ECE 678 Project Optical Switching Router


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ECE 678 Project Optical Switching Router

  1. 1. ECE 678 Project Optical Switching Router <ul><li>Group Member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yun Zhao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeliang Zhang </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Martinez </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tuesday, April 23, 2002 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Overview of Optical Network </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Components/Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Switching Router Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview of Optical Network -- Transition from Electrical to Optical Network
  4. 4. Advantage of Optical Network <ul><li>High bandwidth ( up to 10 Tb/s in a single fiber was demonstrated) </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber cable is significantly smaller and lighter than electrical cables </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Electromagnetic Interference significantly </li></ul>
  5. 5. All-Optical Network <ul><li>All-Optical Network = GMPLS protocol+ DWDM devices + Optical Switching Router </li></ul>
  6. 6. Optical Switching Router <ul><li>OSR : </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Switch Architecture + GMPLS Protocol </li></ul>Edge Networks Edge Networks Optical Node Control Network Optical Network Core Edge Networks Edge Networks Label Edge Router Label Switch Router
  7. 7. Optical Switching Router <ul><li>Optical Switching Router : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>table lookup, processing, wavelength assignment, queuing decisions, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface with other legacy network </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Optical Components/Elements <ul><li>Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Tunable Laser </li></ul><ul><li>Tunable Filter </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength Converter </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Amplifier: SOA, EDFA </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Cross Connect (OXC) </li></ul><ul><li>Tunable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (TOADM) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Optical Components by Category: <ul><li>Interconnection: OXC, OADM, wavelength converter </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Amplifier: EDFA, SOA </li></ul><ul><li>Light Source: Laser, LED </li></ul>
  10. 10. Component Characteristics: -- Interconnection <ul><li>Insertion loss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the difference in power levels between the input and output of the device under test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crosstalk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indicates the amount of power that enters a channel from neighboring channels.Typically, it is around 25 dB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeatability and Switch time </li></ul><ul><li>Polarizatioin dependent loss (PDL): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the peak-to-peak output power variation when the input is exposed to all possible polarization states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Center Wavelength </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Gain </li></ul><ul><li>Gain Flatness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measure of the difference in gain over the range of wavelengths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation Level </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Nonlinearity </li></ul>Component Characteristics: -- Optical Amplifier
  12. 12. <ul><li>Peak Wavelength: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>780, 850, 1300, and 1550 nm are usually used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spectral Width </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul>Component Characteristics: -- Light Source
  13. 13. Fiber Band Band Descriptor Range (nm) O band Original 1260 to 1360 E band Extended 1360 to 1460 S band Short wavelength 1460 to 1530 C band Conventional 1530 to 1565 L band Long wavelength 1565 to 1625 U band Ultralong wavelength 1625 to 1675
  14. 14. MEMS( Micro Electro-Mechanical System) <ul><li>A MEMS device is a mechanical integrated circuit where the actuation force required moving the parts may be electrostatic, electro-magnetic or thermal. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow high port count, data rate independent </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes: small size, high speed, low power, high degree of functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: MEMS-based Optical Cross Connect (OXC) </li></ul>
  15. 15. MEMS (Continued) <ul><li>2D MEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s digital, mirror position on(1), off (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3D MEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides very large port count, > 1000 input and output ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback: complex, in research </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2D MEMS <ul><li>2D MEMS for optical crossconnect switching </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3D MEMS <ul><li>3D MEMS switching </li></ul><ul><li>Beam steering using a two-axis mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Fabricated MEMS mirror array </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tunable Laser Summary
  19. 19. Agilent TM 81672B Tunable Laser Source
  20. 20. Nortel LCW508ET Tunable DFB Laser – 8 Channel
  21. 21. Iolon Apollo TM Tunable Laser (C and L band)
  22. 22. Tunable Filter Summary
  23. 23. Nortel MT-15 Tunable Filter
