Enterprise Printer Asset ManagementDEP Print Resource AnalysisDepartment of Environmental ProtectionOffice of Technology ...
Optimize printer and MFP supply requirements to minimize overstock through use of printer asset management software tools....
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
Enterprise Printer Asset Management
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Enterprise Printer Asset Management

  1. 1. Enterprise Printer Asset ManagementDEP Print Resource AnalysisDepartment of Environmental ProtectionOffice of Technology & Information ServicesJuly 29, 2009<br />Enterprise Printer Asset Management: DEP Print Resource Analysis<br />Executive Summary<br />As underscored by numerous research and case studies in recent years, great gains in efficiency and effectiveness result from managing services and technology at the enterprise level. These efforts, referred to as Enterprise Asset Management, reap savings in cost and labor. The Office of Technology and Information Services (OTIS) has already embarked upon significant efforts in this direction; e.g. the PC management plan which provides centralization of PC purchases and the PCM project providing centralization and consolidation of server/disk infrastructure. OTIS has recently performed an analysis of the Printer assets throughout DEP with the goal of creating an enterprise-wide plan to decrease both material and labor costs, increase availability and quality of resources for all business users, and manage these resources in a manner which will minimize the environmental impact of meeting our print document–related business needs.<br />A recent Gartner report (Weilerstein, 2005) cites several problems resulting from a failure to actively manage printer assets; “excessive numbers of printers, jumbled assortment of different makes and models of different ages and designs, large numbers of aging printers, inadequate controls on the purchase and disposal of printers,” - the list goes on. DEP experiences many of these problems.<br />Currently, DEP maintains 1567 printers, including 1362 state-owned networked and desktop printers and multi-functional peripherals (MFPs) (Figure 1). The total purchase cost of this owned inventory of 537 networked and 825 single-user, desktop printers was $2.1 million; which includes a cost of $1.9 million for all networked print devices. Support of DEP’s fleet of printers and MFPs costs $1,162,280 annually, including the $503,796 annual cost of lease agreements, as well as the purchase of printer consumables (e.g., toner and paper).<br />The DEP printer fleet is aging, with over 50% of networked printers being 6-12 years old - significantly older than the recommended 3-5 years life cycle (De Silva Leon, March 2006). Another 17% of our networked printer assets are at the 5 year old recommended age boundary. Far too many (over half) of DEP’s printer assets are single user desktop printers. Often these single user printers are also single function devices – providing only print functionality. Networked MFPs that combine print, scan, copy, and fax capabilities provide more DEP employees with access to these document handling functions at lower net cost. This report does not provide comprehensive details regarding stand-alone scanners or copiers. However, it introduces some of the benefits of converting from single-function printers to MFPs. A gradual transition away from desktop or stand-alone printers and scanners in favor of networked MFPs will provide greater resource and workflow efficiency. <br />Furthermore, centralized management of leased MFPs will minimize maintenance costs and allow for optimization of their use, saturating the available print cycles on leased machines as often as possible to avoid wasting this “paid-for” resource. It is not cost effective to continue to maintain or replace stand-alone desktop printers, scanners, or fax machines unless there is an identified business requirement for these resources. Additional analysis to determine the usage metrics for single function scanners, and copiers may be performed in a future phase and combined with the data that has already been collected for printers and fax machines. The current analysis is restricted to DEP devices that provide print functionality but notes the availability of other features; scan, copy, fax, etc., in multi-functional printers. Additional research regarding the demand, usage and availability of non-print features is planned for a next phase of analysis.<br />This summary report presents the data collected during this analysis and sets forth the following recommended actions throughout the DEP:<br /><ul><li>Continue the current purchasing restrictions on printers through this fiscal year. Immediately reduce environmental impact and assure efficiency of budget by:</li></ul>Using only remanufactured toner cartridges; and <br />Shifting to 100% use of recycled paper having 30% recycle content or greater and certified Green Seal.<br /><ul><li>Create policy that supports DEP-wide print/copy production best practices to reducing print volume</li></ul>Encourage online electronic document development and editing by workgroups to bypass the need for excessive hard-copy production and enhance collaboration.<br /><ul><li>Coordinate centralization of procurement and placement.</li></ul>Centralize oversight of printer purchases and placement to support negotiations to reduce prices on equipment leases, purchases and supplies. <br />Phase out the use of all single user devices; desktop printers, and standalone scanners throughout DEP by implementing a “0 Replacement” policy for all non-networked document handling peripherals. <br />Replace single function peripherals (printer, copier, scanner machines) with networked MFPs and assure that all users are aware of the features and know how to use them.<br />Focus on reducing the DEP’s aging printer fleet and lowering the overall number of devices by leasing newer MFPs.<br /><ul><li>Establish a metrics-based, DEP-wide peripheral asset management plan (PAMP) that optimizes return on print, scan, copy, fax equipment resource investment.
