Graphical User Interface Testing
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    Graphical User Interface Testing Graphical User Interface Testing Document Transcript

    • Graphical User Interface Testing.<br />A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z<br />A<br />ActionScript<br />Object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is designed specifically for Web site animation. Originally released with Macromedia Flash ActionScript makes it possible for developers to create onscreen environments (such as games, tutorials, and e-commerce applications) that can respond to user input through the keyboard or mouse. ActionScript is an event-based language: just as is the case in real life, actions are triggered by events. <br />ADO - ActiveX Data Objects<br />Microsoft application program interface that lets a programmer writing Windows applications get access to a relational or non-relational database from both Microsoft and other database providers. <br />Alias<br />In Macintosh operating systems, an alias is a desk icon for a particular program or data object. <br />Anchor<br />In Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, The target of a link within a document.An anchor WITHIN a file to which you can link directly is identified by the # sign followed by the name. For exampe anchors are placed in links that take you back to the of the page. <br />API - Application Program Iinterface<br />The specific method prescribed by a computer operating system or by an application program by which a programmer writing an application program can make requests of the operating system or another application. An API can be contrasted with a graphical user interface or a command interface (both of which are direct user interfaces) as interfaces to an operating system or a program. <br />ASP - Active Server Pages<br />An HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microsoft Web server before the page is sent to the user. <br />ASP.NET<br />The next generation of Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP), a feature of their Internet Information Server (IIS). Both ASP and ASP.NET allow a Web site builder to dynamically build Web pages on the fly by inserting queries to a relational database in the Web page. <br />Authentication<br />The process of determining whether someone or something is who or what it is declared to be. In private and public computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done through the use of logon passwords. <br />Autoresponder<br />A computer program that automatically returns a prewritten message to anyone who submits e-mail to a particular Internet address, whether an individual or a Web site. Autoresponders are widely used by Web sites for the purpose of responding to visitor comments and suggestions in a preliminary way and, in cases where traffic is heavy, as the sole way to communicate with user inquiries. <br />Avatar<br />your avatar is the usually the visual "handle" or display appearance you use to represent yourself. On Worlds Chat and similar sites, you can be a unicorn, a bluebird, or any kind of creature or object that seems right. <br />B<br />B2B - Business-to-Business<br />Exchange of products, services, or information between businesses rather than between businesses and consumers (B2C). <br />B2C - Business-to-Consumer<br />Also the retailing part of e-commerce on the Internet. <br />B2E - Business-to-Employee<br />The focus of business is the employee, rather than the consumer.The B2E approach grew out of the ongoing shortage of information technology (IT) workers. In a broad sense, B2E encompasses everything that businesses do to attract and retain well-qualified staff in a competitive market, such as aggressive recruiting tactics, benefits, education opportunities , flexible hours, bonuses, and employee empowerment strategies. <br />B2G - Business-to-Government (on the internet)<br />Businesses and government agencies can use central Web sites to exchange information and do business with each other more efficiently.. For example, a Web site offering B2G services could provide businesses with a single place to locate applications and tax forms; provide the ability to send in filled-out forms and payments; update corporate information; request answers to specific questions; and so forth. <br />Banner<br />Depending on how it's used, a banner is either a graphic image that announces the name or identity of a site (and often is spread across the width of the Web page) or is an advertising image. <br />Black Hat Search Engine Optimisation<br />Black Hat search engine optimization is customarily defined as techniques that are used to get higher search rankings in an unethical manner. Breaking rules and regulations set by the Search Engine, creating content in a non visual way to appeal to Search Engine Spiders and spoiling the user experience due to the techniques utilised. <br />Blog<br />A blog (short for weblog) is a personal online journal that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs are defined by their format: a series of entries posted to a single page in reverse-chronological order. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author or reflect the purpose of the Web site that hosts the blog. The author of a blog is often referred to as a blogger. Many blogs syndicate their content to subscribers using RSS, a popular content distribution tool. <br />Bluetooth<br />Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection. Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device. The tranceiver transmits and receives in a previously unused frequency band of 2.45 GHz that is available globally. In addition to data, up to three voice channels are available. The maximum range is 10 meters. Data can be exchanged at a rate of 1 megabit per second (up to 2 Mbps in the second generation of the technology).The technology got its unusual name in honor of Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark in the mid-tenth century. <br />Bookmark<br />When you are looking at a particular Web site or home page and want to be able to quickly get back to it later, you can create a bookmark for it. A bookmark is a saved link to a Web page that has been added to a list of saved links within a browser (Internet Explorer etc). <br />Bot (short for "robot")<br />On the web, the most ubiquitous bots are the programs, also called spiders or crawlers, that access Web sites and gather their content for search engine indexes. <br />Breadcrumb Trail<br />On a Web site, a breadcrumb trail is a navigation tool that allows a user to see where the current page is in relation to the Web site's hierarchy. The term breadcrumb trail comes from the story of Hansel and Gretel, who left a trail of breadcrumbs as they walked through the forest so they could trace their way back home. <br />Broadband<br />Telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information. Because a wide band of frequencies is available, information can be sent on many different frequencies or channels within the band concurrently, allowing more information to be transmitted in a given amount of time. <br />Browser<br />Application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web. <br />C<br />Cache (pronounced CASH)<br />A place to store something temporarily. The files you automatically request by looking at a Web page are stored on your hard disk in a cache/ When you return to a page you've recently looked at, the browser can get it from the cache rather than the original server, saving you time and the network the burden of some additional traffic. <br />CGI - Common Gateway Interface<br />A standard way for a Web server to pass a Web user's request to an application program and to receive data back to forward to the user. When the user requests a Web page (for example, by clicking on a highlighted word or entering a Web site address), the server sends back the requested page. However, when a user fills out a form on a Web page and sends it in, it usually needs to be processed by an application program. The Web server typically passes the form information to a small application program that processes the data and may send back a confirmation message. This method or convention for passing data back and forth between the server and the application is called the common gateway interface (CGI). It is part of the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). <br />Clickthrough Rate<br />In banner advertising on a Web site, the clickthrough rate (CTR) is the percentage of times that viewers of a Web page click on a given banner ad, causing a request for the advertiser's Web site to be transmitted to the viewer. For example, if two out of every 100 visitors to a Web page clicked on a given ad, that ad