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COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1
 

COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1

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    COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1 COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1 Presentation Transcript

    • COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1 Danny Silver JSOCS, Acadia University
    • The Server Invasion
      • The Invasion - IBM Virtualization Engine - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Kbn_MUfTG0E#t=15
    • Size of the Web (Darcy Benoit)
      • Web servers are approximately 0.56% of the total number of IP addresses (4.3 billion), or 0.64% of the "valid" usable IP addresses (3.8 billion)
      • If we could put one server every foot, the web servers would span from St. John's, NFLD to Victoria, BC
      • If each server used only 100 Watts of power:
        • The equivalent of 3.275 Advanced CANDU 6 nuclear reactors (each CANDU 6 = 740 MegaWatts)
      • If each server used 500 Watts of power:
        • That is 16.375 Advanced CANDU 6 nuclear reactors
        • Or more than half of the electricity produced by the Three Gorges Dam in China, the world's largest hydroelectric dam (gross output = 22,500MW, $39 Billion and 17 years to build)
    • What is Virtualization?
      • Perhaps the most important step for modern data centers in terms going Green by reducing energy and costs
      • Provides tremendous flexibility and increase availability and reliability
      • There are many variants of virtualization …
        • Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization
    • What is Virtualization?
      • Great intro by VMWare - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=MnNX13yBzAU
      • Slightly more complex intro  - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=p11lJOnALS4&pop_ads=null
      • Cool 60's-like overview - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=57XDSrwEdRg
    • What is Virtualization?
      • There are many variants of virtualization …
        • Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization
    • Client/Server History: 1980 Centralized DP, DS, DC IBM Mainframe Frontend 3174 Controller Dumb 3270 Display Screen SNA
    • Client/Server History: 1990 Decentralized DP, DS, DC Mainframe or Mini-Computer Frontend Hardware PC Local DP, DS, Low speed DC Terminal Emulation LAN Controller LAN Controller TCP/IP File I/O and Terminal Emulation
    • Client/Server History: 2000 Distributed DP, DS, DC Mainframe, Mini-Computer or Servers Firewall Thick Client Web / Internet Distributed DP, DS, Mod speed DC Peer-to-Peer Internet LAN Server LAN Server
    • Client/Server History: 2005 Mixed Centralized / Distributed Rows and Racks of Internet Servers Early Thin Client Web / Internet Distributed Applications DP, DS, High speed DC LAN LAN Internet
    • Client/Server History: 2010 Centralized Virtual Clients Rack-mounted Multi-core Virtual Servers Thin Client Web Inter-operative Presentation DP, Higher Speed DC + Wireless LAN LAN Internet
    • Internet / Processor Speeds are Key Factors
      • Most significant factors in centralized/ distributed computing:
        • Dial-up (9600 bps - 1 Mbps)
          • Processing must be done at mainframe
        • LAN (10 Mbps)
          • Decentralized processing and display with file /IO
        • High-speed LAN (100 Mbps)
          • Distributed computing and local display
        • High-speed, parallel (multi-core) processing
          • Virtualization
    • Consolidation A P P 1 OS 1 H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 OS 1 H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 OS 1 H/W A P P 6 OS 1 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3 A P P 4 A P P 5 A P P 6 Each server 10% busy 2 kW power Consolidated Server 60% busy 4 kW power OS 1 must be active for all apps.
    • Full Virtualization A P P 1 Win H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 Linux H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 Unix H/W A P P 6 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3 A P P 4 A P P 5 A P P 6 Each server 10% busy 2 kW power Virtualization Server 60% busy 4 kW power Win Linux Unix Hypervisor Hypervisor creates and maintains a virtual machine
    • Impact in the Data Center is Huge
      • Separate servers require:
        • Network infrastructure: NICS, cables, switches
        • Separate disk drives
        • Limited by disk I/O and cable speeds (Mbps)
      • Virtualized servers require:
        • None of the above
        • Share disk drives
        • In-memory data transfer speeds (Tbps)
    • Virtualization System Vendors and Products
      • IBM – System z /VM, System p /Hypervisor
      • VMWare – VMware Server , Vmware ESXi
      • MicroSoft – MS Hyper-V Server
      • Xen – Open source hypervisor
      • Also see this Wikipedia list of hypervisors
      • Not a new concept – see IBM CP/CMS (1962)
    • Cutting Edge Hardware R&D
    • Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization
      • Disaster recovery
        • Server state is always in a file, just recover to check-point
      • Flexibility
        • Server creation, mods and movement on the fly
      • Reduced energy use lower carbon footprint
        • One server versus 10
        • Less cooling needed
    • Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization
      • Reduced operational costs
        • Care for 1 larger server versus 10 smaller servers
      • Better support for users
        • One stop help desk for all server users
      • Greater availability
        • Hot standby made easy
      • Improved reliability
        • High quality server components can be purchased and shared
    • Partitioning
      • A tool used to support virtualization
      • Ability to pool resources (CPU, memory, I/O) into a single logical computer, or logical partition (LPAR)
      LPAR 1 (Windows) LPAR 2 (Linux) CPU RAM Disk I/O CPU RAM Disk I/O CPU RAM Disk I/O
    • A Virtual Machine is a File
      • An LPAR can be completely defined in a file
      • This means that the state of a virtual machine can be saved and moved easily , even on the fly
      • Vmware offers Vmotion
        • Decrease downtime and improve reliability
        • Decrease energy use by dynamically powering down unused servers
        • Reduce IT costs and improve flexibility
      File CPU RAM Disk I/O
    • Network Virtualization
      • VMware ESX and IBM System p ( Live Partition Mobility )
      • Network is virtualized = virtual machine retains network identity (IP address) and connections
      • Ensures seamless migration of LPARs from one physical server to another over high-speed physical network
    • Paravirtualizatoin
      • Xen (open source) full or “paravirtualization”
      • Full virtualization approach:
        • OS is not aware that its is running on a virtual machine
        • H/W and hypervisor handle all virtualization
      • Partial “para” approach:
        • OS must be aware that its is running on a virtual machine
        • OS works with hypervisor to handle virtualization
        • Some restrictions of OS function
    • Operating System Level Virtualization
      • One operating system per physical machine
      • Example: SUN Solaris containers
      • OS is capable of making virtual instances of itself
      • Great for consolidation of e-mail and web servers
      • Limitation: can only be used by apps that run on that generation of OS
    • SAN – Storage Area Network
      • A dedicated network of data storage hardware and software
      • Integrates various storage devices: disks, arrays, CD towers, magnetic tape drives, I/O connect services
      • Software manages all physical storage resources into one logical storage resource
      • Shared access across various servers
      • High inter-connection rates between storage devices and servers
      • Tape backup / recovery can also be virtualized
    • Client Virtualization
      • Estimated savings if desktops replaced by thin clients: 60% energy, 50% costs
      • Installed PCs show very low average use rate
      • Try monitoring your laptop (CTRL-ALT-DEL)
        • Search disk for “supercalifragilisticexpialidocoius”
        • Download a large file from the web
        • View a YouTube video
        • Run a complex calculation or CPU stress tester
    • Client Virtualization
      • Benefits:
        • Low cost of ownership (purchase, energy)
        • Low cost of maintenance (centralized)
        • Security (logins are never local, always monitored)
        • Reliability (boot image control)
        • Common knowledge pool
      • Consequents:
        • Loss of flexibility
        • Loss of multi-media performance on some tasks
    • Blade Servers Why use blade system servers?
    • Blade Servers
      • Standard server-rack configuration:
        • 1RU (one rack unit, 19" [48 cm] wide and 1.75" [4.45 cm] tall)
        • Typically a rack can hold 42 RUs, or 42U high
      • Blade server:
        • Stripped down server computer with a modular design optimized to minimize the use of physical space and energy.
      • Blade enclosure:
          • holds multiple blade servers
          • provides services such as power, cooling, networking
      • Densities of up to 128 discrete blade
      • servers per rack (2009)
    • Blade Servers
      • Reduces complexity of IT components
      • Modular and flexible platform
      • Hardware counter-part to virtualization
      • Economizes on space, power, cooling, management
      • Comes with strong management tools
      • Suppliers: HP, IBM, SUN/Oracle
      • But as of 2007 still only 5% of server market
    • Combining Blades and Virtualization
      • Increased utilization, reliability, flexibility and serviceability
      • IT Admins spend less time managing and reorganizing physical data centre
      • Moves a step closer to dynamic IT or utility computing
      • Backbone of cloud computing