Telework Telepresence for the Teleworkplace:

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  • This talk is really about bandwidth. How much do we need and when do we get it?

Transcript

  • 1. Telepresence for the Teleworkplace: Living-in versus visiting Cyberspace… Making Telepresence a Reality Gordon Bell (gbell@microsoft.com) Bay Area Research Center Microsoft Research http://www.research.microsoft.com/barc/gbell
  • 2. Outline
    • Telepresence and Telework
      • Teleworking environment
      • Overhead: Support & Administrivia
      • The “work”
    • Telepresence dimensions
    • Telepresentations: the 2nd killer app!
    • Telecollaboration: killer app to come?
    • “ The work”
    • Is it for everyone?
  • 3. “ Therapy from long distance debated” - SJ Mercury 5 April 1998 http://www.sjmercury.com/breaking/headline1/056580.htm
  • 4. What is Telepresence?
    • Injecting your presence
    • Being immersed in the tele-space
    • Being there without really being there or then
    into tele-space
  • 5. Telepresence Components
    • Video
    • Audio
    • Slides, images, web pages
    • Text chat
    • Shared applications
    • Whiteboards
    • Voting, question taking
  • 6. Time-shifting beats Space-shifting
    • Gets around scheduling problems
      • World’s time zones!
    • Time-shifting requires STORAGE !!!
    • Lets me pause, rewind, browse, play at faster speeds
    • Immortality
  • 7. Today’s killer app : Telepresentations
    • Presenter and/or audience telepresent
    • Practical and low cost now
    • One-way mostly
      • Not meeting or collaboration settings
      • forget the network latencies and messy social issues
    • Slides and audio get you 99% and are bandwidth cheap
  • 8. Tomorrow’s killer app :
    • Compete with the phone:
      • Cheaper long distance rates
      • Higher audio quality - e.g. surround sound
    • Why not record everything too ?
    • Features:
      • multi-party with rendezvous setup
      • Not just audio:
        • shared documents, applications, video, etc
    Telemeetings
  • 9. Telework = (cyber) work + telepresence … being there while being here, and at some other time.
    • Goal: teleoffice/teleworkplace = workplace office
    • The teleworkplace is ideally just a “remote office” W/O
      • Communication, computer, and network support!
      • Team interactions for work! CSCW is a “rat hole”!
      • Interaction at coffee, meeting rooms, … in offices
      • Administrative support for phones, information (especially paper) management, keeping track of
    • Always on & always connected to intranet/intranet ...!
    • Telecommunication aka phone & email -- the first, “killer apps”
    • Telepresentations -- the 2nd “killer app”
    • Tele-collaboration -- the “killer app” to come
  • 10. Videotaped Lectures convert to Video On Demand for Telepresentations
  • 11. Telecommuting versus time
  • 12. Teleworking CW 9/1/97
    • 15% 2 yr increase, 11 Mpeople, avg. 19 Hr/wk
    • 42% of US Co’s; 22% have policies (screening, worker expectations, liability, IP protection, etc.
    • Are telecommuters more productive?
      • 30% yes
      • 50% same
      • 4% no
      • 16% don’t know
    • Are telecommuters more accessible?
      • 13% yes
      • 40% same
      • 40% no
      • 7% don’t know
  • 13. Living in Cyberspace: the environment for telepresence / telework
  • 14. SOHO (small office, home office) network computing environment NT Server for: comm/network, POTS/IP gateway, file, print, compute IP Dial tone (Internet, phone, videophone) >1.5 Mbps Phone POTS (legacy services) *NC, NetPC, Xterm, etc. ... LAN PC NC* PC ... Phone Phone
  • 15. Intrastructure
  • 16. Tecra & Libretto Replacement… at 3#
  • 17. A Teleworkplace
  • 18. A Whiteboard
  • 19. SOHO AKA COMOHO Teleworking Environment or is it? Guardian Angel: intercom, records what we read, see, and hear… protects us from ourselves and others
  • 20. Libretto, .5mm PCS; Pilot Libretto PS, Ricoh Camera; Swiss Army Knife Compass; altimeter Not shown: ECG; GPS;
  • 21. Audio, pix, T, P, ECG, location, physiological parameters… 1 GB
  • 22. Conference Rooms with Teleconferencing
  • 23.  