would be said to have a 2% clickthrough rate. (In most cases, a 2% clickthrough rate would be considered very successfu. In many campaigns, especially as ads become familiar to users, the clickthrough rate is well below 1%.) Many advertisers rate the success of a given ad placement on clickthrough rate alone. Other advertisers also place a value on the visitor's viewing of the ad, which is believed to create a desired company or product brand impression over time. <br />CMS (Content Management System)<br />A content management system is quite simply - a system that manages content.A CMS enables staff to create, edit, manage and finally publish content (such as text, graphics, video, documents etc) within their website. <br />com<br />"com" is one of the -level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name. It generally describes the entity owning the domain name as a commercial organisation. Along with the second-level domain name (for example: "stormwebsitedesign" in stormwebsitedesign.com), the -level domain name is required in Web and e-mail addresses. <br />com<br />"com" is one of the -level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name. It generally describes the entity owning the domain name as a commercial organisation. Along with the second-level domain name (for example: "stormwebsitedesign" in stormwebsitedesign.com), the -level domain name is required in Web and e-mail addresses. <br />Compliance<br />Being in accordance with established guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so. Websites, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications created by some standards body, such as the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) <br />CSS - Cascading Style Sheet<br />The Cascading Style Sheet, level 1 (CSS1) recommendation from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which is implemented in the latest versions of the Netscape and Microsoft Web browsers, specifies the possible style sheets or statements that may determine how a given element is presented in a Web page. Style sheets are the industry standard and have replaced the need for tables and associated problems. <br />D<br />Database<br />A database is a collection of information that is organised so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses. <br />Dedicated Server<br />In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and exclusive use of a computer that includes a Web server, related software, and connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting company's premises. A dedicated server is usually needed for a Web site (or set of related company sites) that may develop a considerable amount of traffic - for example, a site that must handle up to 35 million hits a day. The server can usually be configured and operated remotely from the client company. Web hosting companies claim that the use of a dedicated server on their premises saves router, Internet connection, security system, and network administration costs. In renting a dedicated server, the client company may be required to use a specified computer system or may be offered a choice of several systems. Some host providers allow a client company to purchase and install its own computer server at the host provider's location, a service known as colocation. Typically, a dedicated server is rented that provides a stated amount of memory, hard disk space, and bandwidth ( here meaning the number of gigabytes of data that can be delivered each month). Some hosting companies allow the renter of a dedicated server to do virtual hosting, in turn renting services on the server to third parties for their Web sites. domain name system, e-mail, and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) capabilities are typically included and some companies provide an easy-to-use control interface. <br />Deep Link<br />A deep link is a hypertext link to a page on a Web site other than its home page. The "deep" refers to the depth of the page in a site's hierarchical structure of pages. Any page below the page in the hierarchy (the home page) can be considered deep. <br />Deployment<br />In its IT context, deployment encompasses all the processes involved in getting new software or hardware up and running properly in its environment, including installation, configuration, running, testing, and making necessary changes. <br />Desk search<br />The ability to simultaneously search multiple data sources typically including the Internet and corporate intranets and databases as well as hard drives and removable storage on the user's computer from a search term entered into a text box on the desk . Desk search programs create an index of files stored on the computer, which enables fast and fairly comprehensive searches. The user can search local hard drives, Web sites, e-mail, and other sources without having to minimize the current document or open a browser, e-mail client, or other application. <br />DHTML - Dynamic HTML<br />Collective term for a combination of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags and options that can make Web pages more animated and interactive than previous versions of HTML. <br />Digital Certificate<br />A digital certificate is an electronic "credit card" that establishes your credentials when doing business or other transactions on the Web. It is issued by a certification authority. It contains your name, a serial number, expiration dates, a copy of the certificate holder's public key (used for encrypting messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that a recipient can verify that the certificate is real. <br />Digital Video<br />Digital video is part of digital versatile disc (DVD), optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-ROM over the next few years. The DVD holds 4.7 gigabytes of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133-minute movie. With two layers on each of its two sides, it will hold up to 17 gigabytes of video, audio, or other information. (Compare this to the current CD-ROM disc of the same physical size, holding 600 megabytes. The DVD can hold more than 28 times as much information.) <br />Direct marketing<br />Advertising campaign that seeks to elicit an action (such as an order, a visit to a store or Web site, or a request for further information) from a selected group of consumers in response to a communication from the marketer. The communication itself may be in any of a variety of formats including postal mail, telemarketing, direct e-mail marketing, and point-of-sale (POS) interactions. Customer response should be measurable. <br />DNS - Domain Name System<br />Advertising campaign that seeks to elicit an action (such as an order, a visit to a store or Web site, or a request for further information) from a selected group of consumers in response to a communication from the marketer. The communication itself may be in any of a variety of formats including postal mail, telemarketing, direct e-mail marketing, and point-of-sale (POS) interactions. Customer response should be measurable. <br />Domain Name<br />A domain name locates an organisation or other entity on the Internet. For example, the domain name www.examplel.com locates an Internet address for "example.com" at Internet point 212.555.212.5 and a particular host server named "www". The "com" part of the domain name reflects the purpose of the organisation or entity (in this example, "commercial") and is called the -level domain name. The "example" part of the domain name defines the organisation or entity and together with the -level is called the second-level domain name. The second-level domain name maps to and can be thought of as the "readable" version of the Internet address. Second-level domain names must be unique on the Internet and registered. A -level domain name can be geographic. (Currently, most non-U.S. domain names use a -level domain name based on the country the server is in.) On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name system (DNS) whether and where to forward a request for a Web page. The domain name is mapped to an IP address (which represents a physical point on the Internet). More than one domain name can be mapped to the same Internet address. This allows multiple individuals, businesses, and organisations to have separate Internet identities while sharing the same Internet server. To see the IP address for a domain name, (ping). <br />Dynamic and Static IP Address<br />A static IP address is a number (in the form of a dotted quad) that is assigned to a computer by an Internet service provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on the Internet. Computers use IP addresses to locate and talk to each other on the Internet, much the same way people use phone numbers to locate and talk to one