  2. 2. Optimize printer and MFP supply requirements to minimize overstock through use of printer asset management software tools.</li></ul>Introduction<br />In serving its environmental mission, DEP staff, like most of corporate America, must be able to efficiently maneuver through mountains of information and produce and manage reports and other documents throughout each workday. Consider these published statistics (Craine, Designing a Document Management Strategy, January 2005):<br />Thirty billion original documents are used each year in the United States.<br />The cost of documents to corporate America is estimated to reach as much as 15% of annual corporate revenue.<br />Documents claim up to 60% of office workers’ time and account for up to 45% of labor costs.<br />For every dollar that a company spends for a final document, ten dollars are spent to manage the process.<br />The handling of documents in some manner – printing, scanning, copying, faxing, filing, etc. – dominates the daily workflow of DEP agency staff. Therefore, having ready access to the appropriate printer features can boost work productivity. This report addresses the need to optimize printer asset management, in terms of cost and time, with the goals of reducing net operating costs including equipment procurement, supplies and maintenance, while continuing to support and enhance productivity. This report presents information about the current status of the DEP printer fleet and recommendations for optimization. Printing is only one part of the document-handling picture. As technology related to printing, scanning, and copying documents has changed over the past decade, workers have become increasingly dependent upon having ready access to scan and copy capabilities, especially networked resources that support efficient document storage, filing, and sharing. This report therefore includes the multifunctional peripherals (MFPs, aka multifunctional devices) that DEP currently leases in the analysis of the DEP printer fleet and begins to explore how the additional features provided by these machines are being utilized. Detailed analysis of DEP’s use of MFPs will be topic of a future report.<br />Current Status Overview: DEP Printer Fleet<br />Big Picture View<br />DEP maintains 1567 networked and desktop (single-user) printers, of which, all but 205 are state-owned assets (Figure 1). <br />Figure 1: DEP Asset Inventory and Leased Printer Tally<br />DEP currently spends approximately $1,162,280 annually on owned and leased printers and the printer consumable costs associated with these devices (e.g., toner, paper, etc.) (Figure 2). The original acquisition cost of the agency inventory of 537 networked and 825 desktop printers is $2.1 million, indicating quite an investment. Additionally, DEP leases 109 networked MFPs with an annual cost of $390,000 and 96 Non-Networked MFPs at a cost of approximately $184,000 annually. The 96 non-networked MFPs are located in Division of Recreation and Parks (DRP) facilities, many of which are not networked, some being in remote locations.<br />Figure 2: DEP Annual Printing Costs based upon data from [time range]<br />DEP spends an average of $160,000 on new printers annually to maintain its inventory. DEP organizational units independently budget, purchase, lease, and dispose of their printer assets without the planned efficiencies and effectiveness of an agency-wide peripheral asset management approach. DEP’s recurring procurement cost for networked printers ranges from $84,000 to $337,000 annually, based on replacement cycles determined independently at the division, district, and office management levels (Figure 3).<br />Figure 3: DEP Network Printer Acquisition Cost Distribution over past 12 years<br />The analysis by the Office of Technology and Information Services (OTIS) concluded in June 2009 shows that DEP’s printer inventory is dated; the average network printer age is over 6.25 years old. The replacement cycle times recommended in Gartner’s research document, How Long Should You Keep Your Printers? (De Silva Leon, March 2006), is 3 – 5 years for monochrome printers, and a 3-year cycle for color printers. Yet nearly 70% of network printers in the DEP printer fleet range from 5 – 12 years old. Of the remaining 30% of DEP’s networked printers, 97 more, 13% of the total, are already 4 years old. (See details in Figure 4.)<br />Figure 4: DEP Network Printers – Age distribution<br />Conducting business operations with an aged printer fleet poses several risks:<br />Older printers are likely to fail more frequently, having a negative impact on worker productivity and increasing maintenance costs.<br />Older printers may not have the document-handling features needed in the contemporary workplace: scan, copy, and fax capabilities, or color management for scanned and print documents.