  24. 24. JDS Uniphase Polarization Independent Tunable Bandpass Filters -- TB4 Series
  25. 25. Wavelength Converter <ul><li>Wavelength converter converts radiation at one wavelength to radiation at another wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional O/E/O wavelength converter </li></ul><ul><li>All-optical wavelength converter </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Optovation TM AOWC All Optical Wavelength Converter <ul><li>The Optovation AOWC comprises of an optical module packaged in an industry standard 14 pin butterfly package and mounted on a 50mm x 37.5mm x 20 mm board which includes the required control circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>The all optical module contains an Opto+ Interferometric Wavelength Converter copackaged with a high power DFB Laser. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieve wavelength blocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic provisioning/lambda management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit rate/ protocol transparent regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Cross Connects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Add Drop Muliplexeers </li></ul></ul>The Optovation TM AOWC All Optical Wavelength Converter
  28. 28. The Kailight TM Photonics All-Optical Wavelength Converter <ul><li>It is a fast switching, tunable, all-optical component designed to operate within optical switches and cross-connects at bit rates ranging from 2.5 Gb/s to 40Gb/s. </li></ul><ul><li>Bit rates ranging from 2.5Gb/s to 40Gb/s </li></ul><ul><li>Bit rate and protocol full transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Switching time of less than 1msec between wavelengths </li></ul><ul><li>Large input dynamic range </li></ul><ul><li>No need for extra tunable filter </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion and re-amplification of weak signals </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion from and to all wavelengths within the C band </li></ul><ul><li>Negligible chirp </li></ul><ul><li>Mature components </li></ul><ul><li>Fully scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and play capable </li></ul>
  29. 29. Optical Amplifier <ul><li>A device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to convert it to an electrical signal, amplify it electrically, and reconvert it to an optical signal </li></ul><ul><li>Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Praseodymium Doped Fluoride Amplifier (PDFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Telluride Based ErbiumDoped Optical Amplifier </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductors Optical Amplifier (SOA) </li></ul><ul><li>Raman Amplifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Planar Waveguide Optical Amplifiers </li></ul>
  30. 30. EDFA <ul><li>Working around the 1550nm window </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent to modulation format </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely low polarization sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>High gain (50dB) over 80nm wide bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Low noise </li></ul><ul><li>Bad gain flatness </li></ul>
  31. 31. EDFA <ul><li>EDFA Principle </li></ul>
  32. 32. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) <ul><li>Working at both 1330nm and 1550nm windows </li></ul><ul><li>Small and compact </li></ul><ul><li>Integated with other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Flat gain </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot do multiple wavelength amplication </li></ul>
  33. 33. SOA Scheme
  34. 34. Typical SOA Characteristics
  35. 35. JDS Uniphase OA Products
  36. 36. Axon Photonics 1550nm SOA for Single Channel Amplification (APSOA1015)
  37. 37. Nortel MGMFL-1AWC28 Multiwavelength Gain Module EDFA
  38. 38. Nortel MGMFL-1AWC28 Multiwavelength Gain Module EDFA (Continued)
  39. 39. OA Vendors
  40. 40. Optical Cross Connect (OXC) The Calier DiamondWave™ Photonic Switch <ul><li>The Calier DiamondWave™ Photonic Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamless scalability from 8 to 4096 ports per system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single wavelength switching capacity of 40 terabits in a 7-foot rack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banded wavelength capacity of 164,000 wavelengths in a 7-foot rack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service transparency, from Fibre Channel to OC-768 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-loss data path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry’s widest operating window (1200 – 1620 nm), supporting single and multi-wavelength applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective OEO support for bridging legacy applications such as SONET, IP, Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet applications on a test or termination basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full support for mesh and hybrid network topologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and restoration that meet or beat SONET network element performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded routing and signaling support for the future Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) standard for connection management and IP services integration </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Tellium Aurora Optical Switch TM <ul><li>O-E-O Switch </li></ul><ul><li>512x512 OC-48 ports </li></ul>
  42. 42. MEMS-base OXC <ul><li>In research </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial products not available </li></ul>
  43. 43. Tunable OADM Optoplex TM Tunable OADM                                     
  44. 44. Optoplex TOADM ( Continued)
