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  1. 1. University of Koblenz-Landau July 22th, 2005 Campus Koblenz English department SS 2005 IFA Children’s literature and area studies Dr. Isabel Martin Presentation: Simone Kosica, Danielle Puhl, Catherine Henkel, Tina Wichmann Food & eating habits Reasons for the topic Meals and food are part of the daily routine of every human being. We need food to get energy for the whole day. It is important to teach children to live a healthy life, especially to enjoy a good nourishment. Different food can give the children a first impression of cultural awareness. The comparison of a typical German and a typical English breakfast will support this. By laying the table the children are active participants, so that they will be able to learn new words belonging to this topic. Afterwards the children should be able to use the vocabulary if they make a trip abroad on holiday, for example. Daily activities always show differences from country to country. Eating together has always a social aspect. A family mostly sits together and talks about the activities of the day. Preparing a fruit salad teaches the children an opportunity for a healthy meal. Meals in Great Britain The English have no way of saying “Guten Appetit” like we do in Germany. An unspoken rule is to begin to eat only if every person is sitting on the table. You should not put your hands on the table unless you need them for using your cutlery. This would be very impolite. Breakfast (between 7:00 – 9:00 a.m.): This means literally “to break fast”. If you eat no food for a period of time (e.g. at night when you are sleeping), you are fasting. You break the fast with the first meal of the day. This first meal of the day is usually eaten in the early part of the morning. It’s a tradition in some families that one family member gets up earlier as the others to serve them a cup of tea and some biscuits while they are still lying in bed. This tradition is called the “early morning tea”. British people usually enjoy a great breakfast with many different kinds of food: • cereals (with milk and sugar) • jam (made of strawberries, plums, cherries and similar kinds of fruits) • marmalade (kind of bitter-sweet jam made of oranges or lemons including the peel) • butter • toast • roll • biscuits • bread (normally white bread) • fruits (oranges, apples, bananas, plums, pears, cherries, pineapples, strawberries, melon, etc.) • vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, mushrooms, etc.) • baked beans (beans cooked in a tomato sauce, normally eaten on toast) • sausages • bacon • ham and eggs
  2. 2. • scrambled eggs • porridge British people like to drink: • tea (stronger than the one we know in Germany) • coffee • cacao • milk (is often delivered to the front door of the houses) • fruit juice (orange, grapefruit, apple, tomato) Lunch (between 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.): On weekends lunch is of great importance. Usually you have meat with potatoes and vegetables and a dessert. During the week people prefer a light meal like a salad or sandwiches that is often “packed”. “Sunday lunch” is probably the best meal of the week. All family members should come together. Teatime (around 5:00 p.m.): You have a cup of tea with bread, butter, jam, and sometimes cheese, ham or a salad, if you want to. It’s more usual to have scones and short bread with your tea. The tea is mostly drunk with milk or sugar. Action poem: I’m a little teapot short and stout. Here is my handle, here is my spout. When I see the teacups hear me shout: Tip me over, pour me out. Dinner (between 6:30 – 8:00 p.m.): If people have a light lunch on weekdays, they mostly have a big meal in the evening. The traditional meal consists of meat, loads of potatoes and two boiled vegetables. The English like to go out for dinner in one of their large offer of foreign cuisines. “Fish and chips” is a well-known meal that you can buy in special shops. The fried potatoes and the fish are wrapped, mostly for taking it away. You eat it with salt or vinegar. Supper: The English like to have a hot drink (coffee, cocoa, milk) and some cheese, biscuits or cake before they go to bed. Meals in Germany The traditional German eating habits changed in the last years. It’s still a tradition that in catholic areas no meat is eaten on Fridays. Fish or egg will be served instead. Because of their jobs, Germans now eat their main meal in the evening. Meat is still the most favourite food of the Germans and they still like to drink a lot of beer, too. You can find thousands of different beer flavours. Foreign cuisines are very common in Germany. In nearly every city you can eat every foreign cuisine you want to. Of course, the many “Schnellimbisse” and “take-aways” exist, too. Breakfast (between 7:00 – 9:00 a.m.): The Germans like to eat lots of bread. Of course, there is a large offer for bread and rolls. You eat the rolls with jam or honey or if you favour a more savoury start to the day, you can also choose cheese, cold meat, eggs etc. or eat some yoghurt with fruits or cereals. For many Germans coffee is absolutely needed in the morning to start the day.
