(Need to insert a slide of 21st century images here)Scratch addresses 21st Century Skills that have been identified by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, an organization formed in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Education, several organizations, Ken Kay the President & Co-founder, and DinyGolder-Dardis a special advisor and co-founder. These are skills that have been deemed necessary for students to attain in order to be successful during this period of time when business has changed drastically from an industrialized structure to an electronic design where much work is conducted globally with digital technology.Information & Communication Skills: Students select, create, and manage multiple forms of mediaCommunication Skills: Students choose & manipulate media in order to express themselvesThinking & Problem SolvingIncludes critical thinking and systems thinking. Problem Identification, Formulation, and SolutionCreativity and Intellectual Curiosity. As students program and create they must coordinate timing and interactions between multiple objects developing critical & system thinking skills. Problem Identification, Formulation, & Solution skills are developed in that creating a project requires thinking of an idea, and then determining how to break that problem into steps via Scratch programming. Creativity and Intellectual curiousity are accomplished through seeking innovative solutions to unexpected problems that may arise while programming.Interpersonal & Self Directional Skills includeInterpersonal & Collaborative SkillsSelf DirectionAccountability & AdaptabilitySocial ResponsibilityThe graphical blocks in Scratch make it more readable and sharable fostering a more interpersonal & collaborative environment. Students develop self direction via persistence and practice in Scratch. Because Scratch projects can be shared easily, students work with an audience in mind and can be modified based on feedback. They also can create projects that provoke discussions on important issues.
The 21st Century Skills have been divided into 4 areas: The Core Subjects & 21st Century ThemesLearning & Innovation SkillsInformation, Media, and Technology SkillsLife & Career Skills
The core subjects include the subjects that we all had to learn in Elementary, Middle, and High School with added interdisciplinary themes that include: Global awarenessFinancial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacyCivic literacyHealth literacyEnvironmental literacyLet’s take a brief look at how Scratch addresses 21st Century Skills starting with Learning & Innovation
Learning & Innovation Skills have three sub-components.Creativity & InnovationCritical Thinking & Problem SolvingCommunication & CollaborationScratch addresses these skill in the following ways: Creativity and innovation are employed throughout the process. However, from the very start, students must devise a plan of action when creating a Scratch program. Creating a project requires thinking of an idea, and then determining how to break that idea into steps via Scratch programming. As they develop their projects, they may encounter unexpected problems. Scratch involves students seeking innovative solutions to unexpected problems that may arise during the process. While programming & creating in Scratch they must coordinate the timing and interactions between multiple objects developing critical & system thinking skills. Students communicate in Scratch by choosing, manipulating, and integrating a variety of media in order to express themselves creatively and persuasively. Additionally the graphical blocks in Scratch are more readable than other programming languages making Scratch sharable fostering a more collaborative environment.
Information, Media, & Technology Skills are divided into the categories of: Information LiteracyMedia LiteracyICT (Information, Communication, and Technology) LiteracyScratch is a addresses these skills in that:Students learn to select, create, and manage multiple forms of media. This process involves the analysis and selection of appropriate media creation tools in order to effectively express their intended message. And ICT literacy is achieved in that students are utilizing d igital devices in the development of their product.
The Life & Career Skills are addressed by Scratch in the following manner: Flexible & Adaptable: because Scratch projects are easy to change and revise, students can modify their projects based on feedback from others. Initiative & Self – Direction: Programming in Scratch requires that students set goals, manage their time, and work efficiently. Students additionally may develop personal meaning in the projects and excel beyond basic mastery of the skills. I’ve had several students complete Scratch assignments in class only to go home and create even more impressive work. Social & Cross Cultural Skills: Because Scratch projects are shareable via the web, students can use Scratch to provoke discussion of important issues. Students must also be cognizant of the global community when sharing on the web.Productivity & Accountability: Students once again must set goals, manage time , and work efficiently in order to achieve goals. Students, additionally produce Scratch projects with an audience in mind. They therefore create with an understanding of how this audience will respond to their work holding them accountable for their projects.Leadership & Responsibility: By creating in Scratch, students take on a leadership role in the creation of a product. They also become an inspiration to other young and older people who may view their work.
Ryan F. Evans
October 12, 2010
What is Scratch?
Why use Scratch in the Classroom?
Getting Started with Scratch?
Program 2 Scratch Animations
Integration into other Subject Areas
Explore the Possibilities
Scratch is a programming language that makes it
easy to create your own interactive stories,
animations, games, music, and art -- and share your
creations on the web. As young people create and
share Scratch projects, they learn important
mathematical and computational ideas, while also
learning to think creatively, reason systematically,
and work collaboratively.
The Scratch Project -
Develop 21st Century Skills
Flexible: (Recommended age level – 5 – 15)
Integrate with all Subject Areas
Runs on Mac, Windows, and Linux
Core Subjects & 21st Century Themes
Learning & Innovation Skills
Information, Media, and Technology Skills
Life & Career Skills
CORE SUBJECTS 21ST CENTURY THEMES
English Global awareness
World Languages Financial, economic,
Arts business, and
Mathematics entrepreneurial literacy
Economics Civic literacy
Science Health literacy
Geography Environmental literacy
Government & Civics
Creativity and Innovation
Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
Communication & Collaboration
ICT (Information, Communication, and
Sequence Parallel Execution
Conditional Logic Boolean Logic
Variables User Interface Design
Data Structures Publish projects as
(dynamic lists) Java applets on
Events Handling scratch.mit.edu
Getting Started Guide http://info.scratch.mit.edu/sites/infoscratch.media.mit.ed
Scratch Reference Guide http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Support/Reference_Guide_1.4
Scratch Cards http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Support/Scratch_Cards
Videos About Scratch http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Support/Videos
Access to all Resources http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Support
List of Sprites in
Various Subjects http://scratch.mit.edu/galleries/view/11876
Scratch Ed http://scratched.media.mit.edu/
Paint your own sprite
Choose a sprite from the library
Get a surprise sprite
Create your own
Select one from the library
Upload Projects Online
(Free User Accounts)
Other users can run your programs through their web browser. (Uses Java)
Can comment on online projects
Scratch Ed - http://scratched.media.mit.edu/
“You Tube” for Scratch Programmers
Can embed Scratch applications in your websites.
Additional Scratch resources at www.shallwelearn.com
Sequence - the following of one thing after another; succession.
Iteration a problem-solving or computational method in which a
succession of approximations, each building on the one preceding,
is used to achieve a desired degree of accuracy.
Conditional Logic - Referring to an action that takes place only if a
specific condition is met
Variables - a quantity or function that may assume any given
value or set of values
Data Structures (dynamic lists) - An organization of information
Events Handling - A function or method containing program
statements that are executed in response to an event.
Parallel Execution - when two independent processes take place
at the same time
Synchronization - to cause to go on, move,
operate, work, etc., at the same rate and exactly
Boolean Logic - a form of algebra in which all
values are reduced to either TRUE or FALSE.
User Interface Design - design of computers,
appliances, machines, mobile communication
devices, software applications, and websites
with the focus on the user's experience and