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  1. 1. BEVERAGES N° 1 1 / 07 COFFEE: WHEREVER, WHENEVER, HOWEVER CONTENTS • Coffee: The coffee tree conquers the world • Coffee: Nectar from a red fruit • Caffeine: Not only in coffee • Coffee: Health and benefits • A coffee for every occasion
  2. 2. 2 COFFEE: w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r Coffee varietes: 2 ⁄ 3 Arabica 1 ⁄ 3 Robusta E D i TO R i A l Together with cereals, coffee is one of the major goods traded on the world commodities mar- ket. A universally appreciated drink, it can be prepared and enjoyed in thousands of ways. Coffee is consist- ently the subject of many scientific studies. Recent studies on the effects of coffee and caffeine confirm what we have known for a long time. Cof- fee has a positive effect on body and health. Therefore, we would like to bring the stimulating and wonderful world of coffee closer to you. Coffee: The coffee tree conquers the world Coffee is an important product on the world market. Quality and Sascha Türler-Inderbitzin quantity depend on cooperation between economic players – NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL growers, producers and consumers. Strategic Business Division The coffee shrub comes from the high plateau originally from the Kaffa region of Ethiopia, where the fruit is still turned into porridge. In the 11th century, coffee began its career as a hot drink. In the 16th century, the first cafés opened in the streets of Cairo, Constantinople and Mecca. They were cultural meeting places for discussions, singing and playing music. Coffee drink- ing was already a social activity at this time. Colonization greatly We would like to thank everyone for their con- tribution and support in completing this edition. contributed to the expansion of coffee-growing in all the equato- Special thanks goes to NESTLÉ Switzerland, rial regions and, due to this development, the first cafés opened SERVICE NUTRITION, for their cooperation in Europe in the 17th century, when this new exotic drink came and enthusiasm. on the scene. Coffee is grown all around the equator, from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Tropic of Cancer The coffee tree belongs to the rubiacea family and grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions above and below the equator, known as the coffee belt. The main growing regions are Latin America (in particular Brazil), Asia and Africa. The annual global coffee harvest now amounts to about 7 million tons per year. Three quarters comprises different varieties of Arabica (Coffea arabica) and one quarter Robusta (Coffea canephora), which has a stronger taste. NutriPro Beverages 1/07
  3. 3. 3 Coffee Main growing regions Arabica Robusta Mexico Capricorn Cote d’ivoire Ethiopia Colombia Uganda O° indonesia Brazil Cancer Some differences between Arabica and Robusta coffee Arabica Robusta Time from flower to ripe cherry 9 months 10–11 months Ripe cherries fall stay Yield (kg beans/ha) 1500–3000 2300–4000 Root system deep shallow Optimum temperature 15–24° C 24–30° C (yearly average) Optimum rainfall 1500–2000 mm 2000–3000 mm Optimum growth 1000–2000 m 0–700 m Caffeine content of beans 0.8 – 1.4% 1.7 – 4.0% Shape of bean flat oval Typical brew characteristics acidity bitterness, full Body average 1.2% average 2.0% NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
  4. 4. 4 COFFEE: w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r The roasting process turns the bean brown Coffee: Nectar from a red fruit The whole art of transforming coffee is in the control of the different phases that preserve all its aromatic components. The technologies first used (roasting – grinding – infusing) have been complemented by numerous intermediary steps aimed G O O D TO K N OW at optimizing coffee flavor and aroma. The triumph of From the red berry to the brown coffee bean NESCAFÉ – made In the tropical climate of the coffee-growing regions, coffee trees of 100% coffee blossom and produce berries at precise periods of the year. These periods vary from region to region all around the coffee belt At a time when producers’ ware- with the result that coffee can be harvested throughout the year. houses could hold no more coffee, Around 5 kg of coffee berries must be picked – by hand – to around the end of the 1920ies, Brazil, which was the world’s major obtain 1 kg of green coffee beans. coffee producing country, asked NESTlé if there was some way to The preliminary treatment of the ripe berries can be dry (dry preserve their precious merchandise. process) or in water (washed process). In the latter