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Metro-Scale Mesh Networking Players
 

Metro-Scale Mesh Networking Players

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    Metro-Scale Mesh Networking Players Metro-Scale Mesh Networking Players Presentation Transcript

    • Metro-Scale Mesh Networking Players
    • Introduction
      • Hybrid mesh network is commercially deployed in a few places
      • Players
        • Tropos
        • Firetide
        • BelAir
        • Pronto
        • NeoReach, etc.
    • Tropos Networks (All case-studies and whitepapaers are in public domain http://www.tropos.com/technology/whitepapers.html )
      • CA-based network company
        • http:// tropos .com/
      • Deployed hybrid mesh architecture in a few places like Chaska, MN
      • Patent on:
        • MetroMesh: a hybrid mesh network architecture (pending)
        • Predictive Wireless Routing Protocol (PWRP): a routing protocol specific for MetroMesh
    • Tropos Networks: Problem addressed (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/tropos_metro-scale. pdf )
      • Cellular: limited capacity, not suitable for data
      • Wi-Fi:
        • Limited reach
        • Too costly, if we connect each Wi-Fi hot spot to wired backhaul
      • MetroMesh: Cellular + Wi-Fi
    • MetroMesh: Problem addressed (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/tropos_metro-scale. pdf )
      • Advantages of MetroMesh over traditional mesh
        • Eliminating wired backhaul to every router
        • Self-organization of routes if additional routers are added or some routers fail (PWRP routing software running at each router will adjust routes dynamically)
        • Less overhead (in terms of keeping link-state and node information), so scales well with nodes
        • Uses only single radio (running at 2.4 GHz) at each router (in contrast to multiple radio in many traditional mesh network)
        • Suitable for metro network (with 100s of nodes)
    • MetroMesh: Current architecture (Ref: http://www.tropos.com/products/architecture.html and whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/five_keys. pdf )
    • MetroMesh: Current architecture (Whitepapers: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/metromesh_datasheet.pdf and http://www.tropos.com/pdf/tropos_metro-scale. pdf )
      • Deployed wireless routers (Wi-Fi) to form a mesh
      • A few of these Wi-Fi routers are identified as “Gateways”
      • Gateways are connected to wired infrastructure (Base Stations of cellular infrastructure to IP backbone)
      • Each Wi-Fi routers operate on 2.4 GHz (so compatible with 802.11b/g) with omni-directional antenna
    • Future architecture: WiMax as backhaul (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/wimax_integration. pdf )
    • Future architecture: WiMax as gateway (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/wimax_integration. pdf )
    • Future architecture: WiMax as routers (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/wimax_integration. pdf )
    • Future architecture: Wi-Fi to WiMax (Whitepapers: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/chaska_performance.pdf and http://www.tropos.com/pdf/wimax_integration. pdf )
      • Phase-1 plan: Instead connecting Wi-Fi gateways to wired backbone directly, connect Wi-Fi gateways to WiMax
        • WiMax will connect to wired IP backbone
      • Phase-2 plan: Wi-max could also be used for gateways
        • Helps Intra mesh routing
      • Phase-3 plan: Wi-max as routers
        • Could connect hosts/clients directly
    • Future architecture: Wi-Fi to WiMax (Whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/wimax_integration. pdf )
      • Advantages of WiMax
        • Will extend reach
        • High bit rate
      • Disadvantages of WiMax
        • Only line of sight communication
      • Tropos future architecture plan is a hybrid mesh between Wi-Fi and WiMax radios
        • LOS: Deploy WiMax
        • NLOS: Deploy Wi-Fi
    • Routing Algorithm (Ref: http://www.tropos.com/products/metromesh_os.html and whitepaper: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/Routing_Capacity. pdf )
      • Predictive Wireless Routing Protocol (PWRP)
      • PWRP software runs at each router and gateway
      • Basic idea:
        • Takes measurement samples of link rates multiple times a second across wireless links
        • Given a source-destination pairs, algorithm computes available paths
        • Based on history of samples, dynamically predicts link condition and then estimates throughput of each alternate path
        • Choose path with highest estimated throughput
    • Routing Algorithm (whitepaper: http://www. tropos .com/ pdf /Routing_Capacity. pdf )
      • Advantages of PWRP
        • Maximize throughput
        • Ensure that hosts are typically 2-3 hops away from internet connection by deploying sufficient number of routers
        • Less protocol overhead
        • Self-healing mechanism: If a router is down or link is broken, PWRP software will compute other available paths
    • Tropos Network (Ref: http://www.tropos.com/products/metromesh_routers.html and Datasheets)
      • Product
        • Tropos 5210 MetroMesh outdoor router
        • Tropos 3210 MetroMesh indoor router
      • Problem of MetroMesh
        • Infrastructure cost vs. speed of network: They need twenty 802.11g routers per sq-miles to serve 300-500 residential customers (in a city of 100 sq-miles, they need 2000 routers, each costs US$ 3400, total of US$68,000) with concurrent subscriber capacity of 10 Mbps and bandwidth per subscriber 30 Kbps.