another on the telephone. When you want to visit example.com, your computer asks a domain name system (DNS) server (think telephone information operator) for the correct dotted quad number (think phone number) for example.com and your computer uses the answer it receives to connect to the example.com server. Temporarily assigning an IP address to a requesting Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) computer from a pool of IP addresses. The temporary IP address is called a dynamic IP address. <br />Dynamic Web page<br />Dynamic web page content Website page navigation can occur betweeen "static" documents or "dynamic" documents. Dynamic content provides a more interactive experience. Content, images etc can change in response to different conditions or requests.Client-side scripting can cause changes within a web page in response to mouse or keyboard actions. Server side scripting can also influence the content supplied to a browser or exchange data from a database. Both are often used simultaneously. <br />E<br />E-business - Electronic Business<br />Derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e-commerce," is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. <br />Exchange<br />Popular Microsoft messaging system that includes a mail server, an e-mail program (e-mail client), and groupware applications. Designed for use in a business setting, the Exchange server is often used in conjunction with Microsoft Outlook to take advantage of Outlook's collaborative features, such as the ability to share calendars and contact lists. <br />F<br />Firefox<br />Web browser alternative to Microsoft Internet Explorer. Compared to Internet Explorer, the most popular Web browser, Firefox gives users a cleaner interface and faster download speeds with excellent add-ons to enhance browsing. <br />Framework<br />A layered structure indicating what kind of programs can or should be built and how they would interrelate. Some computer system frameworks also include actual programs, specify programming interfaces, or offer programming tools for using the frameworks. <br />Firewall<br />An enterprise with an intranet that allows its workers access to the wider Internet installs a firewall to prevent outsiders from accessing its own private data resources. A firewall is often installed in a specially designated computer separate from the rest of the network so that no incoming request can get directly at private network resources. Computer security borrows this term from firefighting, where it originated. In firefighting, a firewall is a barrier established to prevent the spread of fire. <br />G<br />gTLD - generic -level domain name<br /> -level domain name of an Internet address that identifies it generically as associated with some domain class, such as .com (commercial), .net (originally intended for Internet service providers, but now used for many purposes), .org (for non-profit organizations, industry groups, and others), .gov (government agencies), .mil (for the military), .edu (for educational institutions); and .int (for international treaties or databases and not much used). For example, in the domain name, www.ibm.com, .com is the chosen gTLD. In addition to the gTLD, there is the ccTLD (country code -level domain name) that identifies a specific national domicile for an address. (For instance, .fr for France and .co.uk for the United Kingdom). <br />GIF - Graphics Interchange Format<br />One of the two most common file formats for graphic images on the World Wide Web. The other is the JPEG. <br />Google<br />Popular Web search engine. Google's roots go back to 1995 when two graduate students, Sergey Brin and Larry Page, met at Stanford University. In 1996, Brin and Page collaborated on a research project that was to eventually become the Google search engine. BackRub, as it was called then (because of its analysis of back links), stirred up interest in the university research community, but didn't garner any offers from the major portal vendors. Those were early days in terms of mass searching of the Internet; one of the CEOs who turned them away said that users don't really care about search abilities. Undaunted, the founders scrounged up enough funding to get started, and in September of 1998 began operations from a garage-based office in Menlo Park, California. In December of that same year, PC Magazine listed Google as one of its 100 Web Sites and Search Engines for 1998. <br />Google AdSense<br />Enabling Google advertisements on Web sites and earn revenue from hits that generate traffic for the Google search engines. Google AdSense represents businesses of all sizes worldwide in multiple languages. AdSense is a refinement and expansion of the concept behind banner-ad sharing arrangements that have been in use for years. <br />GUI - Graphical User Interface<br />Graphical user interface to a computer. As you read this, you are looking at the GUI or graphical user interface of your particular Web browser. <br />GUI - Graphical User Interface<br />Graphical user interface to a computer. As you read this, you are looking at the GUI or graphical user interface of your particular Web browser. <br />H<br />History<br />In a Web browser, the history is a detailed list of Web sites the computer has visited which remains in a computer's memory for a pre-determined number of days. <br />Homepage<br />The home page is the first Web page that is displayed after starting a Web browser. However, you can set it to open to any Web site. For example, you can specify that "http://www.yahoo.com" or "http://www.stormwebsitedesign.com" to be your home page. For a Web site developer, a home page is the first page presented when a user selects a website or presence on the World Wide Web. The home page is the main welcoming page to a website with links to the other sections of the website. <br />Host<br />The term "host" is used in several contexts, in each of which it has a slightly different meaning: In Internet protocol specifications, the term "host" means any computer that has full two-way access to other computers on the Internet. A host has a specific "local or host number" that, together with the network number, forms its unique IP address. If you use Point-to-Point Protocol to get access to your access provider, you have a unique IP address for the duration of any connection you make to the Internet and your computer is a host for that period. In this context, a "host" is a node in a network. For companies or individuals with a Web site, a host is a computer with a Web server that serves the pages for one or more Web sites. A host can also be the company that provides that service, which is known as hosting. <br />Hosting<br />Also known as Web site hosting and Web hosting is the business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more Web sites. More important than the computer space that is provided for Web site files is the fast connection to the Internet. Most hosting services offer connections on T-carrier system lines. <br />HTML - Hypertext Markup Language<br />HTML markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's words and images for the user. <br />HTTPS - Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL<br />Web protocol built into a browser that encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server. <br />Hyperlink<br />On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink is a synonym for both link and hypertext link. Possibly, the term originated because "link" was not felt to be specific enough. And it's shorter than "hypertext link." <br />Hypertext<br />The main concept that led to the invention of the World Wide Web, which is, after all, nothing more (or less) than an enormous amount of information content connected by an enormous number of hypertext links. <br />I<br />Integration<br />Combining parts so that they work together or form a whole. In web technology, there are several common usages. <br />Internet<br />The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer Conceived in 1969 by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government. First known as the ARPANET. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to be able to "talk to" research computers at other universities. A side benefit of ARPANet's design was that, because messages could be routed or rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it were not enabled. Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of the total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). For many Internet users, electronic mail (e-mail) has practically replaced the Postal Service for short written transactions. Electronic mail is the most widely used application on the Net. More recently, Internet telephony hardware and software allows real-time voice conversations. The most widely used part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (often abbreviated "WWW" or called "the Web"). Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a method of instant cross-referencing. In most Web sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different color than the rest; often this text is also underlined. When you select one of these words or phrases, you will be transferred to the site or page that is relevant to this word or phrase. Sometimes there are buttons, images, or portions of images that are "clickable." If you move the pointer over a spot on a Web site and the pointer changes into a hand, this indicates that you can click and be transferred to another site. Using the Web, you have access to millions of pages of information. Web browsing is done with a Web browser. The appearance of a particular Web site may vary slightly depending on the browser you use. Also, later versions of a particular browser are able to render more "bells and whistles" such as animation, virtual reality, sound, and music files, than earlier versions. <br />Intranet<br />Private network that is contained within an enterprise. Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or more gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees. <br />IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol<br />Provides the user more capabilities for retaining e-mail on the server and for organising it in folders on the server. IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the Internet. <br />IP Address<br />A 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. <br />ISP - Internet Service Provider<br />A company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting. An ISP has the equipment and the telecommunication line access required to have a point-of-presence on the Internet for the geographic area served. <br />J<br />JavaScript<br />JavaScript is used in Web site development to do such things as: Automatically change a formatted date on a Web page Cause a linked-to page to appear in a popup window Cause text or a graphic image to change during a mouse rollover JavaScript is an interpreted programming or script language. In general, script languages are easier and faster to code in than the more structured and compiled languages such as C and C++. Script languages generally take longer to process than compiled languages, but are very useful for shorter programs. <br />JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group<br />Tterm for any graphic image file produced by using a JPEG standard. A JPEG file is created by choosing from a range of compression qualities.. When you create a JPEG or convert an image from another format to a JPEG, you are asked to specify the quality of image you want. Since the highest quality results in the largest file, you can make a trade-off between image quality and file size. JPEG is one of the image file formats supported on the World Wide Web, usually with the file suffix of ".jpg". You can create a progressive JPEG (displays pixelated view which improves) that is similar to an interlaced GIF. <br />JRE - Java Runtime Environment<br />Also known as Java Runtime, is part of the Java Development Kit (JDK), a set of programming tools for developing Java applications. The Java Runtime Environment provides the minimum requirements for executing a Java application; it consists of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), core classes, and supporting files. <br />K<br />Keyboard Shortcut<br />A combination of keys that, when pressed simultaneously, perform some task that ordinarily requires use of a mouse or may take longer to do. For example Holding the Ctrl key and W will usually close a window or application that is open. <br />L<br />Keyboard Shortcut<br />A landing page can be the destination page from a link. In web advertising the landing page is the web page the user will be directed to, with more information regarding the advert. <br />Link<br />Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture, or information object to another. Within the World Wide Web, such objects can include sound and motion video sequences. The most common form of link is the highlighted word or picture that can be selected by the user (with a mouse or in some other fashion), resulting in the immediate delivery and view of another file. <br />Liquid Design<br />Web pages that will reflow to fit no matter what size window it is displayed in. A liquid page or content area leaves no blank margin on the right or the left. However, unless special care is taken, elements in a liquid page can sometimes have too much or too little space between them. <br />M<br />Markup <br />Sequence of characters or other symbols that you insert at certain places in a text or word processing file to indicate how the file should look when it is printed or displayed or to describe the document's logical structure. The markup indicators are often called "tags." <br />Mail Server<br />A mail server is an application that receives incoming e-mail and forwards outgoing e-mail for delivery. A computer dedicated to running such applications is also called a mail server. <br />Meta Refresh<br />On a Web site, a meta refresh is coding in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that automatically directs the visitor to a new page after a specified number of seconds. <br />Meta Tag<br />A meta tag is a tag in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that describes some aspect of the contents of a Web page. The information that you provide in a meta tag is used by search engines to index a page so that someone searching for the kind of information the page contains will be able to find it. The meta tag is placed near the of the HTML in a Web page as part of the heading. There are several kinds of meta tags, but the most important for search engine indexing are the keywords meta tag and the description meta tag. The keywords meta tag lists the words or phrases that best describe the contents of the page. The description meta tag includes a brief one- or two-sentence description of the page. Both the keywords and the description are used by search engines in adding a page to their index. Some search engines also use the description to show the searcher a summary of the page's contents. Although most search engines also use the contents of a page as a way to determine how to index it, the creator of a Web page should be sure to include meta tags with appropriate keywords and description. Well-written meta tags can help make the page rank higher in search results. <br />Microsite<br />A microsite is a separately promoted part of a larger Web site. A microsite is designed to meet separate objectives and has a separate Web address (or Uniform Resource Locator) as its home page. Typically, a microsite resides on the same Web server and reflects the branding and overall visual design of the larger site with which it is associated. <br />MIME - Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions<br />Extension of the original Internet e-mail protocol that lets people use the protocol to exchange different kinds of data files on the Internet: audio, video, images, application programs etc. <br />MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service<br />An extension to the Short Message Service (SMS) protocol, MMS defines a way to send and receive, almost instantaneously, wireless messages that include images, audio, and video clips in addition to text. Also now supports the transmission of streaming video. A common current application of MMS messaging is picture messaging (the use of camera phones to take photos for immediate delivery to a mobile recipient). <br />MPEG - Moving Picture Experts Group<br />MPEG develops standards for digital video and digital audio compression. It operates under the auspices of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). <br />Multimedia<br />Multimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, on CD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text, multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or motion video. <br />MySQL<br />A relational database management system (RDBMS) based on SQL (Structured Query Language). First released in January, 1998, MySQL is now one component of parent company MySQL AB's product line of database servers and development tools. Many Internet startups became interested in the original open source version of MySQL as an alternative to the proprietary database systems from Oracle, IBM, and Informix. MySQL is currently available under two different licensing agreements: free of charge, under the GNU General Public License (GPL) open source system or through subscription to MySQL Network for business applications. MySQL