<br />Without centralized oversight of the printer inventory and printer replacement cycles:<br />Replacement and maintenance activities for the failed printers are likely to be handled inefficiently, e.g., replacing one printer at a time at a higher cost than bulk buying.<br />Times may arise when significant numbers of printers will need to be repaired or replaced at the same time, such as may occur in 2009 and 2010 to replace the large quantity of printers bought in 2004 and 2005. (Figure 4.)<br />Snapshot of Current Printer Capacity<br />DEP prints roughly 24 million pages a year. This figure is based on a seven-month sampling of all printer assets using HP JetAdmin 10 printer asset management software (approximately 87% of networked printers), combined with data gathered in our agency-wide printer survey (Figure 5). Assuming an approximate cost of $0.0068 per sheet of printer paper, DEP spends approximately $163,000 annually for paper. Initial research indicates DEP does not fully make use of recycled printer/copier paper, perhaps because of its slightly higher costs. Instead, it generally purchases new paper at a slightly reduced cost.<br />For actual pages printed, leased networked printers account for 40% of the print volume produced annually (Figure 5). Current lease agreements range from 1 to 5 years. Despite DEP’s large number of personally assigned desktop printers (825 shown in Figure 1), they account for only 5% of DEP’s print volume. While in some cases private print capability may be justifiable, significant opportunities to improve efficiencies exists in this area.<br />Figure 5: Yearly Printed pages per asset type<br />Optimizing worker productivity requires proper management of printers and MFPs to meet DEP staff printing and document handling requirements. DEP must ensure its employee-to-printer ratio maximizes the use of these assets, at minimum expense. A review of DEP’s employee-to-printer ratio reveals some inadequacies in the distribution of printers, with employee-to-printer numbers out of sync with industry standards and best practice use ratios (Appendix B). Printer manufacturers such as Konica Minolta indicate low-density printing needs can often be met with an employee-to-printer ratio as high as 12:1, while Hewlett Packard (HP) believes a 4:1 ratio for average printing is adequate. Research of articles from respected firms like Gartner and Forester implies that an 8:1 ratio is about average. There are circumstances that may justify a very small employee-to-printer ratio for groups having especially high volume printing needs. In some cases, even a 1:1 ratio may be justified, e.g., the printing of secure confidential documents or continuous high volume print demands.<br />Figure 6: Annual Leased Printing Levels versus Paid-For Allowances<br />Desktop vs Networked and Printer vs MFP<br />By properly assigning the correct number of employees to printers to meet their printing requirements, DEP will be able to maximize the use of these devices and significantly reduce the number of devices required within the agency. The first step in this analysis was to examine the leased print volume statistics. The results clearly indicate that DEP presently using only 20% of the paid-for print capacity of the printers it leases (Figure 6). <br />While examining the use of printers a preliminary analysis was performed investigating the use of other features on the MFPs currently leased by DEP. DEPs inventory of MFPs is being severely underutilized from a feature usage perspective as well as from a print volume perspective (Figure 7). Although all 116 of the MFPs leased by DEP provide copy, scan, fax and network print capabilities, the copy feature is the only feature used consistently on every one of these machines. Only 82% of these leased MFPs are currently used for scanning, 73% are used as networked printers and only 50% use the fax feature. This is another example of leased capability and capacity being underutilized. <br /> <br />Figure 7: Feature Usage for Leased MFPs <br />The combined under-utilization of these leased MFPs draws to question the need for DEP to maintain a collection 825 desktop printers. DEP must seriously review its justification for its present use of desktop printers assigned to single users. In the interest of both efficiency and economy it would be best to implement a policy whereby desktop printers are not replaced as they reach the end of their useful life span, thereby reducing both inventory and maintenance costs. This “0 Replacement” policy can be complemented by planning that would position networked MFPs to provide convenient access for all DEP employees to a print, scan, copy and fax capabilities. <br />In contemporary work environments, MFPs have become the norm. According to consultant Brian Bissett, publisher of The MFP Report (Bissett, Sep2008), with the ability to print, copy, scan and fax via an integrated MFP, workers are producing more page and network