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Mastery learning The skill programs offered as The Mastery Learning is based on the philosophy that all children can become achievers if taught at a level of their own proficiency, and encouraged to progress at a rate of their ability to master clearly defined units of learning. Mastery learning proposes that all children can learn when provided with the appropriate learning conditions in the classroom.
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An Overview Mastery Learning is an instructional philosophy based on the idea of giving students more than one chance to demonstrate mastery of content and skills. In a Mastery Learning classroom, as in a traditional classroom, students receive instruction on a topic and then take a test to determine their level of understanding. But that's where the similarity ends. In a Mastery Learning classroom, the teacher scores that assessment and determines who has mastered the content and who needs more help. Students who have mastered the material are given "enrichment" opportunities, while those who have not mastered it receive additional instruction on the topic.
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The new instruction is presented in a different way, perhaps using manipulative or other hands-on approaches. After a day or two, a retest is administered to the group who did not demonstrate mastery. Most of the students who didn't master it the first time are able to achieve mastery on the second test. There are many benefits of using this model, but the most important one is that all students can learn and grow, and no one is left behind. Every time you begin a new unit of instruction, you can feel confident that your students have mastered the concepts needed to embark on new learning.
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For some students, perimeter, area, and volume signal vague, half-remembered rules and formulas.Introducing circumference & Perimeter
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Mastery Learning and Mathematics Instruction Mastery Learning can be used in almost every subject, but it is a perfect fit for math instruction. Math content builds upon itself, and teachers often experience frustration when they try to introduce a new unit to students who never mastered based concepts and skills.
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Mastery learning Approach In Maths It includes direct support and additional instruction in the maths students. Also
Number Sense If area of instruction is; “Number Sense” ie Basic understandings about whole numbers, decimals and fractions, ways numbers can be represented concretely and visually, one-to-one correspondence, part to whole relationships, etc. Then suggested instructional methods are : Hands-on experiences with concrete objects & Mastery Learning
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Mastery Learning Model The application of mastery learning is based on Benjamin Bloom’s Learning for Mastery model, with refinements made by Block. Mastery learning is predominantly a group-based, teacher-paced instructional approach, in which students learn by cooperating with their classmates. However, some mastery learning strategies require students to work independently, rather than with classmates.
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Mastery learning does not focus on content, but on the process of mastering it. This type of learning works best with the traditional content-focused curriculum, one based on well-defined learning objectives organized into smaller, sequentially organized units.
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Instruction Instruction–This strategy captures many of the elements of successful tutoring and the independent functionality seen in high-end students. In a mastery learning environment, the teacher directs a variety of group-based instructional techniques. The teacher also provides frequent and specific feedback by using diagnostic, formative tests, as well as regularly correcting mistakes students make along their learning path.
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Assessment Assessment–Teachers evaluate students with criterion-referenced tests rather then norm-referenced tests. Mastery learning ensures numerous feedback loops, based on small units of well-defined, appropriately sequenced outcomes
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the philosophy of mastery learning. The mastery learning concept was introduced in the American schools in the 1920's. Mastery learning was revived in the form of programmed instruction in the late 1950's in an attempt to provide students with instructional materials that would allow them to move at their own pace and receive constant feedback on their level of mastery. During the 1960's Bloom's (1968) Learning for Mastery focused new attention on the philosophy of mastery learning.
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Bloom (1968) is now generally recognized as the classic theoretical formulation on the mastery model. Bloom suggests that mastery learning procedures are likely to enhance learning outcomes in most all subject areas. However, he suggests that effects will be largest in mathematics and science since learning in these subject areas is generally more highly ordered and sequential (Guskey & Gates, 1986).
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From John Carroll (1963), Bloom derived a critical and quantitative ingredient of instruction--time. In Carroll's formulation, learning is a function of time spent divided by time needed. One important variable related to time needed is student aptitude, which Carroll defines as the amount of learning time necessary for a student to master an objective under optimal conditions. Carroll indicates that if a student is allowed the time he/she needs to achieve a particular level and if he/she spends the amount of time needed, he/she should achieve at that level. Bloom has attempted, through mastery learning techniques, to ensure that almost all students demonstrate high levels of competence on school material and to reduce the amount of time the student needs to learn school-related content.
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Summary Mastery learning is not a new method of instruction. It is based on the concept that all students can learn when provided with conditions appropriate to their situation. The student must reach a predetermined level of mastery on one unit before they are allowed to progress to the next. In a mastery learning setting, students are given specific feedback about their learning progress at regular intervals throughout the instructional period. This feedback, helps students identify what they have learned well and what they have not learned well. Areas that were not learned well are allotted more time to achieve mastery. Only grades of "A" and "B" are permitted because these are the accepted standards of mastery. Traditional instruction holds time constant and allows mastery to vary while mastery learning or systematic instruction holds mastery constant and allows time to vary (Robinson, 1992).
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mastery teaching Another important component of mastery learning is mastery teaching. Teachers and Instructors were found to incorporate new teaching strategies into the classroom that positively influenced both themselves and their students toward the learning process.
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CMLR Chicago Mastery Learning Reading Program (CMLR) is an integral part of language arts instruction in many schools. (It was developed by the Chicago Board of Education in order to systematize mastery learning as the instructional approach to reading throughout the city's schools. CMLR is a kindergarten through 8th grade program that consists of student workbooks, tests and teacher manuals dealing with word attack) Three schools, one in California, one in Ohio, and one in Missouri each have successfully implemented this mastery learning model
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Several points emerge from these successful programs: . Mastery learning provides a model of instruction that is effective for a wide range of students Mastery learning reduces the academic spread between the slower and faster students without slowing down the faster students, The skills and concepts have been internalized and put to use in other areas of the curriculum Mastery learning is an alternative to the unsuccessful traditional methods of teaching and learning.