Welcome to all about tea 102, taking the confusion out of the infusion. By the end of this presentation, you will learn to appreciate how tea has impacted the world through its discovery, history and travels.
Tea is the most popular beverage in the world next to water. Thanks to the American war for Independence, a war spearheaded by a tax on tea, a nice cup of hot tea is only now catching on in the US. Iced tea has been a huge market in the US however and continues to grow. Let’s take a closer look at the beverage we know as tea and discover what the world knows and we are missing.
Steeping something in hot water creates an infusion. Tea is the infusion of the plant species Camellia sinensis everything else is called an herbal infusion or, in French, a tisane.
Camellia sinensis is an evergreen shrub that can reach tree size growing in tropical to subtropical regions, from dense lowland jungles to the Himalayan foothills with at least 50 inches of rain per year. When a species is separated from other members of its own species, the separate groups tend to change, evolve over time in response to the local environment it lives in. These slight differences, when recognizable create variety of the species. As a species spreads to more and more different environments, the more varieties are possible. Camellia sinensis has over 380 varieties, 260 of them in Yunnan Province, China, where tea was invented and tea plant cultivation began. All of these varieties, however, can be divided into two main subspecies, or “Jats” in India, Camellia sinensis sinensis, the thin leafed high grown Chinese variety and Camellia sinensis assamicus the broad leafed low latitude India variety.
Finer quality teas are made from the first two leafs, referred to as Orange Pekoe (OP) pick, and the unopened leaf bud, or tip. The next two lower leaves, the 4th and 5th leaves are called souchong pick are also picked, usually for lapsang souchong and oolong teas.
It’s important to note that every single leaf of the Camellia sinensis plant has the potential to become one of the four main tea types available, White, Green, Oolong and Black tea depending on the processing. White tea is picked and steamed dried. Because it has the least amount of processing, it’s considered the healthiest by many tea drinkers. Green teas are created by withering the tea leaf for several hours before drying by steaming or pan frying. Rolling and shaping a tea leaf before drying is important for maintaining the leaf shape during transport and for controlling the rate of unfurling and infusion when steeping. The next stage in processing is what is erroneously called fermentation in the tea industry. Oolongs and black teas are actually Oxidized. Oolongs are withered then bruised, to expose the inner leaf components to oxygen and partially oxidized. Black teas are rolled to really open the leaves to oxidation and fully oxidized before drying. Each stage requires great skill developed over thousands of years.
In addition to describing a tea by its color or subspecies, a tea can be identified by location, year, season (called flush) or time of picking, estate or garden from which it was picked. Example: a tea can be called a 2008 First Flush, Black Makaibari Estate, Darjeeling STGFOP morning pluck, Lot #2. This indicates a black tea from Darjeeling District of West Bengal State, India grown on the Makaibari tea estate and picked during the first flush or Spring of 2008 and was the second lot to be crated for shipment. The STGFOP is a classification system developed for black teas that we’ll cover in the next slide.
A system of classifying tea leaves based on size and content was developed in British held Ceylon, now called Sri Lanka. As discussed earlier the preferred pick is the top two leaves and a bud. The top two whole leaves are referred to as Orange Pekoe or OP. Orange Pekoe has nothing to do with oranges, orange flavor and is not a special type of tea. The top two whole leaves of any tea plant are called Orange Pekoe pick. If these leaves are broken, they are referred to as Broken Orange Pekoe or BOP. No rocket science here. Very small leaf parts are called tea bag cut or dust and fannings and good for nothing next to nothing taste-wise. So what about all the other letters? Well, not all OPs are equal. If a tea has the presence of unopened tea leaves or flowers, it’s referred to as Flowery or Flowery Orange Pekoe (FOP). If the buds are golden colored and of good quality the tea is called Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe, or (GFOP). If there are lots of the sweet tasting buds, its called Tippy or Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe (TGFOP). Then you can crazy with SFTGFOP or Super Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe and so on. Another classification is a surprisingly good tasting machine processed tea grade called CTC or Cut Tear and Curl tea. A final note, tea grades are applied only to black teas as green and whites are always suppose to be fancier OP picks. Oolongs likewise are special in their pick, often including lower souchong leaves.
