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COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1 Danny Silver JSOCS, Acadia University
The Server Invasion <ul><li>The Invasion - IBM Virtualization Engine - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Kbn_MUfTG0E#t=...
Size of the Web (Darcy Benoit) <ul><li>Web servers are approximately 0.56% of the total number of IP addresses (4.3 billio...
What is Virtualization? <ul><li>Perhaps the most important step for modern data centers in terms going Green by reducing e...
What is Virtualization? <ul><li>Great intro by VMWare -  http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=MnNX13yBzAU </li></ul><ul><l...
What is Virtualization? <ul><li>There are many variants of virtualization … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia -  http://en.w...
Client/Server History: 1980 Centralized DP, DS, DC IBM Mainframe Frontend 3174 Controller Dumb 3270 Display Screen SNA
Client/Server History: 1990 Decentralized DP, DS, DC Mainframe or Mini-Computer Frontend Hardware PC  Local DP, DS,  Low s...
Client/Server History: 2000 Distributed DP, DS, DC Mainframe,  Mini-Computer or Servers Firewall Thick Client Web / Intern...
Client/Server History: 2005 Mixed Centralized / Distributed Rows and Racks  of Internet Servers Early Thin Client Web / In...
Client/Server History: 2010 Centralized Virtual Clients Rack-mounted  Multi-core  Virtual Servers Thin Client Web Inter-op...
Internet / Processor Speeds  are Key Factors <ul><li>Most significant factors in centralized/ distributed computing: </li>...
Consolidation A P P 1 OS 1 H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 OS 1 H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 OS 1 H/W A P P 6 OS 1 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3 ...
Full Virtualization A P P 1 Win H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 Linux H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 Unix H/W A P P 6 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3...
Impact in the Data Center is Huge <ul><li>Separate servers require: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network infrastructure: NICS, ca...
Virtualization System Vendors and Products <ul><li>IBM –  System z /VM,  System p /Hypervisor </li></ul><ul><li>VMWare –  ...
Cutting Edge Hardware R&D
Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization <ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server state is alw...
Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization <ul><li>Reduced operational costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Care for 1 ...
Partitioning <ul><li>A tool used to support virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to pool resources (CPU, memory, I/O) ...
A Virtual Machine is a File <ul><li>An LPAR can be completely defined in a file </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the stat...
Network Virtualization <ul><li>VMware ESX and IBM System p ( Live Partition Mobility ) </li></ul><ul><li>Network is virtua...
Paravirtualizatoin <ul><li>Xen  (open source) full or “paravirtualization” </li></ul><ul><li>Full virtualization approach:...
Operating System Level Virtualization <ul><li>One operating system per physical machine </li></ul><ul><li>Example: SUN Sol...
SAN – Storage Area Network <ul><li>A dedicated network of data storage hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates ...
Client Virtualization <ul><li>Estimated savings if desktops replaced by thin clients:  60% energy,  50% costs </li></ul><u...
Client Virtualization <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost of ownership (purchase, energy) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Blade Servers Why use blade system servers?
Blade Servers <ul><li>Standard server-rack configuration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1RU (one rack unit, 19&quot; [48 cm] wide ...
Blade Servers <ul><li>Reduces complexity of IT components </li></ul><ul><li>Modular and flexible platform </li></ul><ul><l...
Combining Blades and Virtualization <ul><li>Increased utilization, reliability, flexibility and serviceability  </li></ul>...