volumes than ever before. Scanning is key to integrating MFPs into office workflows in order to realize work efficiencies and cost savings. However, effective use of the MFPs requires a degree of culture change and re-education. The resulting change in office workflows can have a significant impact on the IT support services. <br />As DEP continues to move toward efficient electronic document handling and online collaboration, OTIS will need to address issues related to how much scanning capability can be accommodated without slowdowns on the network, how well the actual scanning functions perform both with respect to scan quality and reliability, and how to appropriately protect information and maintain the security of documents. Therefore, the use of MFPs can also be of benefit when addressing considerations related to document security.<br />As for printing and copying, maintaining security over electronic data can in fact be easier than controlling hard copies, because IT can build security measures into electronic file properties. Making sure that their multifunction systems encrypt data traveling on the network, along with to and from devices, prevents any unauthorized viewers from accessing print and scanned documents as they travel to file servers or other network repositories. This requires either encrypting the connection to the Web user interface or by employing device management through software that supports encryptions. (Coffed, Part IV: Ensuring Security on the Network, 2008)<br />What Types of Printers Are in DEP’s Printer Fleet?<br />Black and white (B/W) laser printers make up 56% of the agency’s overall printer inventory. Color laser printers make up 32%, while inkjet printers, making up the remaining 12%, provide an undetermined mix of color and B/W printing capability. All of these printers are capable of printing B/W documents. (Figure 8.)<br />DEP leases 109 networked MFPs (Figure 1,) representing 7% of the agency’s printing devices. The lease agreements for these machines include a set “paid-for” printout level for each printer. This level designates the monthly page allowance for these leased assets. These machines currently consume only 20% of the “paid-for” printout levels, leaving 80% of the “paid-for” printout allowance unrealized (Figure 6). This represents a wasted resource. Based on a three-month assessment of actual output compared to leased printing allowances, DEP could position these assets so that up to four times as many users were assigned to print from these leased machines without incurring any additional cost. This assumes that there would be no net increase in print demand but rather a rerouting of print jobs to the leased networked MFPs<br />. <br />Figure 8: Distribution of Printer Output types across the agency<br />In addition to creating a work environment with a balanced ratio of printers to workers, the fleet of networked MFPs can be managed so that user document–handling needs best match the capabilities of the networked resource available to them.<br />As a networked peripheral that can also be accessed as a walk-up device for all types of document applications, the MFP is again changing the way people work with documents and share knowledge in the office. Central to this transition is the increasing level of technology available ‘‘on the box,’’ especially an MFP’s scanning capabilities. With an MFP and a simple software application, end users can turn paper documents into electronic formats and send them to multiple destinations – email, document repositories, network folders, even remote printers – all with a single scan. According to IDC’s 2007 scan-enabled MFP forecast and analysis, ‘‘scan-enabled MFPs have increased from 61% of MFP shipments in 2004 to 80% in 2007.’’ And their 2008 hardcopy usage end-user survey shows, ‘‘Small, medium and large businesses are consistently almost 1.5 times more likely to say they mostly scan using scan-enabled MFPs than to say they mostly use scanners.’’ (Coffed, Part III: Transforming Business Processes, 2008)<br />A gradual transition away from desktop or stand-alone printers, scanners and fax machines in favor of networked MFPs will provide greater resource and workflow efficiency. Furthermore, centralized management of leased MFPs will minimize maintenance costs and allow for optimization of their use, saturating the available print cycles on leased machines as often as possible to avoid wasting this “paid-for” resource. It is not cost effective to continue to maintain or replace stand-alone desktop printers, scanners, or fax machines unless there is an identified business requirement for these resources.