Assam is a state in Northeast India. All teas from Assam are called Assams. The most common variety grown there is the native variety Camellia sinensis assamicus. Most Assam teas are malty black teas, but White, Green and Oolong Assams are available. Darjeeling is a district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Some of the world’s most prized Black and Green teas are made here from the Chinese jat or sinensis variety of the Camellia sinensis plant smuggled out of China in the 1850s by British colonists. High grown Darjeelings are picked in three flushes, Spring, Summer and Autumn flushes and produce 1/20th the amount of tea per acre as low altitude tropical Assam. The tea industry in Ceylon was started by British colonists after a pest destroyed the coffee industry there. The Island of Ceylon, off the east coast of India, gained its Independence in 1973 and changed its name to Sri Lanka. The term Ceylon tea is still used however, for all teas produced in Sri Lanka. Teas here are high grown sinensis-assamicus hybrids that can be picked throughout the year. The tea industry in Formosa has produced some of the world’s finest Oolongs. The Island nation is now called Taiwan. However, like Sri Lanka, still maintains the older name Formosa for its teas. Nilgiri is a south Indian name for Blue Mountains. Teas grown in the Blue Mountains of southern India are called Nilgiris. Once a rather mediocre tea, Nilgiri are know well respected and in the tea world. Their mainstay is black tea, but all four tea types can be had from Nilgiri tea estates.
So you bought the really expensive SFTGFOP Darjeeling, India from a really great Estate with a pedigree. Must be great tea. Not necessarily. Tea grades are only a guide. A really nice leaf picked during a really bad season will produce a really mediocre tea. Tea is a crop that yields to the weather. Tea processing is an art that relies on skilled labor. Everything must come together to create a great cup. Tasting a sample is the only way to really tell quality. Broken leaf teas can be good but never exhibit the complex flavors that a whole leaf will. Dust and fannings in this author’s opinion are a total waste of money. With each break in a leaf, more and more of the inner leaf is exposed and more and more oils and other bitter tasting components are infused into a cup. CTC on the other hand, due to rolling that controls infusion produces a great cup, not as complex as whole leaf but great just the same - again depending on all other factors cooperating. Indonique carefully taste all teas that they import before selling.
So what’s better for you Green or Black tea? The jury is still out. But since both teas come from the same plant, they’re probably both just as good for you. Recent studies of humans seem to indicate this as well. The healthy component in tea appears to be organic plant compounds called polyphenols which are antioxidants. Harmless in small doses and mostly not ingested, antioxidants are still viewed as foreign objects in the body which kicks into a hyper cleansing mode to expel them. In the process, the body also expels carcinogens and mutagens that can wreak havoc on the body and cause all sorts of nasty things to occur like cancers. Many researchers believe that between 2 and 4 cups of tea a day can provide maximum health benefits. For extra health benefits, take five minutes from your hectic day and make a cup of tea for goodness sake. For even greater health benefits make a pot of tea and share it with a friend.
A pound of tea has twice as much caffeine as a pound of coffee. But a pound of tea makes about 190 cups whereas a pound of coffee makes about 45 cups. So you’re cutting down on the amount of caffeine you get right there. In addition, why the jury is still out, each color of tea has varying amounts of caffeine. White tea has the least at 4 - 12 milligrams, Green tea has about 12 - 24 mgs, Oolongs 24 - 40 mgs and Black tea the most with 40 - 60 mgs. Coffee has between 60 - 210 mgs. It appears that the longer a tea is steeped the more caffeine it yields as white tea steeps the least amount of time and black tea the longest. We’ll cover this later when making a cup. Many different plants have caffeine and there are about 20 different types of caffeine molecules. It’s a natural herbicide and insecticide that limits the number of pests effecting the plant and kills competing plants around the tea plant. In time, it can even arm the tea plant itself. The caffeine found in tea appears to react differently in humans than that found in coffee. Tea caffeine called teaeine by some, appears enter the system slower and stays longer than that found in coffee. So you don’t get that caffeine jolt with tea.