case, the ber- They wanted to control the fluctua- ries go through a de-pulper that removes the pulp and skin. tion in annual production, save The result is parchment coffee, when the coffee bean is still cov- warehouse space and in particular offer the consumer a new ready-to- ered by a thin layer of its pulp, or mucilage. It is fermented for a use product: soluble coffee in cubes. few hours and then extensively rinsed in water and spread out to dry in the sun. Finally, it is hulled, resulting in the green coffee The idea was as brilliant as the chal- lenge was difficult. The major prob- lems were the solubility of the prod- uct and the preservation of the aroma. After seven years of intense research and development, NESTlé finally launched its first NESCAFé in 1938. it was not in the form of cubes but in a powder that could be served in the quantity desired and dis- solved easily. in its 68 years, NESCAFé has benefit- beans used by coffee manufactures. Alternatively, when under- ed from many technological advanc- going dry processing the berries are dried in the sun for two to es, particularly spray-drying and three weeks. After this the shell, which comprises the skin, the freeze-drying. Currently, NESTlé is pulp and the parchment, is removed mechanically and the green the undisputed leader in soluble coffee. Of the 24,500 cups of coffee coffee beans are packed in bags and transported to their final drunk around the world every destination. Dry post-harvest treatment produces stronger tast- second, more than 4000 are cups ing varieties than wet processing. of NESCAFé. The blending of different green coffees by specialists is the first There have long been numerous step in defining the aroma and taste of the finished product. varieties of NESCAFé. They are char- acterized by the different amounts Roasting is the next decisive step. The coffee beans are heated of Arabica and Robusta in the blend, for 5 to 15 minutes at temperatures between 190 and 250°C by the grade of roasting and by their (374°– 418°F). During the roasting process the beans dry and caffeine content. All are subject to increase in volume, and at the same time turn brown. They take the strictest purity standards: on a dark brown color and the characteristic roasted coffee aro- NESCAFé is made of 100% coffee. ma and flavor develop. The whole or ground roasted coffee beans are then sold and should be used quickly. NutriPro Beverages 1/07
  5. 5. 5 Coffee The mystery of aroma Aroma profiles for Arabica During the transformation process, all the operator’s attention is and Robusta coffees focused on capturing the aroma. More than one thousand highly The two varieties Arabica and volatile components have already been identified. They are Robusta are clearly differentiated created during roasting as a result of particular chemical reac- by their aroma. Arabica is a variety tions. It is interesting to note that the dominant elements, when that is milder, more aromatic taken separately, do not smell like freshly roasted coffee at all. and more acidic. It is perceived as It is only when they are put together that they are perceived pleasantly acidic. It grows ideally as coffee aroma. Because coffee quality is mainly identified by its on high plateaus in tropical regions. aroma, the coffee we know today does not have anything in Robusta has a stronger taste, is common with the strong, bitter and acidic drink that first con- more bitter and grows better in quered the world. humid valley forests. Roasting naturally plays an essential role in developing the respective aromatic characteristics as well. Arabica Robusta Overall aroma Astringent Coffee aroma Overall taste Bitter Acid Coffee taste Sweet acid Fruity Earthy Caramel Mouldy Roasted Fermented Green vegetable Sacking Cereal Rubber Base Chemical/ pharmaceutical NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
  6. 6. 6 COFFEE: w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r 17% of green coffee is used to make soluble coffee G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Soluble coffee Around 17% of the green coffee produced worldwide is used to Caffeine make soluble coffee. The beans are first roasted and then Caffeine is an extracted with water, after which the coffee extract is dried. alkaloid that To give soluble coffee the quality and the exquisite aroma is found in the of fresh coffee, NESTLÉ specialists have developed processes beans, leaves, that preserve coffee’s delicate aromatic components. and fruit of over 60 plants, e.g. coffee, tea yerba mate, cacao To produce the coffee extract, the roasted coffee must first