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COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1

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Transcript of "COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1"

  1. 1. COMP 4923 A2 Virtualization 1 Danny Silver JSOCS, Acadia University
  2. 2. The Server Invasion <ul><li>The Invasion - IBM Virtualization Engine - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Kbn_MUfTG0E#t=15 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Size of the Web (Darcy Benoit) <ul><li>Web servers are approximately 0.56% of the total number of IP addresses (4.3 billion), or 0.64% of the &quot;valid&quot; usable IP addresses (3.8 billion) </li></ul><ul><li>If we could put one server every foot, the web servers would span from St. John's, NFLD to Victoria, BC </li></ul><ul><li>If each server used only 100 Watts of power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The equivalent of 3.275 Advanced CANDU 6 nuclear reactors (each CANDU 6 = 740 MegaWatts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If each server used 500 Watts of power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is 16.375 Advanced CANDU 6 nuclear reactors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or more than half of the electricity produced by the Three Gorges Dam in China, the world's largest hydroelectric dam (gross output = 22,500MW, $39 Billion and 17 years to build) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is Virtualization? <ul><li>Perhaps the most important step for modern data centers in terms going Green by reducing energy and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides tremendous flexibility and increase availability and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>There are many variants of virtualization … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Virtualization? <ul><li>Great intro by VMWare - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=MnNX13yBzAU </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly more complex intro  - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=p11lJOnALS4&pop_ads=null </li></ul><ul><li>Cool 60's-like overview - http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=57XDSrwEdRg </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Virtualization? <ul><li>There are many variants of virtualization … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Client/Server History: 1980 Centralized DP, DS, DC IBM Mainframe Frontend 3174 Controller Dumb 3270 Display Screen SNA
  8. 8. Client/Server History: 1990 Decentralized DP, DS, DC Mainframe or Mini-Computer Frontend Hardware PC Local DP, DS, Low speed DC Terminal Emulation LAN Controller LAN Controller TCP/IP File I/O and Terminal Emulation
  9. 9. Client/Server History: 2000 Distributed DP, DS, DC Mainframe, Mini-Computer or Servers Firewall Thick Client Web / Internet Distributed DP, DS, Mod speed DC Peer-to-Peer Internet LAN Server LAN Server
  10. 10. Client/Server History: 2005 Mixed Centralized / Distributed Rows and Racks of Internet Servers Early Thin Client Web / Internet Distributed Applications DP, DS, High speed DC LAN LAN Internet
  11. 11. Client/Server History: 2010 Centralized Virtual Clients Rack-mounted Multi-core Virtual Servers Thin Client Web Inter-operative Presentation DP, Higher Speed DC + Wireless LAN LAN Internet
  12. 12. Internet / Processor Speeds are Key Factors <ul><li>Most significant factors in centralized/ distributed computing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up (9600 bps - 1 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing must be done at mainframe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN (10 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized processing and display with file /IO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed LAN (100 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed computing and local display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed, parallel (multi-core) processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Consolidation A P P 1 OS 1 H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 OS 1 H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 OS 1 H/W A P P 6 OS 1 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3 A P P 4 A P P 5 A P P 6 Each server 10% busy 2 kW power Consolidated Server 60% busy 4 kW power OS 1 must be active for all apps.
  14. 14. Full Virtualization A P P 1 Win H/W A P P 2 A P P 3 Linux H/W A P P 4 A P P 5 Unix H/W A P P 6 H/W A P P 1 A P P 2 A P P 3 A P P 4 A P P 5 A P P 6 Each server 10% busy 2 kW power Virtualization Server 60% busy 4 kW power Win Linux Unix Hypervisor Hypervisor creates and maintains a virtual machine
  15. 15. Impact in the Data Center is Huge <ul><li>Separate servers require: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network infrastructure: NICS, cables, switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by disk I/O and cable speeds (Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtualized servers require: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-memory data transfer speeds (Tbps) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Virtualization System Vendors and Products <ul><li>IBM – System z /VM, System p /Hypervisor </li></ul><ul><li>VMWare – VMware Server , Vmware ESXi </li></ul><ul><li>MicroSoft – MS Hyper-V Server </li></ul><ul><li>Xen – Open source hypervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Also see this Wikipedia list of hypervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Not a new concept – see IBM CP/CMS (1962) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cutting Edge Hardware R&D
  18. 18. Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization <ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server state is always in a file, just recover to check-point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server creation, mods and movement on the fly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced energy use lower carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One server versus 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cooling needed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Advantages of Server Virtualization and Centralization <ul><li>Reduced operational costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Care for 1 larger server versus 10 smaller servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better support for users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One stop help desk for all server users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot standby made easy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality server components can be purchased and shared </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Partitioning <ul><li>A tool used to support virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to pool resources (CPU, memory, I/O) into a single logical computer, or logical partition (LPAR) </li></ul>LPAR 1 (Windows) LPAR 2 (Linux) CPU RAM Disk I/O CPU RAM Disk I/O CPU RAM Disk I/O