  3. 3. You will be invited for breakfast by friends and it’s more and more usual to go out for breakfast. Many German cafés offer a breakfast or brunch (a combination of breakfast and lunch) until midday. Lunch (between 12:00 – 1:00 p.m.): For the Germans the main meal of the day is lunch and it is normally eaten between 12:00 and 1:00 p.m. A classic German meal consists of potatoes, vegetables and meat. “Coffee and cake”, the typical German expression (between 3:00 – 4:00 p.m.): Mostly on Sundays you will often be invited by friends to come and drink some coffee and eat cake in the afternoon. The Germans love cakes, so there is an uncountable variety available in the many bakeries. Dinner (between 6:00 – 8:00 p.m.): Many Germans prefer a cold and light meal in the evening that consists of bread, cheese, cold meat or a salad. Games 1.) Presenting new language: This game should be used at the beginning of a first lesson with a new topic. Put a box with items like a saucer, a folk, a knife, a plate, jam, tea, sausages etc. on a table and cover the box. The pupils should come in front to the table and one should take one item out of the box. Start a dialogue with the class: “Oh, have a look! We need a folk. What do we need?”. The pupils repeat: “We need a folk!”. Then you ask the children: “Can you help me lay the table? Who would like to put the folk on the table?”. The game will be over if no more items are in the box and the table is complete. 2.) Fruit salad: All pupils sit or stand in a circle. Everyone owns a card with a picture of a fruit on it. It has to be one empty chair left over. One pupil stands in the middle and shouts out one fruit, e.g. “Apple!”. Everyone with an apple picture stands up and tries to find another chair to sit on. The one who doesn’t get a chair, has to be in the middle now. If “fruit salad” is said, all pupils have to change the seats. 3.) May I take your order: You have to make copies of menus for every group first. Arrange the class room in a way that reminds of a restaurant. The children should ask each other questions like “What can I get you?” or “May I help you?”. The questions and suitable answers should be pre-taught, so that the children are comfortable with them before playing. The game aims at fluency, not accuracy, and you should be tolerant of mistakes. 4.) “Snap”: Prepare cards with pictures of food. Every group gets the same cards. If you shout e.g. “Apple!”, someone of the group should touch the card with an apple picture in a very fast way.
  4. 4. (The history of tea in Great Britain) The first tea shop opened in London in 1717, but tea was very expensive. So expensive that later, when it became fashionable to drink, the tea was locked in a tea caddy and the lady of the house was the only one with the key. Once the tea was used by the guests and family, the servants would use the leaves a second time for themselves and sometimes they even sold them to the poor to use again. Many middle class families scrimped and saved in order to buy tea as it was considered quite a status symbol. Because of its growing popularity (due in part to Charles II and his bride, Catharine from Portugal, who were both avid tea drinkers) and high cost, it was often difficult to get pure tea. It was smuggled in and could be sold used or mixed with other things. As tea became increasingly popular, the government began to enforce more regulations and inflate taxes on it giving them quite a nice revenue. In 1784 however, they were forced to reduce taxes and tea became affordable for everyone. In 1884 the female manager of the Aerated Bread Company convinced the owners to let her open a tea shop for those of the less privileged classes. It was an instant success! Some of the best known tea rooms in England are the Savoy, Fortnum and Mason's, The Maids of Honour and of course, the Ritz. And so, the medicinal beverage that was once the centre of such controversy actually became the crux of a cultural revolution in England. Two points that tea drinkers often struggle with is the question of milk! The first is the question of, "with or without Milk"? First of all Green teas and Mint Teas do not go with milk. They are kept well away from that sort of thing. Milk goes with Black Tea to dilute it’s often bitter and harsh taste and has stemmed from there into an everyday requirement. The second is that of milk before or after pouring the tea into the cup? Does one pour the milk in first and then the tea, or the tea first and then top up with milk? Each to his/her own way, but there is a rather more rooted reason for milk first. Milk was originally placed in the cup first to prevent the gentle porcelain from cracking when the hot tea was poured into it. What becomes more important is whether or not the Tea is brewed in a Teapot or it is being infused in the Cup itself. There are people who place a Tea Bag in the cup, then pour milk onto the tea bag and then add the boiling water. This is not allowed! This way destroys all the culture associated with Tea and needless to say the Tea itself does not infuse correctly. In this case the Milk must be added after the water. 1. Read the text with your group and talk about it. 2. Find a headline and make a nice collage with the most important information and the material you’ve got.