Chinese folklore has tea being invented in the year 2,742 BC in Yunan Province by Mythical Emperor Sheng Nung, the “Healer Emperor” when boiling water to drink. According to legend, the fire was stoked with branches from the Camellia sinensis plant and dried leaves floated up from the fire and settled into his freshly boiled water immediately infusing into a bright green cup. The Emperor decided to drink the water anyway, liked it and an industry was born. The legend is probably myth, but tea did indeed have a very ancient origin and because 260 of the 380 known varieties are found in Yunan China, it probably did originate in Yunan Province. The first records reference to tea is as an Emperor’s tribute to tea in 1,066 BC. It was called Tu in records from 794 BC and as Cha in 725 AD Chinese records. There was virtually no contact with the western world through this time and the west had no tea.
Tea in the Orient has a 6000 year tea history that can only be touched upon here with some highlights. An appreciation for its popularity can be obtained through the life of Lu Yu author of the “Cha Ching”, the Encyclopedia of Tea. Lu Yu spent years studying the cultivation, manufacture and preparation of tea, tea accoutrements and all things tea of his time. His compilation was an enormous hit with learned Chinese including the Emperor whose patronage made Lu Yu a living Saint. Tea by Lu Yu’s time had been incorporated into Buddhist religious ceremony and traveled to Japan with monks. The fashion of the time was to press and bake the tea into cakes that were powdered and mixed into boiled water. Tea’s popularity continued to grow through the Song Dynasty of 960-1279 during which porcelains and ceramics developed and flourished as an art. Silk and ceramics from this era trickled into Europe and began a quest for this fabled wealthy land. Marco Polo was one of these if not the earliest European traveler to China seeking its riches. Unfortunately, Marco Polo had no tea with the Emperor as the ethnic Chinese Song Emperor was replaced by Genghis khan and his successor of Yuan Dynasty Emperors in a series of Wars that reduced China’s population by one third. Trained from birth to fight, eat and live on the saddle, they, unfortunately for Marco and Europe, weren’t the tea drinking type. The Khans were rulers of a rugged cavalry Kingdom that conqueror much of Asia and parts of Europe before finally falling to ethnic Chinese rebels in a rebellion that was fomented and coordinated in tea houses with secret orders transferred through notes secreted in tea cakes. The new People’s Emperor drank tea peasant style, steeped as we do in the west. The elaborate whisked powdered tea survived in Japan, safe from Mongol invasions. Europe would have to wait for tea, but for long as half a world away, adventurous Portuguese sailors tempted fate and the elements in search of gold and glory.
The vast Mongolian Empire exploded through Asia devastating anyone in its wake. Like no Emperor before him, Khan and his successors unified numerous nations and brought a degree of stability to the ancient Silk Road Trade Route, bringing Europe and the Middle East closer to China than ever before. As the Mongolian empire shrank back into Asia, the western world follow by land and sea into this newly discovered world.
It was in 1498 that the Portuguese made their way by sea round the Cape of Good hope Africa and opened the gates to the vast and wealthy nations of the Orient. Virtually impossible overland treks through often hostile nations and inhospitable terraines taking years could now be replaced with voyages almost unimpeded that took months not years. When the Portuguese finally did reach China, they were promptly sent packing by Xenophobic Emperors and thus resorted to covert trade with daring Chinese merchants. After 40 years of pirate trading, the Emperor decided that he would tax what he couldn’t stop and opened Canton to the foreign devils. The two nations then turned their guns on the Dutch who were next to enter Chinese waters who were forced to trade for Chinese products with Amoy speaking Chinese merchants in Indonesia. The first recorded importation of tea into Europe was by Dutch traders who traded dried sage for tea. England the nation most associated with tea only made its acquaintance after Queen Elizabeth I formed by grant the East India Trading company on December 31, 1600.
