Telepresence for the Teleworkplace: Living-in versus visiting Cyberspace… Making Telepresence a Reality Gordon Bell  (gbel...
 
“ Therapy from long distance debated” - SJ Mercury 5 April 1998 http://www.sjmercury.com/breaking/headline1/056580.htm
In Silicon Valley, the Internet is all  we think about.  Is it just greed??? <ul><li>The internet has created  (redistribu...
Some tele-tales Telepresence (comoho*) Telelearning Teleconferencing Telemeetings “ presence ” Telepresentations Telecolla...
The Space of  Telepresence for work email Formal presentations sans video ... Voice & Videomail Video lectures & courses I...
In a decade we can/will have: <ul><li>More powerful  personal computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processing 10-100x </li></ul...
The evolution of  wireless data standards 0 0.2 0.4 0.8 2.0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Circuit data <9.6kbps HSCSD 57.6...
 
Living in Cyberspace:  the environment for telepresence / telework
Telemeeting clone
Telework clones… being in more than one place at the same time
Intrastructure
SOHO (small office, home office) network computing environment NT  Server for:  comm/network, POTS/IP gateway, file, print...
Libretto, .5mm PCS; Pilot Libretto PS, Ricoh Camera; Swiss Army Knife Compass; altimeter Not shown: ECG; GPS;
Audio, pix, T, P, ECG, location, physiological parameters… 1 GB
Telepresentations: The 2nd killer app?
Telepresentations   “B eing There (e.g. meeting, lecture, confererene)  Without Really Being There (or Then) ” <ul><li>Pre...
 
Motivation: Telepresentations <ul><li>Presenter and/or audience telepresent </li></ul><ul><li>NOT: meeting or collaboratio...
Telepresentation Elements <ul><li>Slides </li></ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Script,  text c...
Telepresentations: The Essentials <ul><li>Slide and audio a must </li></ul><ul><li>Add some video  (low quality)  to make ...
Telepresentations: The Killer App <ul><li>Increased attendance & lower travel costs </li></ul><ul><li>Practical and low-co...
This talk <ul><li>Would you like to pause, rewind, browse? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you wish you could have seen this </li></u...
 
A word about storage… CDs hold 4 “near VHS quality” videos (300 Kbps)
Telepresentation Features <ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality audio and Graphics aka slides </li></ul></u...
Telepresentations will be a well-defined app by 2001. <ul><li>ACM97 was the first telepresented conference with Mbone mult...
Telecollaboration…  The next “killer tele-app”??  Or just a tremendous challenge <ul><li>interacting to achieve a common o...
Perspective <ul><li>Don’t believe in “collaboration” as much as just plain  communication . </li></ul><ul><li>The next kil...
By April 1, 2001 videophones will ship in 50% of the PCs  and be in use.   <ul><li>Gordon Bell vs Jim Gray 1996 (one paper...
Conference Rooms with Teleconferencing
 
Tools for telecollaboration  <ul><li>MOOs and MUDs; Comic Chat, VWorlds </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint:  conference & record...
Telecollaboration <ul><li>Low latency, high bandwidth for interactivity, feeling, nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Channels:  </l...
Telework: It takes screens,  sound, and bandwidth, stupid http://research.microsoft.com/barc/GBell/
Limits of  Computer Supported Collaborative Work -- CSCW <ul><li>We don’t understand collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>We do...
How to Fail at Videoconferencing <ul><li>Lack of ubiquity: it must obey Metcalfe’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>Call set up: hard...
Four steps to video-telephony enabling telemeetings <ul><li>Very low cost IP telephony becomes ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><l...
Gaze-corrected Videoconferencing Jim Gemmell Microsoft Bay Area Research Center
Videoconferencing: not looking into the camera
Not looking at camera: never eye contact
Looking into the camera:  always eye-contact
Head adjustment inspiriation: Moving Mona
More eye contact gets you: <ul><li>More job offers from interviews </li></ul><ul><li>More help when you ask for it </li></...