  • 24. Telemeeting clone
  • 25. Telework clones… being in more than one place at the same time
  • 26. Animatron...
  • 27. Telework & communications dimensions
    • Who and how many are interacting?
    • What is the nature of the interaction?
    • Which professions?
    • Mechanisms: How are they interacting?
  • 28. The Space of Telepresence for work email Formal presentations sans video ... Voice & Videomail Video lectures & courses ICQ, Internet phone & phone conf. RealAudio & simple graphics Workspace for remote program control Whiteboard (groups) ... Videophone Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) person-computer 1:1 personal communication 2 site-site conferencing; n site conferencing 1:p broadcasts computer management distributed groups with >2, 10, <100, view (troll) hallways with “informal” interaction 1: 1 videophone calls for (problem solving, authoring) interviews classes formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..) Mechanisms (how) Synchronous Asynchronous Group Interaction (Who) Type of Work (What) Profession
  • 29. Telepresence: who and what
    • WHO
    • 1:1 person-person communication
    • n:m 2-site-site video conference
    • 1:n-site broadcasting or Mbone narrowcasting
    • distributed group. >2 - 5 - 10 - 100
    • ----
    • person-computer
    • computer management (no persons)
    • What
    • view (troll) hallways, “seeking interaction”
    • 1:1 interview, status report, etc.
    • 1-6 videophone calls for (design, problem solving, authoring)
    • hold staff meetings with 1 or more members distributed
    • attend classes
    • formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..)
  • 30. Telepresence Mechanisms ( for Work) Synchronous Internet phone & phone conferencing Internet Videophone RealAudio & Overhead graphics Shared applications Whiteboards CU SeeMe on POTS… IP Videophone Mbone Video conferencing Room Video conferencing Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) Asynchronous voice mail…STT email ... TTS Home pages replace bulletin boards, file transport, and document distribution Schedule & “Notes” Voice and Video “email” Telepresentations (meetings, presentations, & courses)
  • 31. Voice and Visual Alternatives (in order of increasing B/W)
    • Voice*
    • TTS (synthetic or speaker driven)
    • 4 Kb-64 Kb codec of real voice
    • Stereo of real voice
    • Stereo with sound source identification
    • Projection into arbitrary virtual world environment
    • *variable speed
    • Visual AKA Video*
    • Text avatar (simple… photo)
    • Avatar with voice sync
    • Avatar of real person
    • Video codec based projection
      • “ Postage stamp” … POTS
      • “ Mailing label” … ISDN or 2x POTS
      • Compressed VHS (200 Kbps)
      • MPEG 2 (1- 4 Mbps)
    • Speaker tracking, 1-n cameras
    • VR image of a large space
    • 3d images “holodeck”
    • Animatron e.g. Barney
    • Mobile Animatron
    • *Meeting in real or virtual world
  • 32. Telepresentations: The 2nd killer app?
  • 33. Telepresentations “B eing There (e.g. meeting, lecture, confererene) Without Really Being There (or Then) ”
    • Presenter or audience need not be physically present
    • Reach a wider audience
      • “ I have a schedule conflict.”
      • Anybody with a web connection can participate
    • Reduce costs
      • No need to travel to attend or participate in a presentation
    • Education & training, corporate communication
  • 34.  
  • 35. Motivation: Telepresentations
    • Presenter and/or audience telepresent
    • NOT: meeting or collaboration settings
      • Forget the nasty social issues!
    Mostly one-way
  • 36. Telepresentation Elements
    • Slides
    • Audio
    • Video
    • Script, text comments, hyperlinks, etc.
  • 37. Telepresentations: The Essentials
    • Slide and audio a must
    • Add some video (low quality) to make us feel good
    • Storage and transmission costs low
  • 38. Telepresentations: The Killer App
    • Increased attendance & lower travel costs
    • Practical and low-cost NOW
    • e.g. ACM97 - 2,000 visitors in real space, 20,000 visitors on Internet http://research.microsoft.com/acm97
  • 39. This talk
    • Would you like to pause, rewind, browse?
    • Do you wish you could have seen this
      • At home?
      • At another time?
    • How much does a present speaker add? How much would you pay for real presence?
  • 40.  