    • Tropos Network
      • Problem of MetroMesh
        • Delay is not bounded: Focus is to choose path to maximize throughput; may end up with longer path; may not suitable for time-critical application
        • Uses omni-directional antenna: Creates multiple unnecessary paths; so, processing overhead will be long; Also antenna range is less; so need more routers. Directional antenna could save processing overhead and reduce number of routers.
        • Interference: Dense router deployment will cause more interference and noise. How to take care of that?
    • Firetide (Whitepapers are not in public domain, request to sales@ firetide .com )
      • CA-based network company
        • http://www. firetide .com/
      • Deployed hybrid mesh architecture in a few places like Gordes, France
      • Product:
        • HotPort indoor and outdoor mesh routers
        • HotView mesh management software
    • Firetide: Problem addressed (Ref: http://www.firetide.com/index.cfm?parent=products )
      • Built municipal mesh network, public security network, and healthcare network
      • Claimed to be “self-configuring” and “self-healing” unlike traditional mesh network
      • Three levels of CoS to prioritize traffic to improve mesh performance, especially in "triple play" data, voice and video applications
      • One could manage his own virtual network and still be able to connect to mesh for carrying traffic; good for police, public safety department etc.
    • Firetide: Current intra-mesh architecture (Whitepaper: Designing a Firetide Instant Mesh Network )
    • Firetide: Current inter-mesh architecture (Datasheets: http://www.firetide.com/index.cfm?section=products165 )
    • Firetide: Current architecture (Ref: http://www.firetide.com/index.cfm?section=instant_networks229 and whitepaper: http://www.firetide.com/images/User_FilesImages/documents/Hotport/HotPort_3200_Outdoor_Mesh_Node_a308. pdf )
      • Firetide mesh is a combination of indoor and outdoor wireless routers
      • A few of them connect to either wired internet backbone or to Wi-Fi AP (which then connects to multiple hosts).
      • Two edge routers could connect to one-another for inter-mesh communication, known as MeshBridge
      • MeshBridge feature enables internetworking among multiple HotPort mesh networks to form a single LAN or WAN environment with up to 1,000 mesh nodes, enhancing throughput and simplifying management of large-scale networks  
    • Firetide: Current architecture (Whitepaper: Designing a Firetide Instant Mesh Network )
      • Unlike Tropos router, HotPorts are having two different radios,
        • 2.4 GHz (for 802.11b/g operation)
        • 5 GHz (for 802.11a)
      • Omni-directional
      • Hand optimized trial-and-error router deployment
      • “ Dense” deployment is recommended
        • To increase capacity of network
        • To increase path redundancy
    • Firetide: Routing algorithm (Ref: TBRPF paper by Ogier, Templin, and Lewis, IETF, Feb., 2004)
      • Uses Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF) routing protocols
      • Consists of two modules
        • neighbor discovery module
        • routing module
      • Proactive link-state routing protocol
        • hop-by-hop routing
        • source trees for shortest path information
      • Periodic and differential updates
    • Firetide: Disadvantage
      • Routers are placed by hand-optimization to reduce “dead zones”
      • How many routers are sufficient?
        • “ dense” deployment
      • Need power supply at each of them
    • BelAir Networks (Whitepapers are not in public domain, request to [email_address] )
      • Canada-based network company
        • http://www.belairnetworks.com/
      • Deployed wireless metro-scale mesh network in a few places like Galt, CA and Bristol, UK
      • Patent on:
        • Multiple Point-to-Point WLAN Mesh (pending)
        • BelAir BelView network management software
      • Product:
        • BelAir50c: Mesh cluster nodes
        • BelAir100: Mesh edge nodes
        • BelAir200: Mesh Multi-service HotZone routers
    • BelAir: Multiple Point-to-Point Architecture
    • BelAir Networks (Ref: http://www.belairnetworks.com/resources/pdfs/BDMA20010-C01_BelAir200%2022%208%2005. pdf )
      • BelAir mesh architecture has 3 parts
      • Mesh core
        • Consists of BelAir200 point-to-point routers
        • Four radio multi-service routers
        • Less channel contentions at the backend as multiple radios could use different frequency bands
        • Integrates Wi-Fi access and wireless backhaul
        • One of the router will act as a gateway and will connect to wired backbone
        • Future architecture will deploy WiMax in core
    • BelAir Networks (Ref: http://www.belairnetworks.com/resources/pdfs/BDMA10010-B01_BelAir100%2022%208%2005. pdf )
      • BelAir mesh architecture has 3 parts
      • Edge routers
        • Consists of BelAir100 point-to-point nodes
        • Two radio nodes:
          • one works at 2.4 GHz and connects to different wireless clusters