Meanwhile, the land route for Chinese products, mainly tea, was still very active. In 1689 Franciscans negotiated a treaty between China and Russia to establish a caravan trading route between two frontier towns. A few hundred camels made the first 18 month trek that year. By 1830, 10,000 camel strong caravans delivered tea to Russia including its famous Caravan Tea that was so called as it acquired a distinct caravan flavor from its long trek. The last caravan left Usk-Kyakhta in 1907, the year the Trans-Siberian Railway opened dooming camel caravans forever. Tea drinking in Russia was quickly adapted and no home was without a proper Samovar, an ancient hot water urn that used a coal fired tube within a pot of water to make a readily available supply of water for cooking and in the end primarily tea. Tea pots were soon fashioned to rest atop the samovar to keep the steeping tea warm. Customary fashion was to make a very strong pot of black tea, if you could afford it, and drink it through a cube of sugar held between the teeth.
Before tea, English nobility were pretty much inebriated all the time. Records show that Ladies in waiting for Elizabeth I were allotted a gallon of beer and a pound of beef for morning breakfast. This situation, no doubt contributed to the situation that allowed for Oliver Cromwell to seize power in 1649 and cut the head off Charles I and send his son Charles II packing off to Holland, Europe’s first tea drinking nation, where he bided his time sipping tea. His time came with the death of Cromwell in 1658 and his coronation in 1660. He then married Catherine Braganza of Portugal the other tea drinking nation in Europe. England now had two tea drinking monarchs. This along with the arrival of tea through the East India Trading Company made tea cool in England. It quickly spread through the new coffee houses that sold coffee and chocolate. These coffeehouses became extremely popular and horrors very democratic. House rules of the time flatly stated that rank stayed outside. No man was expected to give his seat to anyone of higher status. The affluent slummed it and an exchange of ideas between rich and poor turned England upside down. They were called penny universities for the one penny entrance fee and the education one could obtain within, tongue in cheek. The King attempted to outlaw these “Houses of Sedition” by proclamation, which was ignored forcing him to rescind days later. A heavy tax was placed on the popular stuff cause that’s pretty much what government does. This encouraged an illegal smuggler’s or “Free Traders” business. Many in the colonies, like John Hancock and family became quite wealthy in their trade and England’s attempts to control it lead to the Boston tea party and the loss of the American colonies. By the 1840s, tea was becoming affordable to the average Brit and a part of daily use. The notion tea time, a special time for tea also developed. Anna the Duchess of Bedford was credited with inventing tea time when arranging for a small meal to be had with tea at 4 - 5 pm. This was necessary as dinner was usually served at 8 pm and she was, well quite hungry by 5 pm. Apparently so was the rest of England and tea time was the biggest hit until the Beatles. (maybe mention “high tea vs low tea?)
Several European nations claim to have invented Grog. Our favorite story involves the British version. Accordingly, in 1742 British Admiral Edward Vernon avoided near mutiny after cutting his sailors rum ration from one cup to a quarter cup, when his sailors discovered the watered down concoction actually tasted pretty good when the water was hot and steeped in tea. They named it after the Admiral nick named Old Grog because of his penchant for water resistant grogram cloth. A side story, if an 18th century sailor contracted a fever, he was sent to his bunk and administered tea as they rightly believed it was a medicinal drink. His was placed at the foot of his bed. When the fevered sailor claimed he could see two hats, he was cut off the grog and allowed to sleep it off. The next day, he was excused from ship’s duties as he was considered “Groggy”.
The growth and spread of the tea trade in the East involved some amazing and often historical events. China, under threat of beheading, kept the secret of tea cultivation and manufacture a state secret successfully for hundreds of years. Growing demand for Eastern products, tea in particular, drove trade to unprecedented levels. Unfortunately, China, the largest Eastern Trade unit in the east, refused to accept international trading terms and required silver as payment for all sales. The volume of trade was so high that England was being drained of silver and threatened with economic ruin. A solution was found in India, which the East India Trading Company controlled. The plan was to grow Opium in India, provide this to European merchants headed to China under terms requiring they accept only silver as payment in China. This silver was used to pay the merchants debt to English bankers in China, who used same silver to buy tea for export to England. Crisis avoided. Unfortunately, 6 million Chinese were addicted to cheap opium forcing the Emperor to forbid its sale in China. Faced with economic ruin again, the English, in 1842 sent in the gun boats and seized control of large tracts of China during the first opium wars. A second war a few years later resulted in unanticipated expansion of the British Empire. Sadly, at the same time, a Scotsman, Robert Bruce discovered tea growing wild in India and an Englishman, Robert Fortune, disguised as a Chinese merchant, smuggled tea out of China along with details of manufacture. The resulting Indian industry utilizing British manufacturing methods out produced Chinese peasant farmers and new American built Clipper Ships dramatically reduced transit time and spoilage.
England never invaded India. An English company, the East India trading Company, or “John Company” over 200 years managed to control most of it through negotiation and pitting one Indian monarch against another. Things went swimmingly until Indian nationals started thinking of Independence and insurrections disrupted commerce. It was at this time that Parliament declared Queen Victoria Empress of all India and effectively fired thousands of John Company men, replacing them with military officers in 1853. Coincidentally, a new tea initiative to wrestle the trade from China was started in Assam and Darjeeling India by the Tea Committee, established for that very purpose. Any European interested was offered 5000 acres rent free for ten years if they only grew tea. It was a risky venture. One unemployed company man decided to go for it and started Margaret’s hope Tea Estate in Darjeeling India using his wife, Margaret’s money. It was a success.
Middle ages English had only two meals, breakfast and dinner. By the early Victorian era, dinner had moved to about 8 pm. This left a lot of hungry English people. The mid day meal, lunch, was incorporated, but still didn’t satisfy that late evening hunger pain around 4 - 5 pm. Anna, Duchess of Bedford in about 1842, decided enough was enough and ordered cakes and tea as a late afternoon snack and invited friends. It was an instant hit. And because Anna was a close friend of the Queen and sister-in-law to the Prime Minister, it was suddenly cool to put away the tools and have tea and cakes. Soon all of middle class and upper middle class Britain, aping the royals, were having a late afternoon tea, called low tea. A biscuit and tea cake industry grew around it. It was wonderful. Tea accoutrements or equipage proliferated and ladies of the house trained their daughters in proper tea preparation. Their tea service became an indication of social standing. This was low tea. So what’s high tea? High tea is actually dinner time, also called meat tea. Afternoon tea is properly termed Low Tea. In America, the term High Tea has been substituted for low as no one wants to go out for and pay a hefty fee for anything with the word low in it. High Tea is considered synonymous with high Class.
The short story is that tea arrived in America through New Amsterdam at the same time it arrived in European ports on Dutch ships. It was an enormous trade that greatly benefited English merchants when England seized New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed it New York. When The King and Parliament levied taxes on the leaf, an even more lucrative trade enriched many daring American smugglers including some of the founding fathers. English attempts to stop the illegal trade in tea threatened to ruin the lively hood of traders and through the Tea Act of 1773, to ruin many legitimate merchants resulted in protests and the Boston Tea Party and eventual loss of the American colonies. These events witnessed America’s switch from tea to coffee. But it crept back in via iced teas almost immediately. This market is huge and continues to grow as Ready to drink beverages and commercial tea brews. Hot teas are now one of the fastest growing products in the US.
Tea has been a catalyst for much of what we have in modern society. In addition to sober sovereigns and growing the British Empire, tea is thought to have enhanced the quality of life in poorer European communities as tea required hot water and boiled water was much safer than city water of its day. The idea of a tea break civilized and enhanced productivity in the work place. Penny Universities help democratized society in general. Advertising as we know it was invented to inform the public why it had to buy this new unfamiliar product. This wasn’t necessary before new products became affordable and available to the general public.
Start with a good quality whole leaf tea. If you’re making a black tea, rinse your teapot with freshly boiled water. For other tea types, a teapot at room temperature will do. Add one rounded teaspoon per cup desired to the teapot. Fill with freshly boiled water. Don’t use reboiled water as boiling will remove oxygen needed to steep the tea. Let steep for the appropriate amount of time for tea type (Color). Immediately pour off all tea into cups. Don’t leave tea in the pot. It will become bitter. Don’t oversteep as oversteeped tea is bitter. To make tea stronger, use more tealeaf. For a single cup of tea using a single cup steeping device, repeat the same process above including rinsing the cup in hot water before steeping a black tea. The same steep times apply.
The chart above is pretty much self explanatory. Each tea has a steeping temperature and time. For practical uses, steep a black tea in a pot rinsed with hot water. Use a room temperature pot for the other tea types. Steeping time is critical, 1 minute or less for white teas, 1 - 2 minutes for Green, 2 - 3 minutes for Oolongs and a full 3 - 5 minutes for Black teas. In time, you’ll get a feel for what water temperature does for a tea and will refine these times to suit a specific tea.
What is the best pot to use to steep tea? It’s the one you’ve got. Some options for steeping tea include: Yi Xing tea pots made of YiXing clay from China are porous and can acquire the taste of tea steeped in it. Usually used for only one tea type, nearly always green and never flavored. They’re made in numerous decorative forms and are highly prized as collector’s items. Cast Iron Japanese Tetsubin teapots will also acquire a tea flavor after prolonged use. Modern versions are porcelain lined to prevent this. They’re also made in a variety of eye pleasing forms and collected. The English standard, the porcelain brown betty is inexpensive, readily available and probably the most perfectly constructed teapot that steeps any type of tea. In addition to teapots, single cup infusers are available like the traditional stainless steel steeping ball. - easy to carry, easily cleaned and if large enough (1.5 to 2 inches in diameter) will steep an excellent cup. Infuser cups are also a good choice. Designed to fit into a mug sized cup, these devices allow for more movement and better steeping of leaves within the cup and are also easily cleaned and carried. Before using a teapot always rinse it first. If making black tea, use a hot water rinse to warm the pot (Black needs really hot water). For White Green and Oolong teas, a room temperature pot should bring freshly boiled water down to the appropriate temperature. Rinse the pot after use. If you wash the pot, use an odor free soap or baking soda for stains and rinse really well.
Tea storage is simple. Keep it in an airtight container at room temperature out of direct sunlight. The package it comes in is usually fine. Tea will acquire the scent of anything it comes in contact with, so keep it sealed tight if near spices or flavored teas and for goodness sake keep it out of the locker room. Tea will loose its freshness over time. Properly stored Green, White and Oolong tea will last 2 months with no loss of flavor. Black teas can last as long as 6 months.
Just as Gold and Silver were used for currency, because of their value, so was tea. Tea bricks were pressed into bricks that allowed for safe storage and transport. They also were stamped with official state logos that guaranteed un adulteration. These bricks were as good as gold and used as currency in China and Russia. Tea was one of, if not the first new product introduced to the European market that required a marketing effort to push sales. The very first mention of tea in England was in a newspaper of its day that touted tea as; by all physician’s approved china drink called “tcha”…. When Europeans first entered China, they were amazed at the size of her cities, dwarfing those in Europe. It has been suggested that the introduction of tea in China, requiring boiled water, reduced water born illnesses resulting in larger populations. Coincidentally, European populations also witnessed an explosion soon after teas arrival. According to modern medical studies, Asians are healthier than Europeans. Tea, the only thing all Asians have in common has long been suspected as the cause. This had led to numerous studies and the identification and further study of tea components that have and continue to yield new health associations and products. The Irish and Iraqis drink the most tea per capita in the world 6+ cups per day
Congratulations on completing the course!!! We hope we took the confusion out of the infusion. So now it’s time to kick back and relax and drink a cup of tea and experience the east!
