Abstract:MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative Mobile backhaul is a critical part of the mobile network that links the Radio Access Network (RAN)(MMBI) for 3G/WiMAX/LTE and the mobile core networks. Service providers are rapidly moving to next generation wireless technologies like 3G, Mobile WiMAX and LTE to satisfy the growing demand of bandwidth and marginal overall growth in average revenue per user. In this new situation, backhaul networks with many cell sites have become the “bottleneck”Authors: offering insufficient capacity to support higher bandwidths and often expensive to upgrade. To address the problem, operators are migrating fromAnkur Rawat and existing separate, legacy ATM and TDMSasindran M. Prabhu backhauling networks to a more cost-effective, converged, MPLS-enabled, and multi-purpose infrastructure. In addition to reducing operational costs, MPLS-based networks will also lay the foundations for the delivery of next generation mobile services such as location-based services, mobile gaming and Mobile TV. This paper provides an overview of IP/MPLS Forum‟s Mobile Backhaul Initiative, the challenges which operators are facing in current situation, proposed reference architecture and business benefits of using MPLS in the Mobile Backhaul.