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# The core of fun

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Ralph Koster

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### The core of fun

1. 1. The C of F R K P, Areae Inc.
2. 2.    7 7- I- I - IV - I - V IV - I — I (audience claps and we sing blues)
3. 3.   ’ (audience makes random noises)
4. 4.   “” often have underlying S
5. 5. “” by M D C-maj7 — C-7 — G-7 — C7 Fmaj7 — Fmaj7 — F-7 — Bb7 Ebmaj7 — Eb-7 — Ab7 — Dbmaj7 — D-7b5 — G7b9b13
6. 6.     “” (“Solar” is a blues)
7. 7.   : ’  When something works, it works at many levels.
8. 8. I - I7 - IV - I - V7 - IV - I — I = I — IV — V — I = I—V—I = 8 — 7# - 8
9. 9. Songs are made of Songs…
10. 10. Harmonies are made of overlapping Songs…
11. 11. Visual compositions are made of spaces
12. 12. That are visual compositions
13. 13.      Games are made out of Games
14. 14. F
15. 15.      Until you reach the interface button.
16. 16.      FUN
17. 17. FUN …is a chemical response
18. 18.       Hard Easy Visceral Social
19. 19. Games mostly focus on hard fun.
20. 20.    H F is about solving problems. The problems tend to be mathematical. ∴ its grammar ignores presentation & metaphor.
21. 21.        Interaction Design aka
22. 22. C “A cyclic process where two actors alternatively listen, think, and speak.”
23. 23. So let’s talk about how you apply this to Web. the
24. 24.   Let’s go to
25. 25. Typing in the URL for Amazon or hitting your bookmark, parsing the intro page, skipping your recommendations, finding the search box, the search, narrowing the results, finding the results you want, getting distracted by that other thing you meant to buy, comparing every result, parsing the product page, reading the reviews, finding the buy button from the four choices, making the purchase, picking shipping method, picking payment method, choosing gift wrap or not…
26. 26. The challenges are experienced sequentially, but in practice they are nested…
27. 27. …you might have the boss level encounter with one-click multiple times in different places or for different loot.
28. 28. M I  Territory • Preparation • Core mechanic (skill required) • Range of challenges • Choice of abilities • Variable feedback • Bad return on investment • Cost of failure •
29. 29. M I  W • W • H • W • W • F • F • P. •
30. 30.  The core  has to be repeatable.
31. 31.  Something that requires .
32. 32.  Something that can handle  .
33. 33.  Something that is .
34. 34.  Everything you did before must matter.
35. 35.  Whatever the opponent last did to you should matter too. Never start an interaction with no .
36. 36.  You must be able to  for this encounter In different .
37. 37.  The same challenge in different locales should be a fresh .
38. 38.  The  and  should affect the outcome.
39. 39.  The same  must be applicable to many different .
40. 40.  Think of a verb as a H.
41. 41.  You should present users Nails with lots of kinds of
42. 42.  There are lots of kinds of hammers too!
43. 43.  Users should be able to solve the challenge with their choice of tools.
44. 44.  And you should reward them with different  for it.
45. 45.    All Quantifiable. the above are You can arrive at a  for every challenge. You can sum them for the  of a meta-challenge.
46. 46.  A game that only has one outcome is .
47. 47.  V  keeps things lively.
48. 48.  (Usually, the best feedback is a greater challenge presented by the opponent.)
49. 49.  Sometimes, it’s a pleasant S.
50. 50.  Either way, it has to be  . To everyone.
51. 51.  B is bad for fun.
52. 52.  In other words, low-risk activity for high reward is bad for fun.
53. 53.  You need to drive users to challenges at the edge of . (cf Csikszentmihalyi’s .)
54. 54.  Making a wrong choice has to be a . (Even if all it costs you is ).
55. 55.  FUN does not exist where there is Zero C.
56. 56. The absence of any of these features makes things less .
57. 57. ..
58. 58. http://www.theoryoffun.com/grammar/gdc2005.htm