<br />Advantages of Remote Monitoring<br />Currently, for all DEP-owned print and scan peripherals, service is a reactive process – products are repaired when they fail. However, with centralized monitoring of a leased networked MFP fleet, OTIS will be able to guarantee a higher level of asset availability by having the metrics available to support proactive maintenance and service, thereby minimizing downtime and disruption of workflow. This continuous monitoring can help ensure that needed devices are less likely to malfunction in the first place. On the other hand, supplies – paper, toners, ink cartridges, etc. – currently are purchased and stored to have on hand if needed, absorbing funds for advance purchase and taking up valuable storage space. Monitoring software is available that can also report supply needs and usage rates to support appropriate purchases and minimize storage of overstocked “just in case” supplies. Therefore, by providing remote maintenance, predictive support will be enabled which can trigger preventative action and appropriate balance between supply and demand. Not only can this reduce service and maintenance-based costs, but it improves device uptime and availability for DEP users.<br />Challenges without remote monitoring<br />In a typical customer environment, both user and help desk productivity is impacted significantly by supplies running out or device malfunction.<br />Supplies depletion: Supplies inventory is manually monitored. If no toner/ink supplies are in stock, then the service organization would need to be notified, and print jobs would need to be redirected to another device if available. The manual intervention required often means that resources are being diverted from other tasks.<br />Device failure/malfunction: If an output device stops printing due to a malfunction, users would have to work on an alternative device, impacting print queues and device utilization.<br />Meter reading: Without remote monitoring, this is a manual process which needs to be conducted at regular intervals. If meter readings are missed, estimates are made by the manufacturer based on usage history. (Fernandes, 2009)<br />Research indicates only 15% of the Total Cost of Ownership relates to the actual cost of purchasing a printer. The dramatic cost is incurred from the replacement of printer consumables (toner cartridges), which makes up 75 – 80% of the lifetime cost of owning/using the printer. The remaining 5 – 10% is from maintenance or repair costs. Reducing consumable supply costs is a key factor toward significantly lowering the agency’s printing costs. DEP does not presently take full advantage of the less costly, but reportedly acceptable, remanufactured toner cartridges to meet its consumable replacement needs. Only 10% of DEP-owned networked printers use remanufactured toner cartridges (Figure 9).<br />Figure 9: Comparison of DEP use of New versus Re-manufactured Toner Cartridges<br />Remanufactured toner can cost up to 40% less for the same expected page-printing capability and quality that the agency now obtains from new, never-before-used toner cartridges. DEP annually spends approximately $299,000 to replace toner cartridges. Research indicates that up to $118,000 might be saved if DEP were to increase its use of the less expensive remanufactured toner cartridges (Figure 10).<br />Figure 10: Annual Cost Savings potential as the use of Re-manufactured Toner Cartridges Increases<br />Recommendations:<br />This report has presented the outcome of the OTIS analysis of DEP printer assets and shared the findings and conclusions of other related industry reports. Based upon the findings presented in this report, the following enterprise asset management actions are recommended.<br />Continue the current purchasing restrictions on printers through this fiscal year.<br />Phase out the use of all single user devices; desktop printers, standalone scanners, and fax machines, throughout DEP by implementing a “0 Replacement” policy for all non-networked document handling peripherals. <br />Redistribute printer assets where they best meet effective employee-to-printer ratios, regardless of who might have paid for or presently owns the device (FLAIR inventory).<br />Reallocate printing devices freed during redistribution in a manner that ensures only high quality inventory is left online while the least effective devices are moved off inventory.<br />Using only remanufactured toner cartridges; and <br />Shifting to use of 100% use of recycled paper having 30% recycle content or greater and certified Green Seal.<br />Use printer asset management software tools to optimize printer and MFP supply requirements and minimize overstock.