  45. 45. Lambda Crossing LambdaFlow – Tunable OADM <ul><li>LambdaFlow is a 40 channel tunable OADM with 4 Add/Drop ports. The OADM is tunable over the C band and is capable of adding and dropping data at a rate of 10 Gbps. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Lambda Crossing LambdaFlow – Tunable OADM (Continued) <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of operating expense by providing remote bandwidth allocation and point and click provisioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunable drop is critical for providing cost effective network flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunable OADM simplifies inventory management across the food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology allows for highly reliable, precise and repeatable tuning of the filter function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tunable OADM can be extended to provide active monitoring functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price and loss reduction are achieved by increasing the functionality and density of the optical components and active port count. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tunable OADM solutions are particularly well suited for applications involving tight channel spacing DWDM systems and large channel numbers </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. LSR Functions and Requirements <ul><li>Label Switching Router needs to perform (at least): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label Swapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel add/drop to Label Edge Router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Routing to appropriate ports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSR requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Table lookup processing (electronics/optical), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-connect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/Drop Multiplexers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number updater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength converter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength Mux/Demux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Amplifier </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Optical Switching Router (LSR) Architecture IP Router (IP, MPLS OSPF, RSVP, LMP) Optical Switching Router (4 Ports) Control Plane Fiber Plant Optical Core Fiber Plant N  Mainstream Express Add/Drop Fiber Ports To Other OSRs N  O-Edge Card OSR Internal to the Optical Network Core
  49. 49. Label Switch Router Design 1 Optical Cross-Connects In Ports Out Ports Label Swappers Demultiplexers N  (add) N  N  Optical Amplifiers N  (drop) N  N  ....
  50. 50. Label Switch Router Design 1 <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully connected and connected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For mesh connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple input ports and multiple output ports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require a lot of components </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Label Switch Router Design 2 … Optical Amplifier N  … Optical Amplifier Label swapper /Wavelength converter Label swapper /Wavelength converter drop add add drop demultiplexer multiplexer multiplexer Add/drop switches
  52. 52. Label Switch Router Design 2 <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper and simpler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for Ring Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for metro or smaller networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Insertion loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 N  input and output ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Add/drop switches are need if the number of wavelengths is increased. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>LER needs to perform (at least): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E/O and O/E conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/drop from/to edge networks (ATM, SONET…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label Insertion/Delete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LER requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E/O conversion module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O/E conversion module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic module for adding from legacy networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic module for dropping to legacy networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic module for traffic engineering </li></ul></ul>LER Functions and Requirements
  54. 54. Optical Switching Router (LER) Architecture IP Router (IP, MPLS OSPF, RSVP, LMP) Optical Switching Router (4 Ports) Control Plane Fiber Plant Optical Core Fiber Plant Mainstream Express Add/Drop Fiber Ports Edge Network Interfaces Edge Network Interfaces GigE 10GigE ATM SONET O-Edge Card C-Edge Card N  N  OSR at the Edge of the Optical Network Core
  55. 55. References <ul><li>[1] R.Martinez, P.Y.Choo, “ECE678 Class LectureNotes”, </li></ul><ul><li>[2] P.B.Chu, et., “MEMS: The Path to Large Optical Crossconnects”, IEEE Commu. Mag., Mar.2002, pp. 80-87. </li></ul><ul><li>[3] “Overview of Optical Amplifiers:Technology and Systems”, </li></ul><ul><li>[4] J. Hsu, “DWDM/Fiber Optic Technology”, </li></ul><ul><li>[5] “iolon Apollon Tunable Laser Datasheet”, </li></ul><ul><li>[6] “Kailight Photonics All-Optical Wavelength Converter”, </li></ul><ul><li>[7] “LambdaFlow – Tunable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM) “, </li></ul><ul><li>[8] T. Kelly, I Andonovic, et., “Role of semiconductor optical amplifiers in advanced networking”, </li></ul><ul><li>[9] Nortel Optical Components Datasheets, </li></ul><ul><li>[10] Optoplex Products, </li></ul>
  56. 56. Special Thanks <ul><li>Thanks Peng Choo for his warm help! </li></ul>
  57. 57. Questions?