  • 41. About storage: one CD holds four, “near VHS quality” hours of video
  • 42. Telepresentation Structure
  • 43. Telepresentation Features
    • Essential
      • High quality audio and Graphics aka slides
    • Important
      • Some essence of the presenter - even a few still images
    • Non-Essential
      • Video of the presenter
      • Two-way communication
  • 44. Telepresentations will be a well-defined app by 2001.
    • ACM97 was the first telepresented conference with Mbone multicast & servers that host the conference cf. http://www.research.microsoft.com/acm97
    • Bet: More people will view the conference from Cyberspace than that attended it.
    • Big question: will telepresentation technology AKA tele-learning affect learning and education?
  • 45. Telecollaboration: The next “killer app”
    • interacting to achieve a common objective … basically, its communications enabling or disabling people
  • 46. Tools for telecollaboration
    • Powerpoint: conference & record, Precept: mbone multicasting
    • NetShow: On demand viewing of video 28.8 - 100 Kb
    • CuSeeMe: audio, video, whiteboard
    • NetMeeting: audio, 2 way video, chat, whiteboard, program sharing
    • Placeware for large scale meetings, presentations, and collaborations
    • Latitude MeetingPlace phone & data conference
    • Active Touch web-based phone & data conference
  • 47. Active Touch Live Collaboration Architecture Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server CTI Server CTI Server Collaboration Clustering Server
  • 48. Active Touch Data Collaboration Services Web Server Multipoint Comm. Service Chat Presentation Doc Review Web Tour Interactive Forms Application Viewing Application Sharing Launch NetMeeting Desktop Sharing Conf. Control TCP/IP HTTP To CTI Servers Data Collaboration Server
  • 49. Active Touch Administration and Enterprise Integration Directory Service Module Billing & Accounting Database Database Active Directory Service (LDAP) Object Storage Enterprise Data Repository Security Module Archive Module Public Key Infrastructure Database Third Party Repository Admin and EI
  • 50. Collaboration Application Server: Criteria
    • Robust, scalable
    • Data & Telephony Tight Integration
    • Web Integration
    • Easy-To-Use
    • Security
    • Open Standards (HTTP, TSAPI, LDAP, T.120, Encryption)
    • Enterprise Application Integration
    • Performance
    • High Availability
    • Customizable
  • 51. Telecollaboration
    • Low latency, high bandwidth for interactivity, feeling, nuances
    • Channels:
      • speech (including spatialization)
      • the “work” I.e. document, diagram, program, presentation, etc.
      • video output: forces attendance and holds attention
      • video input: “state” of the receiver cues
      • whiteboard
      • chat channels
  • 52. Telework: It takes screens, sound, and bandwidth, stupid http://research.microsoft.com/barc/GBell/
  • 53. By April 1, 2001 videophones will ship in 50% of the PCs and be in use.
    • Gordon Bell vs Jim Gray 1996 (one paper, loser gets fed)
    “ ”
  • 54. How to fail at video-telephony
    • Have just a few video-telephones… defy Metcalfe’s Law
    • Have audio latency
    • Make calling more difficult and time-consuming than placing a phone call
    • Eliminate gaze awareness and eye contact
  • 55. How to fail at video-conferencing
    • Break the video-telephony rules
    • Stick with poor mono audio and don’t provide stereo
    • Make the images very small so that users can’t see the other participants
    • Destroy any sense of spatial positioning
  • 56. Four steps to video-telephony enabling telemeetings
    • Very low cost IP telephony becomes ubiquitous
    • Evolve audio to provide spatial awareness aka stereo, quad, etc.
    • Make recording easy to do
    • Add multi-party
  • 57. Limits of Computer Supported Collaborative Work -- CSCW
    • We don’t understand collaboration
    • We do it for design of chips, software, 777s
    • “ One person has the mouse” problem
    • Camera is important NOT for comm. channel, but for signals from attendees (did they “get it”), and to keep & force attendee attention
    • Parallel processing and single threading of tasks
    • Limited parallelism for the job
    • Brook’s Law matters!
  • 58. Attending Several Simultaneous Meetings
  • 59. Alternative Computing Futures Photos courtesy of Microsoft Cinemania
    • Forbidden Planet (1956)
    • Metropolis (1926)
    • 2001 (1968)
  • 60. But does anyone want telework?