runs on virtually all platforms, including Linux, Unix, and Windows. <br />N<br />Net Mask<br />In administering Internet sites, a netmask is a string of 0's and 1's that mask or screen out the network part of an IP address(IP) so that only the host computer part of the address remains. <br />Net Mask<br />Term for all forms of electronic communication that have appeared or will appear since the original mainly text-and-static picture forms of online communication. <br />Newsgroup<br />A newsgroup is a discussion about a particular subject consisting of notes written to a central Internet site and redistributed through Usenet, a worldwide network of news discussion groups. Usenet uses the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). Newsgroups are organised into subject hierarchies, with the first few letters of the newsgroup name indicating the major subject category and sub-categories represented by a sub ic name. <br />N<br />Open Source Development Labs<br />Open Source Development Labs (OSDL) is a nonprofit corporation founded by IBM, Intel, and Computer Associates to support Linux developers and users. The goal of OSDL is to provide a place where Linux and other Open Source developers can work together and create standardised and compatible Linux platform applications. Plans for a state-of-the-art laboratory based somewhere in Oregon were announced in August 2000 by Scott McNeil, who is widely credited with the concept for OSDL. <br />Open Source Software<br />Software that is developed, tested, or improved through public collaboration and distributed with the idea that it will be shared with others, ensuring an open future collaboration. The collaborative experience of many developers, especially those in the academic environment. <br />Optical Storage<br />Optical storage is any storage method in which data is written and read with a laser for archival or backup purposes. Typically, data is written to optical media, such as CDs and DVDs. For several years, proponents have spoken of optical storage as a near-future replacement for both hard drives in personal computers and tape backup in mass storage. <br />Optical Storage<br />Optical storage is any storage method in which data is written and read with a laser for archival or backup purposes. Typically, data is written to optical media, such as CDs and DVDs. For several years, proponents have spoken of optical storage as a near-future replacement for both hard drives in personal computers and tape backup in mass storage. <br />P<br />P2P - Peer to Peer<br />Communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. Other models with which it might be contrasted include the client/server model and the master/slave model. In some cases, peer-to-peer communications is implemented by giving each communication node both server and client capabilities. In recent usage, peer-to-peer has come to describe applications in which users can use the Internet to exchange files with each other directly or through a mediating server. <br />Paid Inclusion<br />Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing model in which Web site owners pay a search engine company to guarantee their sites will show up in search results. <br />Parser<br />In computer technology, a parser is a program, usually part of a compiler, that receives input in the form of sequential source program instructions, interactive online commands, markup tags, or some other defined interface and breaks them up into parts. <br />PHP<br />PHP is a script language and interpreter that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers. PHP, originally derived from Personal Home Page Tools, now stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. <br />PHTML<br />A PHTML page is a Web page that includes a script written in PHP, a language comparable to JavaScript or Microsoft's VBScript. <br />PNG - Portable Network Graphics<br />File format for image compression that, in time, is expected to replace the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) that is widely used on today's Internet. The PNG format was developed by an Internet committee expressly to be patent-free. It provides a number of improvements over the GIF format. Like a GIF, a PNG file is compressed in lossless fashion (meaning all image information is restored when the file is decompressed during viewing). A PNG file is not intended to replace the JPEG format, which is "lossy" but lets the creator make a trade-off between file size and image quality when the image is compressed. Typically, an image in a PNG file can be 10 to 30% more compressed than in a GIF format. The PNG format includes these features: You can not only make one color transparent, but you can control the degree of transparency (this is also called "opacity"). Interlacing (see interlaced GIF) of the image is supported and is faster in developing than in the GIF format. Gamma correction allows you to "tune" the image in terms of color brightness required by specific display manufacturers. Images can be saved using true color as well as in the palette and gray-scale formats provided by the GIF. Unlike the GIF89a, the PNG format doesn't support animation since it can't contain multiple images. The PNG is described as "extensible," however. Software houses will be able to develop variations of PNG that can contain multiple, scriptable images. <br />Podcast<br />Podcasting is the preparation and distribution of audio files using RSS to the computers of subscribed users. These files may then be uploaded to digital music or multimedia players like the iPod. A podcast can be easily created from a digital audio file. The podcaster first saves the file as an MP3 and then uploads it to the Web site of a service provider. The MP3 file gets its own URL, which is inserted into an RSS XML document as an enclosure within an XML tag. <br />POP3 - Post Office Protocol 3<br />Most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving e-mail. POP3 is a clien t /server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. Periodically, you (or your client e-mail receiver) check your mail-box on the server and download any mail, probably using POP3. This standard protocol is built into most popular e-mail products, such as Eudora and Outlook Express. It's also built into the Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers. POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has downloaded it. However, some implementations allow users or an administrator to specify that mail be saved for some period of time. POP can be thought of as a "store-and-forward" service. An alternative protocol is Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). IMAP provides the user more capabilities for retaining e-mail on the server and for organizing it in folders on the server. IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the Internet. You send e-mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on your recipient's behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP. The conventional port number for POP3 is 110. <br />Pop-up Blocker<br />A pop-up blocker is a program that prevents pop-ups from displaying in a user's Web browser. Pop-up blockers work in a number of ways: some close the window before it appears, some disable the command that calls the pop-up, and some alter the window's source HTML. One problem with pop-up blockers has been that they cannot always differentiate between an unwanted pop-up window and one that is user-requested. Programs that can consistently do so are sometimes referred to as intelligent pop-up blockers. <br />Portlet<br />On the Web, a portlet is a component of a portal Web site that provides access to some specific information source or application, such as news updates, technical support, or an e-mail program among many other possibilities. Portals aggregate different content into a single interface; portlets connect the user to specific content within that interface. Most portals offer a selection of portlets that the user can select for a customized interface. Portals connect to portlets through portlet APIs (application programming interfaces). <br />Product Development<br />Product development is a broad field of endeavor dealing with the design, creation, and marketing of new products. Sometimes referred to as new product development (NPD), the discipline is focused on developing systematic methods for guiding all the processes involved in getting a new product to market. <br />Project Management<br />A methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish. Processes are guided through five stages: initiation, planning, executing, controlling, and closing. Project management can be applied to almost any type of project and is widely used to control the complex processes of