Alternative Energy Sources <ul><li>Presented  </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Pat Murphy, </li></ul><ul><li>Executi...
Oil Alternatives – Six Major Energy Options <ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Other hydrocarbon  fossil fuels </li></u...
Alternatives – Natural Gas <ul><li>Natural gas is used primarily for space heating, electricity generation </li></ul><ul><...
Alternatives – Natural Gas and Depletion  <ul><li>May deplete faster than oil!! – a different pattern </li></ul><ul><li>U....
Alternative Non-Conventional Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Oil Shale  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not contain oil – basis is kerogen...
Synthetic Oils – Canada <ul><li>Projects are mammoth in scale </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies of cheap gas to fuel plants are s...
Alternative – Coal  <ul><li>Major fuel source in the world – provides more energy than oil or gas </li></ul><ul><li>Abunda...
Coal Pollutants
Alternative – Coal and Sequestration <ul><li>Coal industry pitching “clean coal” – remove CO2 (which takes energy) </li></...
Alternative – Nuclear <ul><li>Nuclear Energy – Only “new” (1945) energy source in centuries – U235  </li></ul><ul><li>Rela...
Current Reactors in the World: ~450
Alternatives – Dams <ul><li>Limited number of sites – U.S. “maxed out” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Major ecolo...
Alternatives – Renewables <ul><li>Solar PV/wind generated electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely to provide sufficient...
Alternatives – Wind and PVs <ul><li>Wind turbines the most efficient options – and fastest growing  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Does This Look Revolutionary? <ul><li>GE 1.5 Megawatt Wind Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity from wind costs 2.5 times...
Alternative – Bio-fuels <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a heat source around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass or pl...
Understanding Net Energy <ul><li>It takes energy to process fossil fuels for usage </li></ul><ul><li>Cheapest energy cost ...
Alternatives Summary <ul><li>Bio fuels, solar, wind feasibility – all in question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proponents have no...
Why Not Spend More on R and D ? <ul><li>In a century of technologic process only one new fuel source discovered (but Urani...
“ We Need a New Clean Source of Energy!” <ul><li>How would we find it? </li></ul><ul><li>Send out prospectors?  </li></ul>...
Finding Basic Things <ul><li>There are 110 natural elements </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery history of the elements  </li></ul...
The Shocking Possibility <ul><li>There may be no “satisfactory” alternatives  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfactory – Maintai...
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Alternative energy sources

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  • What about gasification or pyrolysis of waste materials such as crop and forest wastes, sewage sludges, MSW and the like?
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  • Alternative Energy Sources Today I’m going to review the oil alternatives that we have in this country and in the world
  • Alternative energy sources