Perceiving gaze <ul><li>People don’t stare at a fixed point: series of 1/3 sec glances </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact: real...
Majic
½ Silvered-mirror
 
Conclusion <ul><li>Gaze awareness is important to video-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Software-only technique </li></ul><...
Attending Several Simultaneous Meetings
But does anyone want telework?
A People Model:  Who wants to telework? Spock formal (in writing) Self-control informal (verbal) Sally Field Souter  Evang...
The End
Outline <ul><li>Telepresence and Telework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleworking environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhea...
What is Telepresence? <ul><li>Injecting    your presence </li></ul><ul><li>Being  immersed  in the tele-space </li></ul><u...
Telepresence Components <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>Slides, images, web pages </li></ul><ul><l...
Time-shifting beats Space-shifting <ul><li>Gets around scheduling problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s time zones! </li>...
Today’s killer app : Telepresentations <ul><li>Presenter and/or audience telepresent </li></ul><ul><li>Practical and low c...
Next killer app: distributed telemeetings? <ul><li>Compete with the phone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper long distance rat...
Telework = (cyber) work + telepresence  … being there while being here, and at some other time. <ul><li>Goal: teleoffice/t...
Animatron...
Telework &  communications dimensions <ul><li>Who and how many are interacting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature of th...
Telepresence: who and what <ul><li>WHO </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 person-person  communication </li></ul><ul><li>n:m 2-site-sit...
Telepresence  Mechanisms  ( for Work) Synchronous  Internet phone &  phone conferencing Internet Videophone RealAudio &  O...
Voice and Visual Alternatives (in order of increasing B/W) <ul><li>Voice* </li></ul><ul><li>TTS (synthetic or speaker driv...
Active Touch Live Collaboration Architecture Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server...
Active Touch Data Collaboration Services Web Server Multipoint Comm.  Service Chat Presentation Doc Review Web Tour Intera...
Active Touch Administration and Enterprise Integration Directory Service Module Billing & Accounting Database Database Act...
Collaboration Application Server: Criteria <ul><li>Robust, scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Data & Telephony Tight Integration <...
Alternative Computing  Futures Photos courtesy of Microsoft Cinemania <ul><li>Forbidden Planet  (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Problems: socio vs technical <ul><li>Isolation & loneliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need for communication/stimulation </li>...
Good News <ul><li>Bandwidth will come </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video compression is improving to live within POTS limit...
Telepresence: 5, 10, … 50 year goals <ul><li>hold a meeting of type, m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>university or technical cours...
The End
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  • This talk is really about bandwidth. How much do we need and when do we get it?
  • Telework Telepresence for the Teleworkplace:

    1. 1. Telepresence for the Teleworkplace: Living-in versus visiting Cyberspace… Making Telepresence a Reality Gordon Bell (gbell@microsoft.com) Bay Area Research Center Microsoft Research http://www.research.microsoft.com/users/gbell
    2. 3. “ Therapy from long distance debated” - SJ Mercury 5 April 1998 http://www.sjmercury.com/breaking/headline1/056580.htm
    3. 4. In Silicon Valley, the Internet is all we think about. Is it just greed??? <ul><li>The internet has created (redistributing) more wealth than any other phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>$200 B valuation; $2 B sales; -$0.2M return. </li></ul><ul><li>WWW is grossly over-hyped! </li></ul><ul><li>Long run, the hype is likely to be justified. </li></ul><ul><li>USA is <5% of the world population. </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley is <0.01% of this population. </li></ul><ul><li>More people learning English in China than speak it in the rest of the world </li></ul>
    4. 5. Some tele-tales Telepresence (comoho*) Telelearning Teleconferencing Telemeetings “ presence ” Telepresentations Telecollaboration THE WORK: Telework & work Tele-x e.g. telemedicine, Distributed design Administrivia Intrastructure & support CyberAll encoding everybit Millibill: Tele-art, rides, performance, interactive television??? Paperlessness audio eye-tracking gaze avatars Multi-media Media Machine *Commercial, mobile and home office
    5. 6. The Space of Telepresence for work email Formal presentations sans video ... Voice & Videomail Video lectures & courses ICQ, Internet phone & phone conf. RealAudio & simple graphics Workspace for remote program control Whiteboard (groups) ... Videophone Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) person-computer 1:1 personal communication 2 site-site conferencing; n site conferencing 1:p broadcasts computer management distributed groups with >2, 10, <100, view (troll) hallways with “informal” interaction 1: 1 videophone calls for (problem solving, authoring) interviews classes formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..) Mechanisms (how) Synchronous Asynchronous Group Interaction (Who) Type of Work (What) Profession