  5. 5. (Afternoon tea) Afternoon Tea wasn't introduced in England until the 1840's, nearly a century later. Anna, seventh Duchess of Bedford is given credit for beginning the tradition. During the long hours between English luncheons (12:00) and the late English suppers (8:00-9:00) she would get a "sinking" feeling. So she sent to the kitchen to have a pot of water, some bread, butter and cakes sent to her in her boudoir (a ladies withdrawing room, not a bedroom) where she brewed the tea and appeased her appetite. She is said to have shared her idea with friends and by the mid1840's, Afternoon Tea had become a widespread social event in England. Along with its popularity came very strict social rules, customs and elaborate accoutrement. Afternoon tea (because it was usually taken in the late afternoon between 3 and 5 o’clock) is also called "low tea" as it was usually taken in a sitting room or withdrawing room where low tables (like a coffee table) were placed near sofas or chairs. Since this wasn't a meal, but rather like a late afternoon snack meant to stave off hunger, finger foods were the common fare. Tiny, dainty tea sandwiches, scones and pastries were served with afternoon tea. Finger foods afforded one the opportunity to take a petite bite and easily maintain a conversation. This is most important as one is not merely taking tea to gain nourishment or satisfy hunger, but to take time to relax, converse and enjoy the company of dear friends. In England, the traditional time for tea was four o'clock or five o'clock and no one stayed after seven o'clock. The menu for an afternoon tea has also changed from tea, bread, butter and cakes, to include three particular courses served specifically in this order: · Savouries: Tiny sandwiches or appetizers · Scones: Served with jam and Devonshire or clotted cream · Pastries: Cakes, cookies, shortbread and sweets This tradition is still kept up in all the fine Hotels in Britain and in little Tearooms all around the country, especially in Devon where the scones are a specialty. In The Ritz London, this is still a big event and one has to book well in advance for this. You start with a selection of very thin sandwiches, like thinly sliced cucumber, smoked salmon and egg mayonnaise and mustered cress sandwiches. This is followed by scones with strawberry jam and clotted cream and a selection of cakes. Tea with cream or lemon is served with this. 1. Read the text with your group and talk about it. 2. Find a headline and make a nice collage with the most important information and the material you’ve got.
  6. 6. (High tea) High Tea is often a misnomer. Most people mistakenly refer to afternoon tea as high tea because they think it sounds regal and lofty, when in all actuality, high tea, or "meat tea" is dinner. During the second half of the Victorian Period known as the Industrial Revolution, working class families would return home tired and exhausted. The table would be set with dinner foods like meat, bread, butter, potatoes, pickles, cheese and of course tea. Because it was a substantial evening meal, traditional British foods like shepherd's pie, Welsh rarebit, or steak and ale pie were often on the menu. The meal was served family style. It was termed "high" tea because it was eaten at a high dining table rather than a low tea table. High Tea, which was served around six o'clock and is in reality a hearty evening meal. It was started in England as a ploughman's or working mans supper of strong tea served with ham, roast beef, leg of lamb, bread and butter, pastries, custard and cakes. Middle class High Tea is a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and Ireland to describe an early evening meal, typically around 7.00 pm. Although, it does not necessarily include tea, it has the following formal structure: • Main course – This is usually either a light fish or meat course. • Tea and cakes The cakes may either be full sized and cut into slices, or smaller individual cakes, or muffins, toast or other sweet breads. In a family, it tends to be less formal and often it is essentially either a regularised snack, usually featuring sandwiches, cookies, pastry, fruit, and the like (in Spain, this is called a merienda), or else it is supper. Working class On farms in the United Kingdom, high tea is the traditional and very substantial meal enjoyed by the workers immediately after dark, and combines afternoon tea with the main evening meal. 1. Read the text with your group and talk about it. 2. Find a headline and make a nice collage with the most important information and the material you’ve got.
