Virtualization, ultimately, is a buzzword like any other. It expresses an idea, initially new to us and when it catches on you suddenly find a flock of people using it to explain what they do. Sometimes they are extending a concept, sometimes applying the concept in a new way, sometimes just trying to catch a wave. Tonight, I am going to talk about what I call the five worlds of virtualization that we see today. The purpose of the talk is to put all of the things you see here on the screen into perspective; to dive just a little bit deep into many of these. Because of the audience, and your backgrounds and familiarities with some of these, I’ll give them a bit of short sift and give more time to the topics you are less likely to hear from other speakers here. NEXT: CENTRALIZATION TREND
This chart comes from a presentation I did last year to a customer (let’s call them a chip manufacturer) regarding a view of the evolution of computing architectures. [CLICK] It depicts the progression of computing architectures as arrayed against two viewpoints – both of which are viewpoints as seen from the standpoint of IT professionals such as yourselves. The vertical access depicts a sense of centralization versus decentralization of control. So if we look at mainframe computing, we see it low on the graph because only a few people were allowed to even touch the machine. The horizontal axis represents decentralization of the processing power. As Moore’s Law took effect we could afford to put more processing further from the data center. To make a long story short, the PC, located in the upper right quadrant was a major distinct step in the process. The PC entered companies not through the IT and the loading dock, but through the front door, often bought on retail and not controlled by IT in any way. And roughly speaking, ever since we have been coming up with ingenious ways to regain centralization of control ever since. And the worlds of virtualization I am talking about here today is every bit about that struggle. How can we best utilize the incredible processing power we own today and economically control and manage it? It’s all about getting ourselves lower on this chart. The additional challenge, not depicted on this chart, that I wish to talk about tonight is also the impact on the users, and how these choices impact their “computing experience”.
So let’s start going through these five worlds. Now in reality, server virtualization has nothing to do with that last chart. After all, server virtualization is all about consolidation of underutilized servers. Today, server utilization measures at 10 to 15 percent at many companies. Lots of servers are now running, typically on older hardware, and receive very little use. But they are dedicated to a specific purpose and that purpose has not completely gone away. At a recent talk, the head of Microsoft’s Data Centers, Debra Chrapaty, said they are measuring a 19% utilization rate today, and that by increasing that to 40% they could save $2B by 2011. Those savings would come from both a reduction in the number of new hardware boxes deployed for servers (10,000 / month currently) and the costs of power, cooling, and data center space. But this is a technical talk so how does server virtualization work? Basically it is a simple process of encapsulating all of the software – OS, applications, and data. We encapsulate to separate the hardware from the OS. We call this state separation . We present to this OS a virtual hardware platform, one that is independent of the actual underlying hardware. This allows us to cleanly run an OS image that was installed on an IBM server on a HP or Dell platform. It also allows us to run multiple OSs on the same hardware simultaneously – enabling consolidation of underutilized servers.
You folks are familiar with the differences in architectural implementation between the major vendors here. Microsoft VS/VPC VMWare ESX Para/HW IVT Technology is as important of hardware advance to the software guys as Virtual Memory was in the 386.
Desktop Virtualization is technically the same process as server virtualization. True “desktop virtualization” products are really intended to just host an additional OS (or two), and do not have the ability to scale as well. As a result, many of my colleges run server virtualization products on their desktops for the purpose of desktop virtualization but with a greater scalability. Relate to “Hosted Model” previously. Could be done by hypervisor…
Source: Bernhard Tritsch/Logon Consultants [Click1] display resolution in software [Click2] display differencing in drivers Don’t forget: Other sub-channel stuff happens too
4 Clicks Load balance Personal / shared images
Ardence 2 Clicks
Source: Ron Oglesby/RapidApp Offshoot of Diskless Client Ardence Disk Differencing (Security)
Source: Ron Oglesby/RapidApp App Compatibility No installation
Closing: Users / Perceived Performance
1. Five Worlds, One Red-hot Term Tim Mangan Kahuna, TMurgent Technologies MVP for Virtualization (SoftGrid)
2. Five Worlds of Virtualization <ul><li>Server Virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>“ Presentation Virtualization” </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Desktop Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Application Virtualization </li></ul>
3. Computing Architectures Main-frame Work Group Departmental Client/Server Personal Computer File Server Intranet WWW Internet Thin Client-server Based Computing Grid Hosted Apps VDI Hosted Client
4. Server Virtualization <ul><li>Encapsulate OS and present “virtual hardware” </li></ul><ul><li>Run many OS on single hardware platform </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate underutilized servers </li></ul><ul><li>VMware, Microsoft, Citrix (Xen) </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Differences </li></ul>
5. Virtual Machine Architectures Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine C Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications virtualized hardware virtual abstraction layer software Host Operating System Applications & drivers Host Hardware Hosted implementations Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine C Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications virtualized hardware Control Partition OS and Management Applications virtual abstraction layer software Lightweight Virtual Operating System & drivers Host Hardware VMware ESX Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine C Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications Guest OS Services and Applications Primary Partition OS and Management Applications & drivers Hypervisor Host Hardware (with VMM support) Hypervisor implementations
6. Desktop Virtualization <ul><li>Encapsulate OS and present “virtual hardware” </li></ul><ul><li>Run another OS on PC/Notebook </li></ul><ul><li>VMware, Microsoft, Xen </li></ul>
7. “ Presentation Virtualization” <ul><li>Terminal Services </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract UI for a virtual user session </li></ul><ul><li>One box, one OS, many users </li></ul><ul><li>Each have own “desktop” </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Single Sign-on </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft, Citrix </li></ul>
8. Terminal Server Architecture User Sessions 1 - n System-wide User Mode Kernel Mode Winlogon Wlnotify.dll Rdpwsx Smss Win32k.sys Kernel Csrss Per- Session Apps Mouse, Keyboard Terminal Server Device Driver Termdd.sys Rdpwd.sys Tdtcp.sys Rdpdd.sys Display Driver Terminal Server Service Video Display Resolution in software Display Differencing
9. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure <ul><li>Run Desktop OS in Server Room </li></ul><ul><li>Server Virtualization or Blade Servers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Broker” to connect users to Virtual Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Centralize Management </li></ul><ul><li>Image Dedicated to User or pool of “Standard” images </li></ul><ul><li>Citrix, VMware, Watch-this-space </li></ul>
10. VDI Central Hosting Image Store VDI Broker Virtual Hosts Gateway
11. VDI Local Hosting Image Store VDI Broker Gateway