    6. 7. In a decade we can/will have: <ul><li>More powerful personal computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processing 10-100x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4x resolution (2K x 2K); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very large displays… everywhere… to be ever anywhere telepresent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage of one terabyte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional small e.g. palm, camera, watch “platforms” to hold a plethora of evolving software </li></ul><ul><li>adequate networking???? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ubiquitous access = today’s fast LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility according to standards and plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One chip, networked platforms including light bulbs, cameras everywhere, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>more cyberization… the challenge… interfacing platforms and people. </li></ul>
    7. 8. The evolution of wireless data standards 0 0.2 0.4 0.8 2.0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Circuit data <9.6kbps HSCSD 57.6kbps GPRS 115kbps EDGE 384kbps UMTS 2Mbps 0.1
    8. 10. Living in Cyberspace: the environment for telepresence / telework
    9. 11. Telemeeting clone
    10. 12. Telework clones… being in more than one place at the same time
    11. 13. Intrastructure
    12. 14. SOHO (small office, home office) network computing environment NT Server for: comm/network, POTS/IP gateway, file, print, compute IP Dial tone (Internet, phone, videophone) >1.5 Mbps Phone POTS (legacy services) *NC, NetPC, Xterm, etc. ... LAN PC NC* PC ... Phone Phone
    13. 15. Libretto, .5mm PCS; Pilot Libretto PS, Ricoh Camera; Swiss Army Knife Compass; altimeter Not shown: ECG; GPS;
    14. 16. Audio, pix, T, P, ECG, location, physiological parameters… 1 GB
    15. 17. Telepresentations: The 2nd killer app?
    16. 18. Telepresentations “B eing There (e.g. meeting, lecture, confererene) Without Really Being There (or Then) ” <ul><li>Presenter or audience need not be physically present </li></ul><ul><li>Reach a wider audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have a schedule conflict.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anybody with a web connection can participate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to travel to attend or participate in a presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education & training, corporate communication </li></ul>
    17. 20. Motivation: Telepresentations <ul><li>Presenter and/or audience telepresent </li></ul><ul><li>NOT: meeting or collaboration settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forget the nasty social issues! </li></ul></ul>Mostly one-way
    18. 21. Telepresentation Elements <ul><li>Slides </li></ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Script, text comments, hyperlinks, etc. </li></ul>
    19. 22. Telepresentations: The Essentials <ul><li>Slide and audio a must </li></ul><ul><li>Add some video (low quality) to make us feel good </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and transmission costs low </li></ul>
    20. 23. Telepresentations: The Killer App <ul><li>Increased attendance & lower travel costs </li></ul><ul><li>Practical and low-cost NOW </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ACM97 - 2,000 visitors in real space, 20,000 visitors on Internet http://research.microsoft.com/acm97 </li></ul>
    21. 24. This talk <ul><li>Would you like to pause, rewind, browse? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you wish you could have seen this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At home? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At another time? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much does a present speaker add? How much would you pay for real presence? </li></ul>
    22. 26. A word about storage… CDs hold 4 “near VHS quality” videos (300 Kbps)
    23. 27. Telepresentation Features <ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality audio and Graphics aka slides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some essence of the presenter - even a few still images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video of the presenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul></ul>
    24. 28. Telepresentations will be a well-defined app by 2001. <ul><li>ACM97 was the first telepresented conference with Mbone multicast & servers that host the conference cf. http://www.research.microsoft.com/acm97 </li></ul><ul><li>Bet: More people will view the conference from Cyberspace than that attended it. </li></ul><ul><li>Big question: will telepresentation technology AKA tele-learning affect learning and education? </li></ul>
    25. 29. Telecollaboration… The next “killer tele-app”?? Or just a tremendous challenge <ul><li>interacting to achieve a common objective … basically, its communications enabling or disabling people </li></ul>