be (see above). It acts as a stimulant ground very evenly. The ground coffee is then infused in water on the central nervous system, above 100°C to extract the aromas and the soluble compounds, improves alertness and awareness which makes up the beverage. Aromas are captured at various and removes tiredness. The caffeine stages of the process and re-incorporated into the product during content in coffee varies widely de- pending on the type of coffee (e.g. a later phase (before drying). The extract is concentrated in evap- the Robusta variety contains more orators. Lastly, the drying itself is done by either spray-drying than the double the caffeine than or freeze-drying. In a spray-dryer, the extract is sprayed with mi- Arabica coffee) and the method of nuscule drops and dried with hot air. Freeze-drying heats the preparation used. Generally, dark frozen extract gently under very low pressure so that the ice is roast coffee has less caffeine than transformed directly into water vapor. This gentle heating tech- light roast because during the roast- ing process caffeine decreases. nique tends to preserve the aroma better, though both drying processes produce soluble coffee of premium quality. G O O D TO K N OW Decaffeination Caffeine is the most well-known substance in coffee. It is usually ap- preciated for its stimulating effect. Some consumers, however, prefer to enjoy the full flavor of coffee without this effect. Different pro- cesses have thus been developed to eliminate caffeine from the coffee bean in order to obtain a coffee with all its flavor but without the stimulation effect. The generally preferred method uses water only, but solvents or supercritical carbon dioxide may also be used. Almost all the methods of decaffeinating coffee consist of soaking the beans in water to dissolve the caffeine, extracting the caffeine with either a solvent or activated carbon, and then re-soaking the beans in the decaffeinated water to reabsorb the flavor compounds that were re- moved in the initial extraction. If a solvent is used, no residues are left in the coffee. However, all brands of decaffeinated coffee still contain very low residual caffeine. Drinking twenty cups of decaf in a row may therefore deliver as much caffeine as one cup of regular coffee. NutriPro Beverages 1/07
  7. 7. 7 Coffee Caffeine: Not Food/beverage Average value [mg] Range [mg] only in coffee Coffee Filter coffee (150 ml) 115 60–180 Soluble coffee (150 ml) 65 30–120 Caffeine is found in coffee, tea* Decaffeinated coffee (150 ml) 3 1–5 (black tea, green tea and mate), Espresso (30 ml) 40 30–50 cocoa, guarana and cocoa-based Tea drinks. The caffeine content of Infused tea (150 ml) 40 20–90 foods and beverages made from Instant tea (150 ml) 30 25–50 these products varies according to Iced tea (240 ml) 45 45–50 the plant used to begin with, the Sodas and energy drinks variety, the treatment undergone Cola-based drinks ( 300 ml) 40 35–55 and the method of preparation. Energy drinks l (250 ml) 80 n.a. Cocoa-based beverages *For tea the term used is theine, Cocoa drinks (150 ml) 5 2–20 which has the same chemical Chocolate milk (240 ml) 6 2–7 structure as caffeine. Chocolate Milk chocolate (100 g) 15 3–35 Dark chocolate (100 g) 90 50–110 Cooking chocolate (30 g) 26 n.a. NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
  8. 8. 8 COFFEE: w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r Coffee activates the nervous system G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Coffee: Health and benefits Coffee is rich in Just like any other food, coffee contains nutrients, for example antioxidants niacin, potassium, magnesium and manganese. The physio- Coffee is a major source of dietary logical action of coffee comes mainly from caffeine and from its antioxidants, mainly polyphenols. high concentration of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds It is well-established that antioxi- (polyphenols). dants help fight free radicals and oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence has established the bene- Is there a maximum daily consumption? ficial effects of regular coffee con- Using studies for quantitative recommendations on coffee intake sumption, probably mostly linked is unusual. The rapid rate of absorption of caffeine, coffee’s most to polyphenol intake, which reduces well-known component, is extremely variable from one individu- the risk of certain chronic or al to another. The average half-life of caffeine (the time required degenerative diseases such as can- for the body to eliminate one half of the total amount of caffeine cers, type-2 