software development projects. <br />Proxy Server<br />In an enterprise that uses the Internet, a proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the Internet so that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control, and caching service. A proxy server is associated with or part of a gateway server that separates the enterprise network from the outside network and a firewall server that protects the enterprise network from outside intrusion. A proxy server receives a request for an Internet service (such as a Web page request) from a user. If it passes filtering requirements, the proxy server, assuming it is also a cache server, looks in its local cache of previously downloaded Web pages. If it finds the page, it returns it to the user without needing to forward the request to the Internet. If the page is not in the cache, the proxy server, acting as a client on behalf of the user, uses one of its own IP addresses to request the page from the server out on the Internet. When the page is returned, the proxy server relates it to the original request and forwards it on to the user. To the user, the proxy server is invisible; all Internet requests and returned responses appear to be directly with the addressed Internet server. (The proxy is not quite invisible; its IP address has to be specified as a configuration option to the browser or other protocol program.) An advantage of a proxy server is that its cache can serve all users. If one or more Internet sites are frequently requested, these are likely to be in the proxy's cache, which will improve user response time. In fact, there are special servers called cache servers. A proxy can also do logging. The functions of proxy, firewall, and caching can be in separate server programs or combined in a single package. Different server programs can be in different computers. For example, a proxy server may in the same machine with a firewall server or it may be on a separate server and forward requests through the firewall. <br />Q<br />Quality of Service<br />On the Internet and in other networks, QoS (Quality of Service) is the idea that transmission rates, error rates, and other characteristics can be measured, improved, and, to some extent, guaranteed in advance. QoS is of particular concern for the continuous transmission of high-bandwidth video and multimedia information. Transmitting this kind of content dependably is difficult in public networks using ordinary "best effort" protocols. <br />R<br />Real Time<br />Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external process (for example, to present visualisations of the weather as it constantly changes). Real time describes a human rather than a machine sense of time. <br />Redirect<br />> On a Web site, redirection is a technique for moving visitors to a different website when its address has been changed and visitors are familiar with the old address. Web users often encounter redirection when they visit the Web site of a company whose name has been changed or which has been acquired by another company. In either case, the Web site probably will include a new domain name and it will have a new Uniform Resource Locator (URL). To make sure that visitors familiar with the old company get to the new site, the company will turn the original Web site home page into a redirect page, containing a message that says something like: "We have moved to a new location. Please change your bookmark. In five seconds, we will transfer you to the new page." In addition to replacing the content of the old page with the redirect text, the company adds a meta refresh line in the header section of the page that looks something like this: <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5;url=http://www.ournewsite.com"> In the above example, the "5" means change to the new page in five seconds. The "url=http://www.ournewsite.com" is an example of the URL for the new page. If you own a Web site that people have learned to use and you then change the name and location of a Web page, it's strongly recommended that you make the original page a redirect page with a meta refresh tag to the new page. Otherwise, visitors familiar with the old page will get a 404 (Page Not Found) message. Redirection is also conducted illegally by browser hijackers that surreptitiously change the user's browser settings. <br />Refresh Rate<br />The refresh rate is the number of times a display's image is repainted or refreshed per second. The refresh rate is expressed in hertz so a refresh rate of 75 means the image is refreshed 75 times in a second. The refresh rate for each display depends on the video card used. You can change the refresh rate in the display properties. However, if you change the refresh rate to a setting that the display or video card cannot support, the display goes blank or the image becomes distorted. It is recommended to consult the display and video card manuals before changing the settings to determine the supported refresh rates. <br />Reseller Hosting<br />The provision of Web hosting services to companies that in turn act as Web hosts for other companies, typically providing Web site design and management services as well as acting as host for the site and serving its pages to users. <br />ROI - Return on Investment<br />ROI is how much profit or cost saving is realised. An ROI calculation is sometimes used along with other approaches to develop a business case for a given proposal. The overall ROI for an enterprise is sometimes used as a way to grade how well a company is managed. <br />RSS Feed<br />RSS is an XML-based vocabulary that specifies a means of describing news or other Web content that is available for "feeding" (distribution or syndication) from an online publisher to Web users. RSS is an abbreviation for describing one of three different standards, which include: RDF Site Summary (RSS .9 and 1.0) Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91 and 1.0) Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) RSS is adheres to the World Wide Web Consortium's Resource Description Framework (RDF). Originally developed by Netscape for its browser's Netcenter channels, the RSS specification is now available for anyone to use. A Web site that wants to "publish" some of its content, such as news headlines or stories, creates a description of the content and specifically where the content is on its site in the form of an RSS document. <br />S<br />S-video<br />S-Video (Super-Video, sometimes referred to as Y/C Video, or component video) is a video signal transmission in which the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are transmitted separately to achieve superior picture clarity. <br />Scalability<br />It is the ability of a computer application or product (hardware or software) to continue to function well when it (or its context) is changed in size or volume in order to meet a user need. <br />Scripting<br />A scripting language, script language or extension language, is a programming language that controls a software application. Scripting languages are nearly always embedded in the application with which they are associated. <br />Search Engine<br />On the Internet, a search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes: A spider (also called a "crawler" or a "bot") that goes to every page or representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site's other pages A program that creates a huge index from the pages that have been read. A program that receives your search request, compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you. <br />SEO - Search engine optimisation<br />Search engine optimisation (SEO) is the practice of manipulating aspects of a Web site to improve its ranking in search engines. Various approaches are taken to achieve that goal, such as submitting the Web site to directory services, and addressing Web site architecture and content. Although there are legitimate companies that help Web sites improve their rankings, according to Google's page about SEO, most such offers that arrive in e-mail messages are of little-to-no value. The search engine's own Webmaster often gets SEO marketing offers suggesting that Google doesn't show up well in search results (which is quite unlikely). <br />Server<br />A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server (though it may be used for other purposes as well). Specific to the Web, a Web server is the computer program (housed in a computer) that serves requested HTML pages or files. A Web client is the requesting program associated with the user. The Web browser in your computer is a client that requests HTML files from Web servers. <br />Site map<br />A site map (or sitemap) is a representation of the architecture of a web site, primarily to help visitors and search engine bots find pages on the site.Google Sitemaps enable web developers to publish lists of links from across their sites. Therefore sites with a large number of dynamic pages can then indicate to a web crawler how such pages can be found. <br />SLA - Service Level Agreement<br />Service level agreemenst (SLA) are contracst between a service provider and a customer that specifies, usually in measurable terms, what services the service provider will offer. <br />Server Side Include<br />A server-side include is a variable value (for example, a file "Last modified" date) that a server can include in an HTML file before it sends it to the requestor. If you're creating a Web page, you can insert an include statement in the HTML file that looks like this: <!