    1. 1. Alternative Energy Sources <ul><li>Presented </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Pat Murphy, </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Director </li></ul><ul><li>Community Service, </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Springs, OH 45387 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Oil Alternatives – Six Major Energy Options <ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Other hydrocarbon fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil shale – heavy oil – tar sands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal (less energy per lb., more pollutants) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy – “newest” (1950s) energy source – uranium </li></ul><ul><li>Dams – Not renewable (they silt), limited by sites available </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative energy (renewables) – wind turbines, PVs, biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal ideas – mirrors, solar towers, tidal surge </li></ul>
    3. 3. Alternatives – Natural Gas <ul><li>Natural gas is used primarily for space heating, electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is the key ingredient in agricultural fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Main material for hydrogen (natural gas – 48%, oil – 30%, coal – 18%) </li></ul><ul><li>Not a viable replacement for oil – hard to ship – a regional fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. only imports from Canada and Mexico via pipeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the key solutions to the oil shock of the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in automobile engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda selling a natural gas Civic with home gas dispenser </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Alternatives – Natural Gas and Depletion  <ul><li>May deplete faster than oil!! – a different pattern </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Canada have huge supplies – but are using it quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Future of the Oil and Gas Industry: Past Approaches, New Challenges, Harry J. Longwell, 3 Director and Executive VP, Exxon Mobil Corporation, World Energy Vol. 5 No. # 2002 </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Alternative Non-Conventional Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Oil Shale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not contain oil – basis is kerogen – add water/ heat to get oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste volume greater than ore volume – must be mined like coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs lots of water – found in water scare areas – Colorado Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy Oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very thick – limited uses (bunker oil) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major source – Venezuela </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Tar Sands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term production by SynFuels – 500,000 barrels daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of world oil production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located mostly in Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Sizable but not huge potential – Currently about 4% of energy  </li></ul>
    6. 6. Synthetic Oils – Canada <ul><li>Projects are mammoth in scale </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies of cheap gas to fuel plants are shrinking </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply limits </li></ul><ul><li>Need to excavate ever-greater thicknesses of overburden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposits are buried – a mining operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May require nuclear plants to produce the steam used in the extraction process. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the more favorable locations have been exploited. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Alternative – Coal <ul><li>Major fuel source in the world – provides more energy than oil or gas </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant but dirty and inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Less energy (1/2) per pound than oil/gas – and much more polluting </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid synthetic fuels can be made from coal </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of coal with different heat values </li></ul><ul><li>Converting coal to energy is energy expensive </li></ul>
    8. 8. Coal Pollutants
    9. 9. Alternative – Coal and Sequestration <ul><li>Coal industry pitching “clean coal” – remove CO2 (which takes energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Removed CO2 is then “sequestered” – new “cool” word </li></ul><ul><li>Means “bury or dump in ocean” – and hope it stays there! </li></ul><ul><li>What if CO2 gets loose? </li></ul><ul><li>Life may not survive the burning of all available coal – clean or not! </li></ul>
    10. 10. Alternative – Nuclear <ul><li>Nuclear Energy – Only “new” (1945) energy source in centuries – U235 </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively “safe” when operating – No new Chernobyl or 3 Mile Island </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But accidents could be catastrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price-Anderson Act law in 1957 passed exempting liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still in force – utilities won’t build new plants without it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uranium will be available for some decades – but not forever </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental issue is radioactive wastes – last for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of hype – Fusion reactors, breeder reactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No successes after decades of efforts – $billions wasted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of reactors needed to carry most of load is phenomenal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two orders of magnitude over current installation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Current Reactors in the World: ~450
    12. 12. Alternatives – Dams <ul><li>Limited number of sites – U.S. “maxed out” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Major ecological effect – destruction of species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In third world they destroy many homes and natural processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Dams will eventually fill with silt – not “renewable” </li></ul><ul><li>  Forced relocation of people – heavy human toll </li></ul><ul><li>  Nobody in U.S. is proposing dams! </li></ul>
    13. 13. Alternatives – Renewables <ul><li>Solar PV/wind generated electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely to provide sufficient quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sun and wind are diffuse, seasonal and intermittent </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies are over 50 years old </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense development in last 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of sites are limited </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and PVs don’t “scale” and don’t “dispatch” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew Simmons – Energy Investment Banker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    14. 14. Alternatives – Wind and PVs <ul><li>Wind turbines the most efficient options – and fastest growing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of projected alternative supply is wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the rest is wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But turbines are an old technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaics (PVs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PV prices decreased 90% in 1st 12 years – flat in last 13. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV efficiency went from 8% to 16% in first 10 years – little improvement since </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most renewables generate only electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less flexible than oil or natural gas </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Does This Look Revolutionary? <ul><li>GE 1.5 Megawatt Wind Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity from wind costs 2.5 times that from nuclear or gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Academy of Engineering (RAE), 03/10/04 Study </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Alternative – Bio-fuels <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a heat source around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass or plant </li></ul><ul><li>Wood for burning still a major source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Main interest is ethanol for operation cars </li></ul><ul><li>David Pimenthal thesis for ethanol – negative net energy </li></ul>
    17. 17. Understanding Net Energy <ul><li>It takes energy to process fossil fuels for usage </li></ul><ul><li>Cheapest energy cost to process fuels is Saudi Arabia oil </li></ul><ul><li>Most expensive energy cost to process fuels are the non-conventional fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Also energy costly to produce bio-diesel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative net energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vital to understand the concept of net energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains poor prospect for many alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different than $$ cost </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Alternatives Summary <ul><li>Bio fuels, solar, wind feasibility – all in question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proponents have not yet made the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabulating sun energy per sq foot is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tar sands, oil shale not proven after more than 40 years </li></ul><ul><li>Government is committing to nuclear power and coal </li></ul><ul><li>Huge problem with both is poisonous waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequestration is the “sales pitch” of the coal advocates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No new fuels are likely and old fuels still dirty </li></ul>
    19. 19. Why Not Spend More on R and D ? <ul><li>In a century of technologic process only one new fuel source discovered (but Uranium first discovered in 18th century) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power took decades to develop and commercialize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1930-2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After seventy years nuclear still provides only 8% of U.S. energy </li></ul><ul><li>All the other fuels (oil, coal, gas) were known for a long time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal for centuries! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and gas since late 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early large dam was a marble structure built in 1660 in India </li></ul>
    20. 20. “ We Need a New Clean Source of Energy!” <ul><li>How would we find it? </li></ul><ul><li>Send out prospectors? </li></ul><ul><li>Look in the national labs for a new element? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Star Trek Dilethium crystals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dig more holes? Dive deeper? Fly higher? </li></ul><ul><li>Many pie in the sky energy things have already failed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion, breeder reactors </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Finding Basic Things <ul><li>There are 110 natural elements </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery history of the elements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13 – pre 1700 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 – 1700s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 – 1800s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>27 – 1900s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All 20th century finds based on Uranium – and are dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Most created in labs – only a few atoms of each </li></ul><ul><li>All these are highly toxic to living forms </li></ul>
    22. 22. The Shocking Possibility <ul><li>There may be no “satisfactory” alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfactory – Maintain current energy consumption rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eternal progress based on burning fossil fuels is not sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>We must change to a different way of living without the dreams of eternal material and mechanical progress </li></ul><ul><li>This may save us from ourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planetary degradation based on burning fossil fuels </li></ul></ul>

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