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Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
Windows 7 V2   Vineet
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Windows 7 V2 Vineet

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Transcript

  • 1. Back to the OS
    Vineet Gupta
    GM – Software Engineering, Directi
    http://vineetgupta.spaces.live.com/
  • 2. It’s Commodity – Why Bother!
  • 3. Meet the New PC
    Apple Mac Pro
    3.0 GHz Intel Xeon
    8 Cores
  • 4. Intel TeraScale – 80 Cores in 5 years
    Source: http://techresearch.intel.com/articles/terascalepop.html
  • 5. Welcome to Many-Core
  • 6. The Free Lunch is Over
    No more “Old apps get faster on newer hardware”
    To make apps take advantage of new hardware, you need to utilize more cores
    99% of code is serial!
    Impact is even higher on Desktop
  • 7. Disk Is Tape
    The straw to disk is getting skinnier
    Each generation:
    Capacity increases with areal density
    Read/Write time with linear density
    10+ Terabyte disks projected for 2010 ( $100 or so)
    5-15 hours read sequentially
    15-150 days to read randomly
    Need to Treat Most of Disk as Cold Storage
  • 8. SATA Disks 40XCheaper per GB (2007)
    A Fat Straw RemainingFat as Capacity Rises
    Flash Is Disk
    Current TrendsShow Price
    Crossoverin 2012 or so…(SATA = Flash)
    Flash capacity doubled each year since 1995
    Market driven by phone, camera, iPod
    Low entry-cost  $30/chip  $3/chip
    Flash makes a better “disk” than disk
    5000 I/Os per second
    Read 20MB/sec; Write 10MB/sec (per chip)
    N chips  N * Bandwidth
    8 chips plus controller  1 Watt !
    Flash Is COOL!
    2010: 128GB Flash disk for $40
  • 9. Storage Is Changing
    Flash Is Disk…
    Disk Is Tape…
    Tape Is Dead…
    Flash Is Cool…
  • 10. The OS is far from being commodityPlease do bother!
  • 11. Agenda
    Parallelism
    Storage
    User Interaction
    Power
    Security
    Management
  • 12. Parallelism
  • 13. Concurrency is Hard
  • 14. Applications
    Automotive control system
    Internet – based photo services
    Applications
    Robotics-based manufacturing assembly line
    Silverlight Olympics viewer
    IFx / CCR
    Task Concurrency
    WCF
    Agents
    Maestro
    TPL / PPL
    WF
    Local Computing
    Distributed Cloud Computing
    Applications
    Ultrasound imaging equipment
    Media encode/decode
    Image processing/ enhancement
    Data visualization
    Applications
    Enterprise search, OLTP, collab
    Animation / CGI rendering
    Weather forecasting
    Seismic monitoring
    Oil exploration
    Data Parallelism
    Cluster SOA
    PLINQ
    D-PLINQ
    TPL / PPL
    OpenMP
    D-TPL
    MPI / MPI.Net
    CDS
    Parallel Technologies from Microsoft
  • 15. Parallelism and the Software Stack
    Constructing Parallel
    Applications
    Applications
    Libraries
    Efficiently Executing
    Parallel Applications
    Languages, Compilersand Tools
    Concurrency Runtime
    CoordinatingSystem Resources and Services
    OS/Hypervisor
    OS/Hypervisor
    Hardware
  • 16. Windows 7 Proccessing Unit Scaling
    128 Logical Processor System
    Group
    (up to 64 logical processors)
    NUMA Node
    Socket
    Core
    Logical Processor
  • 17. Windows 7 Processing Unit Scaling
    Segmented specification – “groups” of CPUs
    CPUs identified in software by Group#: CPU#
    Allows backward compatibility with 64-bit affinity
    New applications have full CPU range using new APIs
    Permits better locality during scheduling than a “flat” specification
  • 18. Enabling Concurrency Runtimes
    Reducing kernel intervention in thread scheduling with User Mode Scheduling (UMS)
    User
    Thread
    4
    User
    Thread
    3
    User
    Thread
    5
    User
    Thread
    6
    Core 2
    Core 2
    Core 1
    Core 1
    Thread
    4
    Thread
    5
    User
    Thread
    1
    Thread
    3
    Thread
    1
    Thread
    2
    Thread
    6
    User
    Thread
    2
    Kernel
    Thread
    1
    Kernel
    Thread
    2
    Non-running threads
    Kernel
    Thread
    4
    Kernel
    Thread
    3
    Kernel
    Thread
    5
    Kernel
    Thread
    6
  • 19. Storage
  • 20. Storage Technologies
    Growing gap between HDD and DRAM
    FLASH is here today – “solid state storage”
    No mechanics like HDD
    Persistent unlike DRAM
    Flash performance is complementary to HDD and DRAM
    PCM is potentially a new layer
    30x faster than today’s FLASH
    No write limit
    Being developed – future is not yet clear
    IOPS
    $/GB
    HDD
    PCM
    DRAM
    ?