diabetes, inflammation consumed at a given time) is about 3 hours and can be consider- and liver disease. Emerging evi- dence also indicates the possible ably influenced by various factors. Pregnancy can prolong the positive impact of coffee on neuro- average half-life up to 100%, while smoking habits increase its degenerative diseases such as Par- elimination. Contraceptives or alcohol also prolong the average kinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. half-life of caffeine breakdown. The amount of coffee suitable Polyphenols comprise a large family for each individual should therefore be determined by listening of natural compounds widely to one’s body and well-being. The average daily consumption distributed in plant foods. Sources of polyphenols include fruits (e.g. of 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day is generally given as guidance; citrus fruits, apples, grapes), vege- this amount can have very positive effects on a person’s health tables (e.g. tomatoes, peppers, on- and well-being. ions), tea, wine, dark chocolate and coffee. They can be classified into phenolic acids and flavonoids. Caffeine and its effect on the central nervous system Caffeine’s effect on the nervous system is well-established. It improves reaction and concentration and at the same time delays fatigue. This is one of the reasons it is being studied to counteract the effects of jet lag. Caffeine may also have an influence on the rate of learning for certain tasks. Caffeine also acts as a global stimulant on the metabolism. It ex- plains the capacity for more intense and greater physical effort at work or in an endurance sport. For example, we know that caffeine helps cyclists and long-distance runners to accelerate their speed performance. NutriPro Beverages 1/07
  9. 9. 9 Coffee Caffeine and its effect on your heart Coffee is sometimes linked to certain cardiovascular problems such as high cholesterol levels. Responsible for this effect are the coffee oils contained in unfiltered coffee such as Turkish coffee or Nordic-style boiled coffee. This can be easily eliminated by using filtration paper for coffee brews or using soluble coffee. No other supposed effects of coffee on the cardiovascular system have been demonstrated for moderate coffee consumption G O O D TO K N OW (3–5 cups per day), despite the stimulant present in caffeine. For example, a link between blood pressure and coffee consump- Coffee no longer consid- tion has not been demonstrated, but there are so-called ered to be dehydrating “caffeine-sensitive” individuals, whose blood pressure rises Reworked interpretations of exist- when they ingest caffeine. However, the increase in blood pres- ing scientific studies show that sure for these individuals is usually quite low and lasts only coffee is no longer considered to be about one hour. Coffee is therefore not seen as a risk factor for dehydrating, as it only decreases high blood pressure. the extracellular water and has no There has been some recent positive epidemiological evidence effect on the intracellular liquid (the water in the cells). showing that coffee consumption may contribute to a reduced As coffee is also virtually free of incidence of fatal heart attacks. calories, moderate coffee consump- tion (3–5 cups a day) can thus Coffee and health: Some myths contribute positively to the recom- Much has also been said, but nothing proven, about the possible mended daily liquid intake within effects coffee may have on bone density. Osteoporosis is the a diversified and balanced diet. demineralization of the bones, which increases the risk of frac- tures. This disease is linked to numerous factors; eating habits, in particular calcium and vitamin D intake, physical exercise, body weight, tobacco and alcohol consumption, heredity and hormone balance. Scientific evidence shows that coffee does not interfere with bone health if the daily calcium intake is adequate. High caffeine intake may, however, marginally increase calcium excretion in women with insufficient calcium intake. Another myth is that caffeine is diuretic. Scientific evidence clearly shows that moderate coffee consumption has no signifi- cant impact on overall fluid balance. Pregnancy: 2–3 cups a day Caffeine metabolism is clearly influenced by a woman’s hormo- nal status. Slower absorption of caffeine in pregnant women, resulting in the sustained presence of caffeine in the blood, has been proven repeatedly. As caffeine also passes into the baby through the mother’s blood, the correlation between coffee intake and the baby’s health has been the subject of numerous studies on fertility, miscarriage, low birth weight, retarded devel- opment and cot deaths. No causal relation to coffee intake has been found. The results of these studies show that 2–3 cups of coffee per day (<300 mg caffeine/day) are usually no problem for pregnant women and the foetus. In fact, caffeine has even proven extremely useful in neonatology for premature babies. Since 1913, caffeine has been known to stimulate breathing, and carefully monitored doses of caffeine are administered to new- borns with low respiratory activity as a therapeutic measure. NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