--#echo var="LAST_MODIFIED"--> and the server will obtain the last-modified date for the file and insert it before the HTML file is sent to requestors. LAST_MODIFIED is one of several environment variables that an operating system can keep track of and that can be accessible to a server program. A Web file that contains server-side include statements (such as the "echo" statement above) is usually defined by the administrator to be a file with an "." suffix. <br />Session<br />In tabulating statistics for Web site usage, a user session (sometime referred to as a visit) is the presence of a user with a specific IP address who has not visited the site recently (typically, anytime within the past 30 minutes). The number of user sessions per day is one measure of how much traffic a Web site has. A user who visits a site at noon and then again at 3:30 pm would count as two user visits. Other measures of Web site traffic in a given time period are the number of hits (the number of individual files served), the number of pages served, the number of ad views, and the number of unique visitors. <br />Session Cookie<br />On the Web, a transient cookie, sometimes called a session cookie, is a small file that contains information about a user that disappears when the user's browser is closed. Unlike a persistent cookie, a transient cookie is not stored on your hard drive but is only stored in temporary memory that is erased when the browser is closed. <br />Splash Page<br />A splash page (or splash screen) is an initial Web site page used to capture the user's attention for a short time as a promotion or lead-in to the site home page or to tell the user what kind of browser and other software they need to view the site. To have the splash page automatically move to the home page after a specified delay, include the HTML tag in the splash page as in this example with a 10-second delay: < META http-equiv="refresh" content="10; URL=http://www.somesitename.com/home.html" > The advantage of a splash page is that you can create effects or provide information that is only needed once a visit. For example, a user can keep coming back to the home page without having to be bothered with browser requirements. 2) Some sites use "splash page" to mean the home page itself, especially where it contains attention-capturing visual or multimedia effects (creating a "splash"). <br />SQL - Structured Query Language<br />SQL is a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. Queries take the form of a command language that lets you select, insert, update, find out the location of data, and so forth. There is also a programming interface. <br />SSL - Secure Sockets Layer<br />The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. SSL has recently been succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is based on SSL. SSL uses a program layer located between the Internet's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP) layers. The "sockets" part of the term refers to the sockets method of passing data back and forth between a client and a server program in a network or between program layers in the same computer. SSL uses the public-and-private key encryption system from RSA, which also includes the use of a digital certificate. <br />Style Sheet<br />A term extended from print publishing to online media, a style sheet is a definition of a document's appearance in terms of such elements as: The default typeface, size, and color for headings and body text How front matter (preface, figure list, title page, and so forth) should look How all or individual sections should be laid out in terms of space (for example, two newspaper columns, one column with headings having hanging heads, and so forth). Line spacing, margin widths on all sides, spacing between headings, and so forth How many heading levels should be included in any automatically generated Table of Contents Any boilerplate content that is to be included on certain pages (for example, copyright statements) Typically, a style sheet is specified at the beginning of an electronic document, either by embedding it or linking to it. This style sheet applies to the entire document. As necessary, specific elements of the overall style sheet can be overridden by special coding that applies to a given section of the document. For Web pages, a style sheet performs a similar function, allowing the designer to ensure an underlying consistency across a site's pages. The style elements can be specified once for the entire document by either imbedding the style rules in the document heading or cross-referring (linking to or importing) a separate style sheet. A browser may allow the user to override some or all of the style sheet attributes. <br />Syndication<br />Online content syndication is a growing industry sector, in terms of both content syndication and hardware and software development. <br />T<br />Tag<br />A tag is a generic term for a language element descriptor. The set of tags for a document or other unit of information is sometimes referred to as markup, a term that dates to pre-computer days when writers and copy editors marked up document elements with copy editing symbols or shorthand. <br />TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol<br />Communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP. <br />Template<br />In programming, a template is a generic class or other unit of source code that can be used as the basis for unique units of code. <br />Terabyte<br />A terabyte is a measure of computer storage capacity and is 2 to the 40th power or approximately a thousand billion bytes (that is, a thousand gigabytes). <br />U<br />UI - User Interface<br />Everything designed into an information device with which a human being may interact -- including display screen, keyboard, mouse, light pen, the appearance of a desk , illuminated characters, help messages, and how an application program or a Web site invites interaction and responds to it. <br />URL - Uniform Resource Locator<br />A URL (previously Universal Resource Locator) - is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. A common way to get to a Web site is to enter the URL of its home page file in your Web browser's address line. However, any file within that Web site can also be specified with a URL. <br />URL - Uniform Resource Locator<br />A URL (previously Universal Resource Locator) - is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. A common way to get to a Web site is to enter the URL of its home page file in your Web browser's address line. However, any file within that Web site can also be specified with a URL. <br />VU<br />VB - Visual Basic<br />Visual Basic (VB) is a programming environment from Microsoft in which a programmer uses a graphical user interface to choose and modify preselected sections of code written in the BASIC programming language. Since Visual Basic is easy to learn and fast to write code with, it's sometimes used to prototype an application that will later be written in a more difficult but efficient language. Visual Basic is also widely used to write working programs. Microsoft says that there are at least 3 million developers using Visual Basic. <br />VOIP - Voice over IP<br />VoIP is an IP telephony term for a set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets. A major advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service. <br />W<br />W3C - World Wide Web Concortium<br />The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) describes itself as follows: "The World Wide Web Consortium exists to realise the full potential of the Web. The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software. Although W3C is funded by industrial members, it is vendor-neutral, and its products are freely available to all. The Consortium is international; jointly hosted by the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science in the United States and in Europe by INRIA who provide both local support and performing core development. The W3C was initially