    70s EEPROM($10K/GB)
    1997 Digital photo – killer application ($1K/GB)
    2005 Mobile applications($20/GB)
    Flash
    1987 FLASH invented($5K/GB)
    2003 Digital music ($100/GB)
    2006 Computing UFDs($5/GB)
  • 21. Windows 7 Enables Improved Endurance for SSD Technology
    SSD can identify itself differently from HDD in ATA
    Reporting non-rotating media will allow Windows 7to set Defrag off as default; improving device endurance by reducing writes
  • 22. Best Of Both Worlds
    Small cache with different characteristics than Primary Store
    • Flash has faster random performance than HDD
    Caching benefit determined by
    • Type & speed of cache
    • 23. Cache management method
    I/F (SATA)
    Buffer (DRAM)
    Cache (Flash)
    Performance & Power defined by Size & RPM
    • Incremental improvements gen-to-gen
    • 24. Fast sequential performance
    • 25. Random performance limited by mechanical latency
    Delivers Affordable Capacity
    Primary Store (disc)
    • Reliability gains come with integrating the flash-cache into the drive
  • User Interaction - Touch
  • 26. Multi-Touch Capable PCs Are Available Today
    HP TouchSmart
    All-in-one PC with 2-touch digitizer from NextWindow
    Dell Latitude XT
    Laptop with Multi-touch and pen digitizer from N-Trig
  • 27. Key Scenarios:
    • Navigating and consuming the web
    • 28. Reading & sorting email
    • 29. Viewing photos
    • 30. Playing casual games
    • 31. Consuming music and video
    • 32. Navigating files & arranging windows
    • 33. Using Office applications
    • 34. All focused on consumption
    Touch Scenarios And Windows 7
    Areas of investment:
    Developer Platform: At the root is the touch developer platform that exposes touch APIs for any application
    UI Enhancements: Focusing on the core scenarios, many parts of the core UI have been optimized for touch experiences.
    Gestures: Multi-touch gestures have been added to enable consistent panning and zooming in most applications.
    Applications: A set of multi-touch focused applications that demonstrate the power of touch. These will ship separate from Win7.
  • 35. Windows 7 Release
    NET 4.0 / Surface 2.0 Release
    Native
    Win32
    Application
    WinFormsApplication
    WPF Application
    Surface Application
    Surface SDK
    1.0
    Surface SDK 2.0
    Multi-Touch Controls
    Surface
    Multi-Touch Controls & API
    Multi-Touch API
    WPF 3.5 SP1
    WPF 4.0
    WPF 3.5
    Managed Wrapper and Interop
    Managed Wrapper and Interop
    Multi-Touch API and Controls
    Surface Hardware
    Windows 7
    Surface Hardware
    Windows Vista
    Windows 7
    Multi-Touch API
    Touch Development Roadmap
  • 36. Touch Platform Overview
  • 37. User Interaction - Readability
  • 38. Unexploited High Resolution Displays
    Users with Max Resolution of 1600X1200
    Details
    Almost half of all of users are not configuring their display to maximum resolution (!)
    Users are lowering their screen resolution to get larger text…
  • 39. High DPI Issues
    Clipped Text
    Layout Issues & Image Size Issues
    WinForms Issues
    Pixilated Bitmaps
    Blurry UI
    Mismatched Font Sizes
  • 40. Configure DPI via Display CPL
    Windows 7 uses Scaling percentage instead of a raw DPI value
    This is because most users don’t understand DPI
    100% = 96 DPI, 125% = 120 DPI, 150% = 144 DPI
  • 41. DPI Settings Change System Metrics
    Font and Text
    When the DPI increases the UI uses more pixels to draw icons, UI controls (e.g. scrollbars), and Text.
  • 42. System Text Size Increases with DPI
    This is the letter “N” blown at 1300% using a magnifier.
    Notice the number of pixels used increases with DPI.
    Also notice the sub-pixel coloration from ClearType, which is why native resolution is important.
    96 DPI
    (11 pixels)
    120 DPI
    (13 pixels)
    144 DPI
    (16 pixels)
  • 43. Desktop Composition Primer (DWM)
    DWM Composes the Desktop
    With DWM, all apps render off-screen and are composed by DWM at the screen refresh rate.
    These off-screen surfaces are also used for Thumbnails and for Flip 3D
    Off-screen Memory Surface
  • 44. DPI Virtualization (Automatic Scaling)
    DWM Scales A at composition time
    A is not DPI Aware, and renders in a 96-DPI virtualized context
    System metrics for A are in a 96-DPI virtualized space.
    A is given a 96-DPI surface to render into (smaller).
    B is DPI-Aware
  • 45. DPI Virtualization Compatibility
    Can be disabled per-application by right-clicking the app and selecting Properties -> compatibility.
    Note that DPI virtualization is only on by default if the DPI is set to 144 or greater.
    This can also be disabled globally via the “custom DPI” dialog (below).