  10. 10. 10 COFFEE: w h e r e v e r, w h e n e v e r, h o w e v e r There are many methods to brew a perfect cup of coffee A coffee for every occasion Most adults drink coffee. They have at least two good reasons: the good taste of coffee and its stimulating effect. How coffee is consumed is a matter of individual preference, offer and availa- bility, and socio-cultural habits. Caffeine prolongs bike Mean performance time at 85% performance in VO2max [min] endurance exercise +51% after ingestion After ingesting caffeine, cyclists of placebo and runners are able to sustain treadmill after ingestion their athletic performance at a of caffeine higher level for a longer period Source: +44% Spriet LL & of time. Howlett RA, 2000. 0 20 40 60 80 NutriPro Beverages 1/07
  11. 11. 11 Coffee More alert thanks to a morning cup of coffee QUIZ A balanced breakfast is crucial for a good start to the day. It has been proven that breakfast improves performance in the morn- 1. In which country did coffee ing, in particular as far as memory is concerned, and a cup of originate? coffee definitely contributes to this. A breakfast rich in carbohy- N Brazil drates (e.g. cereal with milk or yogurt) provides energy and a C Ethiopia U USA range of essential nutrients and coffee contributes to stimulate 2. Which variety of coffee is alertness and awareness. cultivated most? A heavy lunch may induce drowsiness and a lower attention A Coffea arabica span in the early afternoon. A cup of coffee after lunch will over- E Coffea canephora come this. Fatigue also affects people working at night. Coffee 3. How many aroma components helps them to stay alert and to adapt their biological clock to the of coffee have currently been circumstances. identified? D Five hundred E Eight hundred A coffee for every taste F One thousand Coffee can be found in many forms and aromas: roasted coffee 4. Does decaffeinated coffee still beans, roasted ground coffee or soluble coffee. It can be con- contain some caffeine? sumed using different preparation methods such as those used F Yes for filter coffee, espresso or café au lait. There is a coffee for G No every taste. Flavored coffee, vanilla, hazelnut, 5. Which cup of coffee includes more caffeine? caramel, for example, and cappuccino are very E A cup of filter coffee popular with consumers. F A cup of soluble coffee G A cup of espresso So many ways to make a good 6. Caffeine is rich of: cup of coffee A Protein Turkish coffee is a specific way of prepar- I Antioxidants D Iron ing coffee, which is fundamentally differ- 7. For a Turkish coffee you boil ent to other methods: the coffee is tradi- the coffee: tionally boiled three times. The necessary U Once equipment to prepare this coffee is an ibriq, T Twice a small copper pot with a long wooden handle, N Three times and a finely ground coffee (normally Arabica varie- 8. A latte macchiato is ties), that is more like a powder than anything else. D A flavored coffee E An espresso with frothy milk In some regions a cardamom seed is added for flavor. F A very strong espresso Espresso forms a lot of other coffee variations, such as cappuccino (one-third espresso, one-third steamed milk and one-third frothy milk), latte macchiato (one-third espresso and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 two-thirds of frothy milk), or ristretto or corto (a very strong Answer: CAFFEINE espresso with only a small amount of water). Soluble coffee is also convenient for preparing frappé, a cold coffee drink, which was originally created in Greece. It is served with a drinking straw, either with or without sugar or milk. Flavored coffee is a fast-growing area of the coffee market. At the moment there are more than 100 different flavored varieties available. There are two ways to flavor a coffee: a) The flavors are added directly to the roasted beans by spraying them with a carrier oil and the particular flavoring. b) A syrup is added to a hot brewed coffee. NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine