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# Crypto.ppt

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## Crypto.pptPresentation Transcript

• Encryption only the basics
• Why crypto is hard http://www.counterpane.com/whycrypto.html
• Topics
• What is Cryptology?
• Conventional Encryption (secret key)
• Terminology and Properties
• Public Key Encryption
• Terminology
• Usage
• Properties
• Cryptanalysis
• Cryptology Definition
• Cryptography is the making of ciphers and codes.
• Cryptanalysis is the analysis and breaking of those ciphers.
• Cryptology is the study of both.
• Cryptography
• Classified along three independent dimensions:
• The type of operations used for transforming plaintext to ciphertext
• The number of keys used
• symmetric (single key)
• asymmetric (two-keys, or public-key encryption)
• The way in which the plaintext is processed
• Secret Key Cryptography
• An encryption scheme has five ingredients:
• Plaintext
• Encryption algorithm
• Secret Key
• Ciphertext
• Decryption algorithm
• Security depends on the secrecy of the key, not the secrecy of the algorithm
• Use of Conventional Encryption
• Average time required for exhaustive key search 2.15 milliseconds 2 32 = 4.3 x 10 9 32 5.9 x 10 30 years 2 168 = 3.7 x 10 50 168 5.4 x 10 18 years 2 128 = 3.4 x 10 38 128 10 hours 2 56 = 7.2 x 10 16 56 Time required at 10 6 Decryption/ µs Number of Alternative Keys Key Size (bits)
• Feistel Cipher Structure
• Many conventional block encryption algorithms, including DES have a structure first described by Horst Feistel of IBM in 1973
• The realization of a Fesitel Network depends on the choice of the following parameters and design features (see next slide) :
• Feistel Cipher Structure
• Block size: larger block sizes mean greater security
• Key Size: larger key size means greater security
• Number of rounds: multiple rounds offer increasing security
• Subkey generation algorithm: greater complexity will lead to greater difficulty of cryptanalysis.
• Fast software encryption/decryption: the speed of execution of the algorithm becomes a concern
•
• Conventional Encryption Algorithms
• Data Encryption Standard (DES)
• The most widely used encryption scheme
• The algorithm is referred to as the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA)
• DES is a block cipher
• The plaintext is processed in 64-bit blocks
• The key is 56-bits in length
•
•
• Time to break a code (10 6 decryptions/µs)
• Triple DEA
• Use three keys and three executions of the DES algorithm (encrypt-decrypt-encrypt)
• C = ciphertext
• P = Plaintext
• EK[X] = encryption of X using key K
• DK[Y] = decryption of Y using key K
• Effective key length of 168 bits
C = E K3 [D K2 [E K1 [P]]]
• Other Symmetric Block Ciphers
• International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)
• 128-bit key
• Used in PGP
• Blowfish
• Easy to implement
• High execution speed
• Run in less than 5K of memory
• Other Symmetric Block Ciphers
• RC5
• Suitable for hardware and software
• Fast, simple
• Adaptable to processors of different word lengths
• Variable number of rounds
• Variable-length key
• Low memory requirement
• High security
• Data-dependent rotations
• Cast-128
• Key size from 40 to 128 bits
• The round function differs from round to round
• Analysis of DES
• Attacks well known
• 3DES has effective key length of 168
• No efficient software implementation
• Must use 64 bit block
• AES
• AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) was adopted by NIST in November 2001. Also called the Rijndael algorithm.
• Supports key size of 128, 192, and 256 bits.
• Symmetric block cipher with block length of 128 bits.
• Efficient hardware and software implementations.
• Not a Feistal block cipher.
• Location of Encryption Device
• A lot of encryption devices
• High level of security
• Decrypt each packet at every switch
• End-to-end encryption
• The source encrypt and the receiver decrypts
• Header in the clear
• High Security: Both link and end-to-end encryption are needed
•
• Key Distribution
• A key could be selected by A and physically delivered to B.
• A third party could select the key and physically deliver it to A and B.
• If A and B have previously used a key, one party could transmit the new key to the other, encrypted using the old key.
• If A and B each have an encrypted connection to a third party C, C could deliver a key on the encrypted links to A and B.
• Key Distribution
• Session key:
• Data encrypted with a one-time session key. At the conclusion of the session the key is destroyed
• Permanent key:
• Used between entities for the purpose of distributing session keys
•
• Public-Key Cryptography Principles
• The use of t wo keys has consequences in: k ey distribution, confidentiality and authentication .
• The scheme has six ingredients
• Plaintext
• Encryption algorithm
• Public and private key
• Ciphertext
• Decryption algorithm
• Encryption using Public-Key system
• Authentication using Public-Key System
• Applications for Public-Key Cryptosystems
• Three categories:
• Encryption/decryption: The sender encrypts a message with the recipient’s public key.
• Digital signature: The sender ”signs” a message with its private key.
• Key exchange: Two sides cooperate two exhange a session key.
• Requirements for Public-Key Cryptography
• Computationally easy for a party B to generate a pair (public key K U b , private key KR b )
• Easy for sender to generate ciphertext:
• Easy for the receiver to decrypt ciphertext using private key:
• Requirements for Public-Key Cryptography
• Computationally infeasible to determine private key (KR b ) knowing public key (KU b )
• Computationally infeasible to recover message M, knowing KU b and ciphertext C
• Either of the two keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption:
• Public-Key Cryptographic Algorithms
• RSA and Diffie-Hellman
• RSA - Ron Rives, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman at MIT, in 1977.
• RSA is a block cipher
• The most widely implemented
• Diffie-Hellman
• Exchange a secret key securely
• Compute discrete logarithms
• Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
• Other Public-Key Cryptographic Algorithms
• Digital Signature Standard (DSS)
• Makes use of the SHA-1
• Not for encryption or key exchange
• Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC)
• Good for smaller bit size
• Low confidence level, compared with RSA
• Very complex
• Cryptographic Hash Functions
• Example: http:// nsfsecurity .pr. erau . edu / crypto / generichash .html
• Cryptanalysis
• If only the ciphertext is available
• Pattern and frequency analysis for simple ciphers
• Brute force – try all possible keys
• If <plaintext, ciphertext> is available
• Previously classified info is unclassified
• Encrypted info includes known patterns (packet headers)
• For Further Reading
• “Cryptography and Network Security, Principles and Practice” third edition, William Stallings, Prentice Hall
• For more detailed coverage, take the Applied Math course: AMTH 387