and families and Specific responsibility for the health of the community • He Makes an initial decision on every problem presented by patient and Consults specialists when ever is appropriate • Intervenes to promote health and takes Clinical decisions influenced by prior probability of disease • Has an advocacy role for the patient • Apart from all above – is there any responsibility of making RESEARCH at him? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda• Generalists and specialists require different knowledge, skills and attitudes General but are complementary in their roles.• The GP is committed to the person rather Practice than to a particular body of knowledge, a group of diseases or special techniques (McWhinney 1997)• A GP provides personal, primary and continuing care to individuals, families and a practice population.• The spectrum of problems presenting in general practice is very different from that seen in hospital.• The GP must combine the scientific and humanitarian approach to medical practice, providing holistic care to patients. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Characteristics of GP & PHC• General practice • Primary health careFocus is illness: Focus is local communities: Individuals and families 1. Local communities using local knowledge - First contact 2. Concerned aboutLocal and accessible determinants of healthSmall scale efficiency - Socio-economicTolerates uncertainty - EnvironmentalThe three Cs: 3. Empowers communities to control/influenceContinuity, - determinants of healthCoordination, 4. Education and prevention areContinuing care key pieces Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Clinical CareGood clinical care Models of health care• Maintaining good medical • Biomedical practice (biomechanical) and bio-• Relationships with psychosocial patients • Reductionist and holistic• Working with colleagues (integrative)• Teaching and training • Disease-based and• Probity illness-based• Health • Patient-centered and population-centered • Reactive and anticipatory • doctor-centered & • Patient-centered Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda1. Exploring both the disease and the illness The six experience – understanding Differential interactive diagnosis and Dimensions of illness components of2. Understanding the whole person3. Finding common ground regarding the patient- management Problems and priorities centered along with Goals of treatments4. Incorporating prevention and health process: promotion in Health enhancement and Risk reduction5. Enhancing the patient-doctor relationship by sharing and maintain the relation6. Being realistic about Time and Resources Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda• Known is Scarce and the ignored are abundant Conclusion• Knowledge is becoming capital for the Earning• Research of course a part of the Game always• Every time I see – a Book or Net – I am getting a new Idea or thought – I don’t understand why the others are not initiated• If this narration offers any insight – My effort is exercised• Thank You – One and All who get Awareness Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.webs.com/apps/members/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://ayurmitra.wordpress.com/ /
    • Avenues for research & Updates in AyurvedaDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.blogspot.in/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Ted Colton, ScD, Professor & Chair Emeritus,Special Thanks to: Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics • Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society, University of Alabama School of Medicine • Dr Girish Shrikrishna Tillu, Project Leader, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune, Consultant, Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Pune, Consultant, Vishwanand Ayurveda Centre, Pune, Advisor, Global Herbs Pharmaceuticals, Pune - gtillu@rediffmail.com • Lauren Solberg, CRC Research Skills Workshop, January 18, 2008, lauren.b.solberg@vanderbilt.edu • Dr. Gareth M. Forde, Bio Engineering Lab (BEL), Chemical Engineering • Dr. Jayashree B. Keshav, Technical Officer, Atrimed Herbals, Pvt. Ltd. • All the Images / Information collected from net for knowledge sharing – If any copyright exists – It goes to the respective individuals Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
    • Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda technoayurveda@gmail.com THANK YOU It’s Technoayurveda International Presentation By Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad Of . . . http://www.technoayurveda.comDr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/