    26. 30. Perspective <ul><li>Don’t believe in “collaboration” as much as just plain communication . </li></ul><ul><li>The next killer app is tele-meetings AKA “videoconferencing” </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in desktop 1:1 up to 1:6 (larger numbers turns into presentations with floor control) </li></ul>
    27. 31. By April 1, 2001 videophones will ship in 50% of the PCs and be in use. <ul><li>Gordon Bell vs Jim Gray 1996 (one paper, loser gets fed) </li></ul>“ ”
    28. 32. Conference Rooms with Teleconferencing
    29. 34. Tools for telecollaboration <ul><li>MOOs and MUDs; Comic Chat, VWorlds </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint: conference & record, </li></ul><ul><li>Precept: mbone multicasting & UNIX toolset </li></ul><ul><li>NetShow: Live & On demand video 28.8 - 300 K </li></ul><ul><li>ICQ -- serendipity & instant communication </li></ul><ul><li>CuSeeMe: audio, video, whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>NetMeeting: audio, 2 way video, chat, whiteboard, program sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Placeware for large scale meetings, presentations, and collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude MeetingPlace phone & data conference </li></ul><ul><li>Active Touch web phone & data conference </li></ul>
    30. 35. Telecollaboration <ul><li>Low latency, high bandwidth for interactivity, feeling, nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Channels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speech (including spatialization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “work” I.e. document, diagram, program, presentation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video output: forces attendance and holds attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video input: “state” of the receiver cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whiteboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chat channels </li></ul></ul>
    31. 36. Telework: It takes screens, sound, and bandwidth, stupid http://research.microsoft.com/barc/GBell/
    32. 37. Limits of Computer Supported Collaborative Work -- CSCW <ul><li>We don’t understand collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>We do it for limited domains e.g. chip design, some software, 777s if task is partitionable </li></ul><ul><li>“ One person has the mouse” problem </li></ul><ul><li>Camera is important NOT for communication, but and to keep & force (hold) attention plus communicating a few cues (did they “get it”), </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing & single threading of tasks… a better model of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Limited task parallelism e.g. presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Brook’s Law matters! </li></ul>
    33. 38. How to Fail at Videoconferencing <ul><li>Lack of ubiquity: it must obey Metcalfe’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>Call set up: hard, time-consuming, requires training </li></ul><ul><li>Small screens, lack of spatiality, destroy visual cues </li></ul><ul><li>No gaze awareness, limit screen area; only 2-D figures or avatars </li></ul><ul><li>Audio: high latency and poor quality </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to overcome the adequacy of the phone: ubiquitous, no manuals or training, low latency, ok audio. </li></ul><ul><li>The targets: audio quality, 3-D in every sense, and gaze awareness </li></ul>
    34. 39. Four steps to video-telephony enabling telemeetings <ul><li>Very low cost IP telephony becomes ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Evolve audio to provide spatial awareness aka stereo, quad, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Make recording easy to do that will enable meeting persistence and minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Add multi-party </li></ul>
    35. 40. Gaze-corrected Videoconferencing Jim Gemmell Microsoft Bay Area Research Center
    36. 41. Videoconferencing: not looking into the camera
    37. 42. Not looking at camera: never eye contact
    38. 43. Looking into the camera: always eye-contact
    39. 44. Head adjustment inspiriation: Moving Mona
    40. 45. More eye contact gets you: <ul><li>More job offers from interviews </li></ul><ul><li>More help when you ask for it </li></ul><ul><li>More powers of pursuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Make you seem more: friendly, self-confident, natural, mature, sincere </li></ul>
    41. 46. Perceiving gaze <ul><li>People don’t stare at a fixed point: series of 1/3 sec glances </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact: really look all around face, esp. eyes and mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact is anything around the face. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly determined from eyes/nose </li></ul>
    42. 47. Majic
    43. 48. ½ Silvered-mirror
    44. 50. Conclusion <ul><li>Gaze awareness is important to video-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Software-only technique </li></ul><ul><li>Vision: more work to make it robust, faster </li></ul><ul><li>Explore use of space with multi-party conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Great audio </li></ul>
    45. 51. Attending Several Simultaneous Meetings
    46. 52. But does anyone want telework?