established in collaboration with CERN, where the Web originated, and with support from DARPA and the European Commission." <br />Wayback Machine<br />The Wayback Machine is a Web site that enables anyone to see what a particular Web site looked like at some time in the past - from 1996 to the present. This enormous archive of the Web's past requires over 100 terabytes of storage and contains 10 billion Web pages! Wayback Machine site, you can search for and link to any of your favorite Web sites of the past and find them preserved very much as they were at various "snapshots" in time. For example, you can see how whatis.com looked in late 1996 and also at various times during 1997 and all the way to the present. (Occasionally, an ad that was served from another site will be missing and we noticed a few graphic images missing from our original site.) In general, however, the range and completeness of the archive is remarkable. The Wayback Machine also carries a few "special collection" features that show how Web sites responded to the tragedy on September 11, 2001; Web pages from the U.S. election of 2000; and a "Web Pioneers" collection, that features some sites that were important to the early Internet. The Wayback Machine is at http://web.archive.org. From time to time, the site's performance may be a bit slow. <br />Website or Web Site<br />A Web site is a related collection of World Wide Web (WWW) files that includes a beginning file called a home page. A company or an individual tells you how to get to their Web site by giving you the address of their home page. From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site. <br />Weblog<br />A weblog, sometimes written as web log or Weblog, is a Web site that consists of a series of entries arranged in reverse chronological order, often updated on frequently with new information about particular ics. <br />Web Server<br />A Web server is a program that, using the client/server model and the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), serves the files that form Web pages to Web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward their requests). Every computer on the Internet that contains a Web site must have a Web server program. Two leading Web servers are Apache, the most widely-installed Web server, and Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS). <br />Windows<br />Windows is a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. <br />WSCI - Web Service Choreography Interface<br />is a programming language that provides a global, message-oriented view of processes involving multiple Web services. <br />WWW - World Wide Web<br />The most widely used part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (often abbreviated "WWW" or called "the Web"). Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a method of instant cross-referencing. In most Web sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different color than the rest; often this text is also underlined. When you select one of these words or phrases, you will be transferred to the site or page that is relevant to this word or phrase. Sometimes there are buttons, images, or portions of images that are "clickable." If you move the pointer over a spot on a Web site and the pointer changes into a hand, this indicates that you can click and be transferred to another site. Using the Web, you have access to millions of pages of information. Web browsing is done with a Web browser. The appearance of a particular Web site may vary slightly depending on the browser you use. Also, later versions of a particular browser are able to render more "bells and whistles" such as animation, virtual reality, sound, and music files, than earlier versions. <br />X<br />XHTML - Extensible Hypertext Markup Language<br />As the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) describes it, XHTML () is "a reformulation of HTML 4.0 as an application of the Extensible Markup Language (XML)." For readers unacquainted with either term, HTML is the set of codes (that's the "markup language") that a writer puts into a document to make it displayable on the World Wide Web. HTML 4 is the current version of it. XML is a structured set of rules for how one might define any kind of data to be shared on the Web. It's called an "extensible" markup language because anyone can invent a particular set of markup for a particular purpose and as long as everyone uses it (the writer and an application program at the receiver's end), it can be adapted and used for many purposes - including, as it happens, describing the appearance of a Web page. That being the case, it seemed desirable to reframe HTML in terms of XML. The result is XHTML, a particular application of XML for "expressing" Web pages. XHTML is, in fact, the follow-on version of HTML 4. You could think of it as HTML 5, except that it is called XHTML 1.0. In XHTML, all HTML 4 markup elements and attributes (the language of HTML) will continue to be supported. Unlike HTML, however, XHTML can be extended by anyone that uses it. New elements and attributes can be defined and added to those that already exist, making possible new ways to embed content and programming in a Web page. In appearance, an XHTML file looks like a somewhat more elaborate HTML file. The W3C continues to develop a working draft for the XHTML specification. <br />XML - Extensible Markup Language<br />A flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere. For example, computer makers might agree on a standard or common way to describe the information about a computer product (processor speed, memory size, and so forth) and then describe the product information format with XML. Such a standard way of describing data would enable a user to send an intelligent agent (a program) to each computer maker's Web site, gather data, and then make a valid comparison. XML can be used by any individual or group of individuals or companies that wants to share information in a consistent way. XML, a formal recommendation from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is similar to the language of today's Web pages, the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Both XML and HTML contain markup symbols to describe the contents of a page or file. HTML, however, describes the content of a Web page (mainly text and graphic images) only in terms of how it is to be displayed and interacted with. For example, the letter "p" placed within markup tags starts a new paragraph. XML describes the content in terms of what data is being described. For example, the word "phonenum" placed within markup tags could indicate that the data that followed was a phone number. This means that an XML file can be processed purely as data by a program or it can be stored with similar data on another computer or, like an HTML file, that it can be displayed. For example, depending on how the application in the receiving computer wanted to handle the phone number, it could be stored, displayed, or dialed. XML is "extensible" because, unlike HTML, the markup symbols are unlimited and self-defining. XML is actually a simpler and easier-to-use subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), the standard for how to create a document structure. It is expected that HTML and XML will be used together in many Web applications. XML markup, for example, may appear within an HTML page. <br />XQL - XML Query Language<br />Language to locate and filter the elements (data fields) and text in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. XML files are used to transmit collections of data between computers on the Web. XQL provides a tool for finding and/or selecting out specific items in the data collection in an XML file or set of files. It is based on the pattern syntax used in the Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) and is proposed as an extension to it. The XSL pattern language is a declarative way to indicate specific elements for processing. It uses simple directory notation. For example, book/author means: Select all author elements in all book elements in a particular context (for example, within an XML file or a set of files). XQL adds to this directory pattern notation the ability to use Boolean logic, to filter out elements, to index into a collection of elements, and to do some other things. Using XQL, a program could be written to search repositories of XML files, to provide hypertext links to specific elements, and for other applications. <br />Y<br />XHTML - Extensible Hypertext Markup Language<br />Y<br />Y - there are currently no terms listed <br />Z<br />Zone<br />In general, a zone is an area of administration. The meaning is similar to that of domain. Specific networking environments use the term to mean somewhat different things: <br />