Transcript of "Download It"
All About Tea Tea 102
What’s the Fuss? <ul><li>" Thank god for tea! What would the world do without tea! How did it exist? I am glad I was not born before tea." </li></ul><ul><li>-William Gladstone, British prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>" The best quality tea must have creases like the leathern boot of tartar horsemen, curl like the dewlap of a mighty bullock, unfold like a mist rising out of a ravine, gleam like a lake touched by a zephyr, and be wet and soft like a fine earth newly" </li></ul><ul><li>Lu Yu, patron saint of tea </li></ul><ul><li>Tea is the 2 nd most consumed beverage in the world second only to water !! it’s no. 8 in the USA. </li></ul>
What Is Tea? <ul><li>Camellia sinensis </li></ul><ul><li>Vars. Sinensis and assamicus </li></ul><ul><li>Everything else is </li></ul><ul><li>a Herbal </li></ul><ul><li>Tisane versus Herbal </li></ul>
Camellia sinensis Classification <ul><li>Kingdom: Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Magnoliophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Ericales </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Theaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Camellia </li></ul><ul><li>Species: C. sinensis </li></ul><ul><li>Subspecies: C. sinensis sinensis or assamicus </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties : 380 and counting </li></ul>
Parts of the Tea Plant <ul><li>Bud - unopened new leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Orange Pekoe Leaf (OP) </li></ul><ul><li>Top two whole leafs </li></ul><ul><li>Souchong Leaf </li></ul><ul><li>4th and 5th leaf down on a stalk </li></ul><ul><li>Usually called a rough pick that will include stems. </li></ul>
380 varieties 4 groups 5000 types <ul><li>White, Green, Oolong, or Black </li></ul><ul><li>Teas can also be Classified by: </li></ul><ul><li>Nation of Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Province Grown in </li></ul><ul><li>Estate (Plantation) Tea grown in </li></ul><ul><li>Garden within the Estate </li></ul><ul><li>Year the Tea was Picked </li></ul><ul><li>Flush or Season of Picking </li></ul><ul><li>Lot or specific day and Garden Location </li></ul>
Tea Grades <ul><li>OP ~ orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>FOP ~ flowery orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>GFOP ~ golden flowery orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>TGFOP ~ t ippy golden flowery orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>FTGFOP ~ finest tippy golden flowery orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>SFTGFOP ~ special finest tippy golden flowery orange pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>BOP ~ Broken Orange Pekoe </li></ul><ul><li>CTC ~ cut tear and curl </li></ul><ul><li>Dust and Fannings ~ tea bag cut </li></ul>
Tea and Health <ul><li>Green Tea vs. Black </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphenols called Flavinoids & Tannins </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant Activation </li></ul>
Tea & Caffeine <ul><li>Abundant in tea </li></ul><ul><li>One of 20 varieties of caffeine, teaeine, appears to enter the system slower and stays longer than coffee caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine content depends on steep time </li></ul>
Tea and History <ul><li>Tea has an amazing story to tell through its discovery and travels around the world. Let’s take a look at just a few stories. </li></ul>
Tea Origins and Emperor Shen Nung <ul><li>2,742 BC in Yunnan </li></ul><ul><li>1066 BC Yunnan tea delivered as tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Yunnan has 260 of 380 varieties of C. Sinensis </li></ul><ul><li>794 – 221 BC Tu 1 st recorded </li></ul><ul><li>725 AD cha first recorded </li></ul>
Tea in the Orient <ul><li>Lu Yu and the “Cha Ching” in 780 AD </li></ul><ul><li>1191 Zen Buddhist Monk Myoan re-introduces tea to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Powdered tea of the Song Dynasty (960-1279) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Tea Tournaments </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol Dynasty (1162-1368) and Marco Polo (1275) </li></ul><ul><li>1368 Ming Dynasty replaces Mongol Dynasty </li></ul>