    47. 53. A People Model: Who wants to telework? Spock formal (in writing) Self-control informal (verbal) Sally Field Souter Evangelism Swaggert Analyticals .. being right, detailed anal retentives Drivers … results oriented megalomaniacs Amiables … consensus builders spineless wimps Expressives ... want recognition, need contact psychotics Managing Interpersonal Relationships (MIR) 2D Model --------------chat---------------- email broadcast- push Intensity
    48. 54. The End
    49. 55. Outline <ul><li>Telepresence and Telework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleworking environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead: Support & Administrivia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “work” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telepresence dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Telepresentations: the 2nd killer app! </li></ul><ul><li>Telecollaboration: killer app to come? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The work” </li></ul><ul><li>Is it for everyone? </li></ul>
    50. 56. What is Telepresence? <ul><li>Injecting your presence </li></ul><ul><li>Being immersed in the tele-space </li></ul><ul><li>Being there without really being there or then </li></ul>into tele-space
    51. 57. Telepresence Components <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>Slides, images, web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Text chat </li></ul><ul><li>Shared applications </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Voting, question taking </li></ul>
    52. 58. Time-shifting beats Space-shifting <ul><li>Gets around scheduling problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s time zones! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting requires STORAGE !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Lets me pause, rewind, browse, play at faster speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Immortality </li></ul>
    53. 59. Today’s killer app : Telepresentations <ul><li>Presenter and/or audience telepresent </li></ul><ul><li>Practical and low cost now </li></ul><ul><li>One-way mostly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not meeting or collaboration settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forget the network latencies and messy social issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slides and audio get you 99% and are bandwidth cheap </li></ul>
    54. 60. Next killer app: distributed telemeetings? <ul><li>Compete with the phone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper long distance rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher audio quality - e.g. surround sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why not record everything too ? </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-party with rendezvous setup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just audio: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shared documents, applications, video, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 61. Telework = (cyber) work + telepresence … being there while being here, and at some other time. <ul><li>Goal: teleoffice/teleworkplace = workplace office </li></ul><ul><li>The teleworkplace is ideally just a “remote office” W/O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication, computer, and network support! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team interactions for work! CSCW is a “rat hole”! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction at coffee, meeting rooms, … in offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative support for phones, information (especially paper) management, keeping track of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always on & always connected to intranet/intranet ...! </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication aka phone & email -- the first, “killer apps” </li></ul><ul><li>Telepresentations -- the 2nd “killer app” </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-collaboration -- the “killer app” to come </li></ul>
    56. 62. Animatron...
    57. 63. Telework & communications dimensions <ul><li>Who and how many are interacting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature of the interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Which professions? </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms: How are they interacting? </li></ul>
    58. 64. Telepresence: who and what <ul><li>WHO </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 person-person communication </li></ul><ul><li>n:m 2-site-site video conference </li></ul><ul><li>1:n-site broadcasting or Mbone narrowcasting </li></ul><ul><li>distributed group. >2 - 5 - 10 - 100 </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>person-computer </li></ul><ul><li>computer management (no persons) </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>view (troll) hallways, “seeking interaction” </li></ul><ul><li>1:1 interview, status report, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>1-6 videophone calls for (design, problem solving, authoring) </li></ul><ul><li>hold staff meetings with 1 or more members distributed </li></ul><ul><li>attend classes </li></ul><ul><li>formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..) </li></ul>
    59. 65. Telepresence Mechanisms ( for Work) Synchronous Internet phone & phone conferencing Internet Videophone RealAudio & Overhead graphics Shared applications Whiteboards CU SeeMe on POTS… IP Videophone Mbone Video conferencing Room Video conferencing Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) Asynchronous voice mail…STT email ... TTS Home pages replace bulletin boards, file transport, and document distribution Schedule & “Notes” Voice and Video “email” Telepresentations (meetings, presentations, & courses)
    60. 66. Voice and Visual Alternatives (in order of increasing B/W) <ul><li>Voice* </li></ul><ul><li>TTS (synthetic or speaker driven) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Kb-64 Kb codec of real voice </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo of real voice </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo with sound source identification </li></ul><ul><li>Projection into arbitrary virtual world environment </li></ul><ul><li>*variable speed </li></ul><ul><li>Visual AKA Video* </li></ul><ul><li>Text avatar (simple… photo) </li></ul><ul><li>Avatar with voice sync </li></ul><ul><li>Avatar of real person </li></ul><ul><li>Video codec based projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Postage stamp” … POTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mailing label” … ISDN or 2x POTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed VHS (200 Kbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG 2 (1- 4 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaker tracking, 1-n cameras </li></ul><ul><li>VR image of a large space </li></ul><ul><li>3d images “holodeck” </li></ul><ul><li>Animatron e.g. Barney </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Animatron </li></ul><ul><li>*Meeting in real or virtual world </li></ul>
    61. 67. Active Touch Live Collaboration Architecture Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server CTI Server CTI Server Collaboration Clustering Server
    62. 68. Active Touch Data Collaboration Services Web Server Multipoint Comm. Service Chat Presentation Doc Review Web Tour Interactive Forms Application Viewing Application Sharing Launch NetMeeting Desktop Sharing Conf. Control TCP/IP HTTP To CTI Servers Data Collaboration Server
    63. 69. Active Touch Administration and Enterprise Integration Directory Service Module Billing & Accounting Database Database Active Directory Service (LDAP) Object Storage Enterprise Data Repository Security Module Archive Module Public Key Infrastructure Database Third Party Repository Admin and EI
    64. 70. Collaboration Application Server: Criteria <ul><li>Robust, scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Data & Telephony Tight Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Web Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Easy-To-Use </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Open Standards (HTTP, TSAPI, LDAP, T.120, Encryption) </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Application Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>High Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Customizable </li></ul>
    65. 71. Alternative Computing Futures Photos courtesy of Microsoft Cinemania <ul><li>Forbidden Planet (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolis (1926) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 (1968) </li></ul>
    66. 72. Problems: socio vs technical <ul><li>Isolation & loneliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need for communication/stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chance meetings -- serendipity of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of group/teamwork skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>danger of becoming “terminal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>interruptions & focus </li></ul><ul><li>lack of support staff to help, answer ?s </li></ul><ul><li>supervision and ability to have 1:1 </li></ul><ul><li>unclear that many people want it… they simply need the contact with people </li></ul>
    67. 73. Good News <ul><li>Bandwidth will come </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video compression is improving to live within POTS limit </li></ul><ul><li>Videophones will be built-into all PCs within 5 years at 0 cost </li></ul><ul><li>Telepresentations are here for “live” and “on demand” use This will change education! </li></ul><ul><li>Telecollaboration tools work for simple apps… and will improve </li></ul>
    68. 74. Telepresence: 5, 10, … 50 year goals <ul><li>hold a meeting of type, m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>university or technical course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interview, staff meeting, co-ordination, board meeting, annual meeting, “town hall”, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with p, distributed persons </li></ul><ul><li>with as much interactivity, I, and feeling, f </li></ul><ul><li>such that people prefer being telepresent; and </li></ul><ul><li>meetings are provably more productive </li></ul><ul><li>meetings will evolve to be asynchronous versus traditional synchronous enabling full time-shifting so that people can be in two places at the same time </li></ul>
    69. 75. The End
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