  • 61. A People Model: Who wants to telework? Spock formal (in writing) Self-control informal (verbal) Sally Field Souter Evangelism Swaggert Analyticals .. being right, detailed anal retentives Drivers … results oriented megalomaniacs Amiables … consensus builders spineless wimps Expressives ... want recognition, need contact psychotics Managing Interpersonal Relationships (MIR) 2D Model --------------chat---------------- email broadcast- push Intensity
  • 62. Problems: socio vs technical
    • Isolation & loneliness
      • need for communication/stimulation
      • chance meetings -- serendipity of ideas
      • loss of group/teamwork skills
      • danger of becoming “terminal”
    • interruptions & focus
    • lack of support staff to help, answer ?s
    • supervision and ability to have 1:1
    • unclear that many people want it… they simply need the contact with people
  • 63. Good News
    • Bandwidth will come
    • Audio and video compression is improving to live within POTS limit
    • Videophones will be built-into all PCs within 5 years at 0 cost
    • Telepresentations are here for “live” and “on demand” use This will change education!
    • Telecollaboration tools work for simple apps… and will improve
  • 64. Telepresence: 5, 10, … 50 year goals
    • hold a meeting of type, m
      • university or technical course
      • interview, staff meeting, co-ordination, board meeting, annual meeting, “town hall”,
    • with p, distributed persons
    • with as much interactivity, I, and feeling, f
    • such that people prefer being telepresent; and
    • meetings are provably more productive
    • meetings will evolve to be asynchronous versus traditional synchronous enabling full time-shifting so that people can be in two places at the same time
  • 65. The End
  • 66. Time and Motion Study
    • Where does all the time go?
    • Can anything be parallelized?
    • Is there an app to help?
      • Will the gain be worth the pain?
    • What is likely to be a fruitless and/or over- worked area e.g. tele-collaboration?
  • 67. Time and motion of teleworker (me) context & “doing”
    • Context
    • Microsoft
    • Families
      • Wife
      • Friend
      • Children & grandchildren
      • TCM
    • GB Corp
      • Startup
      • Consultant-at-large
    • Doing
    • sleeping, feeding, traveling
    • goofing-off, social interacting, vacationing
    • supporting infrastructure
    • administriving
    • grazing, learning
    • communicating
    • WORKING?*
    * building, deciding, interacting, presenting, problem-solving, testing, thinking, writing…
  • 68. Group Structure of Interaction
    • solo
    • pair
    • small productive group of 3-6
    • group gropes, edutainment, formal meetings 10-100
    • whole organization or organization-at-large
    • world
  • 69. Administrivia: paper and phones
  • 70. Administrivia, paper and phone coexistence
    • With no administrative support, we are our own administrative assistants, secretaries, and gofers.
    • Forms and travel arrangements
    • Calendar management
    • Paper handling and its database
      • Identification, input, indexing, and interface
      • Interface to message management database
    • Message management database
      • email, voicemail, fax, contacts, calendar
      • phone and videophone must be “on line”
    • Personal database S management are a major time sink
  • 71. Coexisting with Paper
    • Paper disappears as transmission & storage media, but not for portability & screen dump
    • Goals of “automating” paper:
      • No more time-consuming than discarding it
      • Input, Identify, OCR, Index, save, and retrieve in every possible context
      • Biz cards, fax, reports, brochures, ...photos
      • Give things back in context
      • Totally eliminate the need for copiers
      • Interface: unobtrusive and humane
    • Success is measured by elimination of FILING Cabinets!!
  • 72. What paper must we handle?
    • letters (diminishing, given email)
    • forms that require signatures, often via fax
    • clipped articles e.g. graphs, journals, misc. book pages
    • technical reports that need to be OCR'd with figs
    • copies of documents e.g. stocks, signature pages, and licenses. Originals are stored elsewhere.
    • small, non-critical document e.g. insurance policies, receipts, warrantees
    • large documents that are OCR’d e.g. contracts. Original storage may be kept somewhere else.
    • scraps of paper e.g. receipts, checks, bills …must be legal images
    • business cards that go into an electronic address book
    • photographs and slides. legacy acetate presentations?