  21. 21. A Virtual Machine is a File <ul><li>An LPAR can be completely defined in a file </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the state of a virtual machine can be saved and moved easily , even on the fly </li></ul><ul><li>Vmware offers Vmotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease downtime and improve reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease energy use by dynamically powering down unused servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce IT costs and improve flexibility </li></ul></ul>File CPU RAM Disk I/O
  22. 22. Network Virtualization <ul><li>VMware ESX and IBM System p ( Live Partition Mobility ) </li></ul><ul><li>Network is virtualized = virtual machine retains network identity (IP address) and connections </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures seamless migration of LPARs from one physical server to another over high-speed physical network </li></ul>
  23. 23. Paravirtualizatoin <ul><li>Xen (open source) full or “paravirtualization” </li></ul><ul><li>Full virtualization approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS is not aware that its is running on a virtual machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H/W and hypervisor handle all virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial “para” approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS must be aware that its is running on a virtual machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS works with hypervisor to handle virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some restrictions of OS function </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operating System Level Virtualization <ul><li>One operating system per physical machine </li></ul><ul><li>Example: SUN Solaris containers </li></ul><ul><li>OS is capable of making virtual instances of itself </li></ul><ul><li>Great for consolidation of e-mail and web servers </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation: can only be used by apps that run on that generation of OS </li></ul>
  25. 25. SAN – Storage Area Network <ul><li>A dedicated network of data storage hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates various storage devices: disks, arrays, CD towers, magnetic tape drives, I/O connect services </li></ul><ul><li>Software manages all physical storage resources into one logical storage resource </li></ul><ul><li>Shared access across various servers </li></ul><ul><li>High inter-connection rates between storage devices and servers </li></ul><ul><li>Tape backup / recovery can also be virtualized </li></ul>
  26. 26. Client Virtualization <ul><li>Estimated savings if desktops replaced by thin clients: 60% energy, 50% costs </li></ul><ul><li>Installed PCs show very low average use rate </li></ul><ul><li>Try monitoring your laptop (CTRL-ALT-DEL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search disk for “supercalifragilisticexpialidocoius” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download a large file from the web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View a YouTube video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run a complex calculation or CPU stress tester </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Client Virtualization <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost of ownership (purchase, energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost of maintenance (centralized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (logins are never local, always monitored) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability (boot image control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common knowledge pool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of multi-media performance on some tasks </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Blade Servers Why use blade system servers?
  29. 29. Blade Servers <ul><li>Standard server-rack configuration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1RU (one rack unit, 19&quot; [48 cm] wide and 1.75&quot; [4.45 cm] tall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically a rack can hold 42 RUs, or 42U high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blade server: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripped down server computer with a modular design optimized to minimize the use of physical space and energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blade enclosure: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>holds multiple blade servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides services such as power, cooling, networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Densities of up to 128 discrete blade </li></ul><ul><li>servers per rack (2009) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Blade Servers <ul><li>Reduces complexity of IT components </li></ul><ul><li>Modular and flexible platform </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware counter-part to virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>Economizes on space, power, cooling, management </li></ul><ul><li>Comes with strong management tools </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers: HP, IBM, SUN/Oracle </li></ul><ul><li>But as of 2007 still only 5% of server market </li></ul>
  31. 31. Combining Blades and Virtualization <ul><li>Increased utilization, reliability, flexibility and serviceability </li></ul><ul><li>IT Admins spend less time managing and reorganizing physical data centre </li></ul><ul><li>Moves a step closer to dynamic IT or utility computing </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone of cloud computing </li></ul>
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