<br />Centralize oversight of printer purchases and placement to support negotiations to reduce prices on equipment leases, purchases and supplies. <br />Appendix – A<br />The Divisional Printer Summary provides a breakdown of DEP organizational unit (OU) employee count. It includes an itemized breakdown of the quantity and printer types owned or leased by each OU. <br />Divisional Printer SummaryTotal Users (FTE and OPS)*Total Printers (Network, Desktop, Multifunction)DEP Owned Network PrintersLeased Multifunction Devices – Total**Leased Multifunction Devices – Used for PrintingDesktop PrintersADMIN147892911249CAMA18654266622CD1414229815DARM882822204DEAR28838234411DLE22064243337DRP1,755415114113113186DSL197118427169DWM28864278829DWRM4137547101018FGS502261115LABS21549324013NED12961230038NWD139542810716OGT983540031OTIS7264111SD10542178817SEC20576214451SED1292215661SWD17662186638<br />* Column 1 are actual employed FTE/OPS counts (excluding contractors), and do not reflect predictably smaller number of users that actually have the capability to print. As an example, DRP has 1755 staff, but a significant number are not assigned printers nor do printing. ** Column 4 indicates the total leased printers within an OU, while column 5 indicates how many are actually connected (networked) and providing maximum use. <br />Appendix – B<br />The Users per Printer Summary (employee-to-printer ratio) table displays the number of employees that have the capability of printing as a ratio to the number of total printers, and then the percentage of users that have a desktop printer. By industry standards, general printing needs can be met with an employee-to-printer ratio of 12:1. While there are cases where 1:1 may be appropriate, such as when secure documents need to be controlled during printing, or for staff that continuously print as part of their direct duties, in most cases 8 employees or more should be assigned a printer, and the need for personal printers should be strongly justified before purchase and assignment.<br />Users per Printer SummaryNumber of users per Network PrinterPercentage of Users With a Desktop PrinterADMIN3.733%CAMA5.812%CD3.84%DARM3.75%DEAR10.74%DLE8.117%DRP4.211%DSL4.035%DWM8.210%DWRM7.24%FGS7.130%LABS6.06%NED5.629%NWD3.712%OGT24.532%OTIS14.41%SD4.216%SEC8.225%SED6.116%SWD7.322%<br />The Printer Asset Assessment is currently obtaining floor plan diagrams from OUs that will be appropriately marked to indicate exact placement of employees and printers (all types) in order to fully articulate the ratio and to ensure any implementation of a redistribution of printers is most effective.<br />Appendix – C<br />The Page Count Volume and Acquisition Cost data provides a breakdown of each DEP OU and its respective annual printed page volume. The volume produced from the OU’s owned printer asset (networked) and from leased machines is provided. For leased printers, the actual pages printed versus the amount they could have printed at no additional cost is provided. Lastly, the monthly cost of leased machines is given.<br />Monthly Page Count and Lease Cost SummaryOwned Page CountLeased Page Count - AverageLeased Page Count – AllowedLeased Page Count – UnusedTotal Lease Cost per MonthADMIN94,72490,963460,000369,037$2,890.43CAMA45,48931,700105,00073,300$978.61CD35,32017,937160,000142,063$1,736.00DARM30,8135,83230,00024,168$248.66DEAR42,13720,03570,00049,965$787.02DLE29,89213,66860,00046,332$568.07DRP159,83383,383355,000271,617$3,327.34DSL92,233103,952267,500163,548$1,862.04DWM68,0416,122270,000263,878$1,984.23DWRM140,78074,346305,000230,654$2,938.36FGS9,5103,42540,00036,575$233.00LABS60,7697,94880,00072,052$634.80NED54,407000$0.00NWD32,74573,585510,000436,415$2,677.91OGT5,721000$0.00OTIS10,6184,28420,00015,716$158.70SD26,09747,257390,000342,743$2,394.32SEC35,24510,88280,00069,118$761.47SED18,38529,584195,000165,416$1,879.33SWD41,07247,952180,000132,048$1,376.43<br />References<br />Bissett, B. (September 2008). “Putting a Solution Shoe on the Other Foot.” The MFP Report .Coffed, J. (2008, August). Part I: Validating the Technology. Why MFPs Matter to IT, pp. 1-13.<br />Coffed, J. (2008, August). Part II: Managing the Print Environment. Why MFPs Matter to IT, pp. 1-13.<br />Coffed, J. (2008, August). Part III: Transforming Business Processes. Why MFPs Matter to IT, pp. 1-13.<br />Coffed, J. (2008, August). Part IV: Ensuring Security on the Network. Why MFPs Matter to IT, pp. 1-13.<br />Craine, K. (January 2005). Designing a Document Management Strategy. Digital Publishing Solutions, 207-210.<br />Craine, K. (April 2004). Whenever and Wherever: The Document is Critical to Society. The Data Administration Newsletter, 1-5.<br />De Silva Leon, F. a. (March 2006). " How Long Should You Keep Your Printers?” Gartner, Inc.<br />Fernandes, L. a. (2009). Predictive Service Excellence for Printers. Quocirca - Business and IT Analysts.<br />Hancock, M., Weilerstein, K., & Grant, P. J. (2005). Use Total Cost of Ownership to Save on Printing. Gartner, Inc.<br />Technologies, R. (2008). The Managed Imaging and Output Environment (Information sourced by: HP, Gartner and IDC White Papers). Bringing Costs Under Control Through MPS .<br />Weilerstein, K. (2005). What IT Asset Managers Need to Know About Managing Office Print Before It Falls Into Their Lap. Gartner, Inc.<br />

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