  • 46. DirectWrite
    Modern Typography
    Works with any rendering technology
    Hardware accelerated text with Direct2D
    ClearType filter and blend performed in hardware
    Enables app-level hardware caching optimizations
    Reduced CPU usage in Windows OS components when drawing glyphs
  • 47. DirectWrite Script Support
    الْعَرَبِيَّة
     Հայերէն
     বাংলা
     ㄓㄨˋ ㄧㄣㄈㄨˊ ㄏㄠˋ 
    ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ
     ᏣᎳᎩ
    简体汉字
    繁体漢字
    Кириллица
    𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻
    देवनागरी
    ግዕዝ
    მხედრული
    Ελληνικό
    ગુજરાતી
    ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
    עִבְרִית
    ひらがな、カタカナ、漢字
    ಕನ್ನಡ
    អក្ខរក្រមខេមរភាសា
    ශුද්ධ සිංහල
    ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ
    ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
    தமிழ்
    తెలుగు
    ތާނަ
    ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ
    อักษรไทย
    དབུ་ཅན་
    ꕙꔤ
    ꆈꌠꁱꂷ
    한글
    ພາສາລາວ
    Latin
    മലയാളം
    ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠻ
    ᦟᦹᧅ ᦎᦷ ᦑᦺ
    ߒߞߏ
    𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒀
    ଓଡ଼ିଆ
    ꡍꡂꡛꡌ
  • 48. DirectWrite – Precise Glyph Shapes
  • 49. Power
  • 50. Deep Focus on Idle
  • 51. Frequent Idle Activity
    Specific Windows 7 improvements
    Eliminate TCP DPC timer on every system timer interrupt
    Reduce frequency of USB driver maintenance timers
    Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (ITTD)
    Timer Coalescing
    Eliminate idle activity in drivers and applications
    Target average idle period greater than 100ms
  • 52. Background Process Management
    Background activity on the macro scale (minutes, hours) also important for power
    E.g., disk defragmentation, AV scans
    Prevents low-power idle and sleep modes
    Unified Background Process Manager (UBPM)
    New Windows 7 infrastructure
    Drives scheduling of services and scheduled tasks
    Transparent to users, IT pros, and existing APIs
    Enables trigger-starting services
    Delivers usage data and metrics to Microsoft via CEIP
  • 53. Trigger-Start Services
    Many services configured to Autostart and wait for rare events
    UBPM enables Trigger-Start services based on environmental changes
    Device arrival/removal, IP address change, domain join, etc.
    Examples
    Bluetooth service is started only if a Bluetooth radio is currently attached
    BitLocker encryption service started only when new volumes detected
    Call to Action
    Leverage trigger-start capability for value-add services
    Validate performance impact with XPerf tools
  • 54. Security
  • 55. Why Data Protection Matters
    “Some of the largest and medium-sized U.S. airports report close to 637,000 laptops lost each year, according to the Ponemon Institute survey released Monday.”
    —PC World June 2008
    “More than 100 USB memory sticks, some containing secret information, have been lost or stolen from the Ministry of Defense since 2004, it has emerged.”
    —BBC News July 2008
  • 56. BitLocker ArchitectureStatic root of trust measurement of early boot components
  • 57. Disk Layout and Key Storage
    Operating System Volume
    Contains
    Encrypted OS
    Encrypted page file
    Encrypted temp files
    Encrypted data
    Encrypted hibernation file
    Where’s the Encryption Key?
    SRK (Storage Root Key) contained in TPM
    SRK encrypts the VMK (Volume Master Key)
    VMK encrypts FVEK (Full Volume Encryption Key) – used for the actual data encryption
    FVEK and VMK are stored encrypted on the Operating System Volume
    VMK
    FVEK
    SRK
    2
    3
    Operating System Volume
    1
    4
    System Volume
    Contains
    MBR
    Boot Manager
    Boot Utilities
    System
  • 58. BitLocker in Windows 7
  • 59. The UAC Prompt
    They allow the user
    to do privileged
    operations when
    needed
    These are UAC elevations
    Things an Administrator
    Can do
    Things a standard
    User can do
    Things a real user
    Needs to do
    While highlighting
    that these are privileged
    operations that you don’t want
    to happen without your consent
  • 60. What Are These Elevations?
    Some are necessary
    Install or uninstall software
    Change firewall settings
    Change system time
    Don’t want malware doing this …
    Some are not so necessary
    Applications making unnecessary use of registry keys
    Change time zone (a Vista enhancement)
    Viewing (not changing) system settings
  • 61. Management
  • 62. Federated Search
    Enterprise information is growing at 40% annually
    Data is moving off desktops and into central document management systems
    Collaboration
    Information sharing
    Client search of remote Enterprise data repositories is a compelling need
  • 63. Federated Search
    Rich client experience
    Previews, metadata, drag-and-drop
    Familiar Windows Explorer paradigms
    Simple and lightweight integration
    No client code
    Any server platform
    Standards-based
    OpenSearch 1.1
    RSS and ATOM
    Authentication
    Windows Integrated
    2. Windows sends search terms as HTTP request
    1. Search Connector (.osdx) Installed
    3. RSS results returned from server
  • 64. Manageability
  • 65. In Summary
    Parallelism
    Storage
    User Interaction
    Power
    Security
    Management
  • 66. Questions?
  • 67. Thanks!

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