Mongolian Empire Wait a few seconds for animation Wikicommons image file
Europe Enters Scene <ul><li>1498 Portugal opens the gates </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch are not far behind </li></ul><ul><li>England enters late with Queen Elizabeth I forming the East India Trading Company December 31, 1600 </li></ul>
Caravan Tea "Ecstasy Is a Glass Full of Tea and a Piece of Sugar in the Mouth" -Alexander Puskin <ul><li>Usk Kayakhta & Mai-mai-cheng 1689, a few hundred camels in 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10,000 camels per caravan in 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>1907 last camel left Usk-Kayakhta – the trans-Siberian RR took over </li></ul>
Tea Hits England <ul><li>1652 Cromwell dies - Charles II returns with Catherine </li></ul><ul><li>1658 Garway’s Advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Era Tea Tax and Free Traders </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Duchess of Bedford </li></ul>
Grog <ul><li>Navy life </li></ul><ul><li>Sailor’s ration of rum </li></ul><ul><li>Ship’s duty </li></ul>Admiral Edward Vernon
Tea and Empire <ul><li>1842 - 1849 The Opium Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Clipper ships </li></ul><ul><li>Assam, India & the John Company </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Fortune and Robert Bruce </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Assam beats Chinese peasant framers </li></ul>
Margaret’s Hope <ul><li>John Company Blues </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria, Empress of India </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Committee </li></ul><ul><li>New Life in India </li></ul>
High Tea <ul><li>The evolution of meal times </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating tea </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization of tea </li></ul><ul><li>Social distinction through tea </li></ul>
Tea in America <ul><li>First arrived at same time as Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Tea act of 1773 </li></ul><ul><li>Iced tea 1904? </li></ul>
Tea and Society <ul><li>Sober Sovereigns </li></ul><ul><li>Safe water </li></ul><ul><li>Tea breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul>
How to Make a Great Cup of Tea <ul><li>Tea grades & quality </li></ul><ul><li>(selection & purchase) </li></ul><ul><li>Teapots </li></ul><ul><li>Steeping the tea </li></ul><ul><li>Take the time </li></ul>
Steeping the Tea <ul><li>Perfect cup of tea </li></ul><ul><li> *Use one teaspoon of tealeaves per cup of tea </li></ul><ul><li>*Steep for appropriate time and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>*After steeping, remove leaves from water </li></ul><ul><li>*Add milk, sugar, honey, or lemon to taste </li></ul>1-2 200 °F Cool Cup Green 30 secs-1min. 2-3 3-5 Steep Time (minutes) 190°F Cool Cup 204°F Cool Cup 210°F Water Temp. White Oolong Black
What Pot to Use? <ul><li>The one you’ve got </li></ul><ul><li>Yi Xing, Tetsubin, Brown Betty pots </li></ul><ul><li>Steeping accoutrements </li></ul><ul><li>Warm pots in cold weather </li></ul><ul><li>Washing the pot </li></ul>
Tea Storage <ul><li>Air-tight inert container </li></ul><ul><li>Cool dry location </li></ul><ul><li>Do not refrigerate or freeze </li></ul><ul><li>Away from direct sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>6 months to 1 year storage time </li></ul>
Why Loose Teas? More Loose Tea to Package = Lower Carbon Imprint Better Quality than Most Tea Bag Teas Nylon Tea Bags = Nylon Infusions Better Control of Tea Strength & Flavor with Loose Tea
Tea Facts <ul><li>Tea Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Began with Tea </li></ul><ul><li>World Health </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Uses </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish and Iraqis Drink Most Tea </li></ul><ul><li>England Does Not Grow Tea! </li></ul>
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