  7. 7. (Tea) Tea is the second most consumed beverage behind water. There must be something special about this brewed beverage. If we are to discuss tea and the different types of teas, we must first cover what it actually is. Tea itself has been in existence for centuries, but it wasn't introduced in England until the 1600's. Tea was considered a medicinal beverage and was sold mainly in apothecary shops. Several later brands were even named to reflect this, including "Typhoo" (Chinese for doctor) and "PG Tips" (for pre-gestive). What is Tea? Tea is basically the dried and processed leaves of only one species of plant called camellia sinensis. Interestingly enough, herbal teas or herbal infusions are not really teas, but simply dried flowers and/or herbs. Even though all teas come from only one species, there are three major varietals: green tea, white tea and black tea What is Black Tea? Black tea is nothing more than the leaves of the camellia sinensis that have been processed a certain way. It is one of the four types of teas (white, green, oolong and black). Black teas are the most consumed of the four types of teas. They are the highest in caffeine, but still have antioxidant properties, just not quite as much as others. The Processing of Black Tea: The processing of black tea requires a full oxidation of the leaves. After the leaves are plucked, they are laid out to wither for about 8 to 24 hours. This lets most of the water evaporate. Then the leaves are rolled in order to crack up the surface so that oxygen will react with the enzymes and begin the oxidation process. The leaves are left to completely oxidize, thus turning the leaves to a deep black colour. After that, a final drying takes place. From there, it goes off to be sorted, graded, and packaged. 1. Read the text with your group and talk about it. 2. Find a headline and make a nice collage with the most important information and the material you’ve got.
  8. 8. (What belongs to teatime) Tetley Tea maintains a tradition of quality begun over 160 years ago in England. At the beginning of the 19th century, brothers Joseph and Edward Tetley began to "peddle" salt from the back of a pack horse on the Yorkshire Moors. In time, they added tea to their supplies. The resulting proceeds led the brothers to found "Joseph Tetley & Co." in 1837. Seeking greater fortune, the brothers moved the company to London-then the centre of the world's tea trade-nineteen years later. They eventually parted, and Joseph unveiled the newly named "Joseph Tetley & Co., Wholesale Tea Dealers." In 1871, Tetley took his son Joseph "Junior" into partnership. Business flourished and the company extended its services to include blending and packing. By 1888, the company was ready to take its next major step-an agreement with American agents to distribute Tetley's teas throughout the United States. Joseph Jr. became Chairman upon his father's death in 1889, and in 1913 established Tetley plants in New York City. In 1953 a plant in Savannah, Georgia opened and in 1958 another plant in Williamsport, Pennsylvania as the New York facility was phased out. Twinings Tea Since 1706, Twinings has been at the forefront of the tea trade – blending and innovating; improving the design and the packaging; Customers in more than 100 countries enjoy Twinings products. And not just the popular favourites – products such as fruit and herbal infusions, aromatic teas, and iced teas are delightful to the taste buds. These fresh flavours reflect a worldwide trend towards a healthier and more varied lifestyle. The new flavours are as successful as the traditional ones because Twinings prepare them using skills acquired through three centuries of experience. After quenching thirsts for so many generations, no one knows better than Twinings how to deliver a drink that's in perfect condition. In 1972 Twinings became the first tea company to win a Queen’s Award for Export. Every package of Twinings tea bears Her Majesty's seal. 1. Read the text with your group and talk about it. 2. Find a headline and make a nice collage with the most important information and the material you’ve got. Sources:
  9. 9. 1.) Gorden Lewis and Günther Bedson: “Resource Books for Teachers: Games for children”, series editor: Alan Maley, Oxford University Press, 1999 2.) Fremdsprache Frühbeginn: „Food and drinks“, Bayrischen Lehrer- und Lehrerinnenverband e.V., München Teatime (all sources: 7/9/05 between 1:00 – 3:00 p.m.) - http://www.seedsofknowledge.com/teahistory.html - http://www.seadolby.com/the_seafarer/tea_time.html - http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/HighTeaHistory.htm - http://www.answers.com/topic/tea - http://www.2basnob.com/tea-types.html - http://www.tetleyusa.com/int_story_history.asp - http://www.twinings.com/en_int/company_info/companyinfo.html - http://www.myhouseandgarden.com/English_Afternoon_Tea.htm