          • other works at 5GHz and connects to core mesh
        • Helps data transfers between different clusters (of BelAir50c) and core mesh (BelAir200)
    • BelAir Networks (Whitepapers: Forward-Compatible_Network_Management_10.13.03.pdf, Wireless_Without_Limits_11.12.03.pdf, and BDMA05010-A01_BelAir50c_09_14_05.pdf)
      • BelAir mesh architecture has 3 parts
      • Mesh clusters
        • Consists of BelAir50c routers
        • Single radio routers, uses 2.4 Ghz band
        • Two omni-directional antenna
          • One for wireless access to clients
          • Other for multipoint-to-multipoint connectivity to neighboring BelAir nodes
        • Helps data transfer from a client to mesh
        • All BelAir routers are centrally managed by BelAir BelView Network Management System (NMS), an Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) software package
    • BelAir Architecture: Problem addressed (Whitepaper: Beyond_The_Hot_Spot_10.09.03.pdf)
      • Previous WLAN solutions have many disadvantages:
        • Pure Wired Networking
          • Need 24-port switch to connect each AP to wired backbone
          • Complex and costly
        • Point-to-Point
          • Less redundancy, so lower availability
          • To increase availability, need to deploy second network for redundancy, but doubles setup cost
    • BelAir Architecture: Problem addressed (Whitepaper: Beyond_The_Hot_Spot_10.09.03.pdf)
      • Previous WLAN solutions have many disadvantages:
        • Point-to-Multipoint
          • Most popular, but low throughput
          • Doesn’t scale well
          • Less reach and vulnerable to single point failure
        • Multipoint-to-Multipoint
          • Many-to-many configuration, where each node can talk to several neighborhood nodes
          • Collision-prone, effective throughput less
          • Increased power consumption, more cost
          • Interference
    • BelAir: Routing Protocol (Ref: http://www.cwti.us/brochure/CWTI-Technology_BelAir-200. pdf )
      • Each BelAir200 executes Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol
    • BelAir’s Multiple Point-to-Point (Ref: http://www.belairnetworks.com/resources/pdfs/BDMB00020-B01_Cellular_LAN_Background. pdf )
    • NeoReach
      • AZ-based company
        • A MobilePro subsidiary
        • http://www. neoreach .com/
      • Works as a mesh networking companies like Tropos, Firetide and BelAir
      • Deploys metro-scale mesh networks in Tempe, AZ (WAZTempe)
    • NeoReach’s WAZTempe Network (Ref: http://www.waztempe.com/)
      • A 5-phase project to cover Tempe city in a wireless mesh network
      • WAZTempe is a metro-scale, outdoor WiFi mesh network hoping to deliver 95% coverage to the city
      • No whitepaper exists in public domain
    • NeoReach’s WAZTempe Network (Ref: http://www.techworld.com/mobility/features/index.cfm?featureid=2314)
      • Supports all mobile municipal personnel (police, fire and water department workers and building inspectors) with broadband
      • In first phase, 400 APs are deployed to form mesh
      • Out of these, 6 are 802.11a WiFi Gateways, connected to OC-3 ingress port
      • APs could have single or multiple radios
    • NeoReach’s WAZTempe Network (Ref: http://www.techworld.com/mobility/features/index.cfm?featureid=2314)
      • Future network:
        • Integrate WAZTempe WiFi with WiMax
        • WiMax will eventually be used to connect pockets of dense populations at outer edges of mesh
        • Uses Strix System’s Access/One OWS routers that support 802.11a/g with multiple radios
    • Pronto Networks (All documents are online)
      • CA-based company
        • http://www. prontonetworks .com/
      • Works as an Operation Support Subsystem (OSS) for mesh networking companies, viz., Tropos, Firetide, NeoReach
      • Helps as OSS in Tropos’ Chaska Net and NeoReach’s WazTempe
    • Pronto: Architecture (Ref: http://prontonetworks.com/Muni. pdf and http:// prontonetworks .com/ ChaskaCaseStudy . pdf )
    • Pronto: Architecture (Ref: http:// prontonetworks .com/ ChaskaCaseStudy . pdf )
      • Pronto Hotzone Gateway
        • A access gateway between wireless mesh and IP backbone
        • Keeps track of user authentication, authorization, accounting, and IP routing
      • Pronto UniFi OSS management software
        • Back office processor
        • Helps rapidly deploy municipal network as separate a Virtual Network
    • Pronto: UniFi OSS (Ref: http://prontonetworks.com/unificonvergedservicessuite.html)
      • OSS
        • One of the three radio subsystems (other two are BSS and NSS)
        • Keeps pre-paid and post-paid billing information
        • Manages and troubleshoots overall network operations and equipments in network
        • Supports 2000 concurrent users
      • OSS could support single or multiple mesh networks
    • Other Players
      • Strix System
        • http://www. strixsystems .com/
      • Proxim Wireless
        • http://www. proxim .com/
      • Ricochet Networks
        • http://www.ricochet.com/
      • And many more …