    • 700 page text image requires 50 Mbytes, at a cost of $5. A 5 GB disk holds 100 books., or 1000 bbif encoded!
  • 73. Coexisting with the telephone
    • Overall integration with the computer
    • Answering machine, recorder, and transcriber
    • And database with transcription, keywords, and voice
    • “Wildfire” it … finds me
    • ICQ capability for both computer and phone
  • 74. Capturing, storing and retreiving everything we’ve ever: heard (said), seen (presented), and read (written)
  • 75. Memex
  • 76. Storing all we’ve read, heard, & seen Human data-types /hr /day (/4yr) /lifetime read text, few pictures 200 K 2 -10 M/G 60-300 G speech text @120wpm 43 K 0.5 M/G 15 G speech @1KBps 3.6 M 40 M/G 1.2 T stills w/voice @100KB 200 K 2 M/G 60 G video-like 50Kb/s POTS 22 M .25 G/T 25 T video 200Kb/s VHS-lite 90 M 1 G/T 100 T video 4.3Mb/s HDTV/DVD 1.8 G 20 G/T 1 P
  • 77. Storage and data-rate requirements for common office data-types Documents image compressed #/GB page or fax 100 K 4K 10K;250K business card 5 K 500 200K;2M snapshot 3 M 100 K 10,000 350 page book 25 M 1-2 M 40;750 Human data-types /hr /day /lifetime read text, few pictures 200 K 2 -10 M 60-300 G speech text @120wpm 43 K 0.5 M 15 G speech @1KBps 3.6 M 40 M 1.2 T Video comp. 50KbPOTS 22 M .25 G 25 T video comp. 200Kb VHS 90 M 1 G 100 T video comp. 4.3Mb DVD 1.8 G 20 G 1 P
  • 78. Telepresence for work: requirements
    • Telepresence = space and time shifting
    • Goal: teleoffice/teleworkplace = workplace office
    • Limited space, bandwidth, administrative and computer support infrastructure, AND interaction
    • Need: run all office and professional apps, support computing environment, and be always connected
    • New app opportunities: telepresentations (e.g. NetShow, Powerpoint conferencing);
    • Web is the greatest library ever created
    • Create “presence” for collaboration by apps sharing (e.g. NetMeeting, Placeware)
    • Administrative support including paper handling !
    • Short term bets: large disks (e.g 20GB), more displays, videophones, cameras, scanners, bandwidth limits
  • 79. Telework & telepresence: a forcing function into several areas...
    • Home Network
    • Network connection is always on … and at high speed
    • Support (at reasonable cost) for all apps… -- the teleworker = system admin
    • Office work… e.g. paperlessness, message mgm’t “recording all we read, write, hear, and see” -- the teleworker = admin. assistant aka secretary
    • Telepresence… attending meetings and lectures, taking courses, etc. without travel
    • Collaboration on a work project without travel
  • 80. Why telepresence now?
  • 81. It’s the near-term platforms, stupid! (multimedia is finally happening)
    • Text & 2D graphics >> images, voice, & video
    • The WEB: being anywhere and doing anything
    • Disk sizes and cost c1998
      • $50-100 / GB
      • 4 GB standard; CD-R; and 20-40 GB MO R/W
    • The videophone will emerge for distributed conferences
    • Document, picture, and video capture and compression
      • 10,000 to 250,000 pages / GB; 10,000 pictures / GB
      • 40-400 books / GB or $0.25-2.50 / book
      • Plethora of … CAMERAS EVERYWHERE!
      • More Screens. We need at least two!
    • Voice and video compression*
      • 250 hours / GB voice
      • Stamp size-VHS: 12-50 hours / GB;
    • Audio: Surround sound that is part of V-places
  • 82. Telework: Summary
    • The web is the enabler. We still lack B/W.
    • Technology is coming, research lags in handling
      • Storage of all text, audio, and useful video
      • Videophones, cameras, netPCs, WebTV, etc.
      • More pixels we require to increase “presence”
      • Adequate audio… the “killer” component
    • A big part of telework is just office productivity
      • Coexistence with computer, paper, telephone,
      • Data-types require a multimedia database
      • Computer and network management is a real “time killer”
    • CSCW is a rathole. We don’t understand CW
      • The killer apps are simple: telepresentations and shared apps
    • Being connected all the time is essential