MEMBERS OF MAHARASHTRA STATE BIODIVERSITY BOARD Dr. Erach Bharucha (Chairman) Hon. Shri. Vijay Khadse (MLA Umarkhed) Shri Praveen Pardeshi Principal Secretary (Forests) Dr. S. W. H. Naquvi PCCF (WL) Shri Anil Digikar (Secretary, Animal Husbandry) Shri Kishore Rithe ( Satpuda Foundation, Amravati) Prof. S.R. Yadav (Shivaji University, Kolhapur) Dr. Anmol Kumar (Mem. Secretary & APCCF (PER))
BIODIVERSITY OF MAHARASHTRA The special features of biodiversity of Maharashtra are related to the great variability in biogeographic regions.Northern Maharashtra has primarily The Deccan Plateau consists of a largelarge tracts of deciduous teak forest. semiarid grassland ecosystem. The Western Ghats are hot spots of The coasts have a variety of forest biodiversity. Its plateau and ridges are types such as mangrove, rocky and specialized habitats. sandy shores. Rivers and lakes are important inland aquatic systems.
ECOSYSTEMS OF NORTHERN MAHARASHTRA FOREST TYPES OF VIDARBHA Dry tropical forests include tropical dry deciduous forests. Sub-group – Southern tropical dry deciduous forests which include Dry Teak bearing forests; Southern dry mixed deciduous forests and small patches of Dry Sal forests.
FAUNA OF NORTHERN MAHARASHTRA Tiger Sambar CheetalSparrow hawk Reptiles are a key component of ecosystems. Spider – a dominant predator of forest insects.
CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF NORTHERN MAHARASHTRA KORKUS OF MELGHAT Korkus of North Tribal village in MelghatMaharashtra - Melghat Korku boy with his calf GONDS OF CHAPRALA Gonds of Northern The bullock cart is still the Sacred shrine in a Gond Maharashtra only viable means of village - Chaprala transport
ECOSYSTEMS OF WESTERN GHATS Lateritic plateau Evergreen forest Semi evergreen forestMoist deciduous teak forest FOREST TYPES: Moist tropical forest, tropical wet evergreen forest Sub-tropical broad leaved forest SUB GROUP Endemic and Endangered flora Western subtropical wet forest
FAUNA OF WESTERN GHATS Gaur Leopard Barking deer The Giant Squirrel – Sambar Racket – tailed Drongo Maharashtra’s State animal Chloropsis Sand boa PythonTree frog Atlas Moth Trap door spider
CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF WESTERN GHATSA pujari in a Sacred Pounding rice Grove - Mulshi Local people are great craftsmen Where is the forest? Katkari people are still forest dependent - Mulshi
GRASSLANDS OF THE DECCAN PLATEAU - SEMI ARID ECOSYSTEM EXAMPLES – NANAJ, REHAKURI, SUPE Mosaic of grasslands, scrublands and Semiarid grassland and the Thorn Forest Thorn forest Babool Thorn forest Thorn forest tracts are the habitat of Chinkara. Grasses and herbs are important Ground floracomponents of regional ground flora.
GRASSLANDS OF THE DECCAN PLATEAU – SEMI ARID FAUNA As grassland are changed to other forms of landuse the habitat of these Wolf animals is lost. Sugarcane, Fox horticulture and industry now dominates this landscape. Blackbuck HareThe Great Indian Sand grouse Buzzard Kestrel Bustard Common calotes Fan throated calotes Snail and Beetle
CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF THE DECCAN PLATEAUDhangar shepherds are Dhangar with flockproud owners of sheep and goats A Dhangar girl with her sheep corralled in a Dhangar girl withDhangars migrate from the Deccan to typical nose ring the Konkan coast following the farmer’s field is paid by availability of grass for their flock the farmer as sheep dung is an excellent fertilizer Traditional jewelry of Dhangars Dhangar boy with his is disappearing favorite kid
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM AND WETLANDSpring – Western Ghats Dam Catchment - Vidarbha Riverine ecosystem – Wetland – Nandur Madhmeshwar Deccan Plateau Wetland – Bhigwan backwaters -Ujjani
FAUNA OF WETLANDS AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS Aquatic systems areRiver tern feeding chick being rapidly River tern nestling converted to other uses or are being affected by pollution. Greater flamingo Black winged stilt Pintail ducks Painted stork Frog
CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF WET LAND ECOSYSTEMS Community fishing Overharvesting of fingerlings Inland wetlands that are formed in the backwaters of dams have become lucrative fishing cooperatives.Fisherflok are ecosystem Making fish trap that lead people to overfishing
COASTAL FAUNA Overfishing is a major factor in depletion ofFishing eagle all types of Sand pipers marine fauna. Prawns Snails Jelly fish Octopus
CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN COASTAL AREAS Marine fish are a valuable Fish prices have escalated as source of proteins catch is diminishing due to trawlingPrawns are an important export Small fishing boats permitproduct sustainable fishing. Large trawlers destroy breeding grounds of fish
GADHCHIROLI – ‘GLORY OF ALLAPALLI’ A UNIQUE FOREST PRESERVATION PLOT FOREST TYPE - Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest SUB GROUP – Southern tropical dry deciduous Forest An important site of old growth forest acts as a benchmark of naturalness.
KAAS – A UNIQUE SITE FOR GROUND FLORA OF THE PLATEAU S IN THE WESTERN GHATSFlora of Kaas Plateau contains a large number of endemic and threatened species.
LONAR -A UNIQUE GEOLOGICAL SITE Lonar Lake is a saltwater ecosystem created by a meteor impact during the Pleistocene epoch
SACRED GROVES - UNIQUE TRADITIONALBIODIVERSITY CONSEVATION PRACTICE IN WESTERN GHATS Sacred groves are patches of intact vegetation preserved by local people which constitute important gene banks. Sacred groove degraded by a concrete pathway
THE UNIQUE ART OF WARLI TRIBAL PEOPLE OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA Dev Chowk Warli belt Jiyva Soma Mashe – the world renowned Warli Artist The sacred Mahalakshmi hill of the WarliPainting showing importanceof Biodiversity in warli culture Rann Bhoot Waghoba Warli paddy field Folktale about the crab Traditional Tarpa Dance depicted in art work
UNIQUE SACRED SITE – BHIMASHANKAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY Evergreen forest Giant Squirrel Tribal village The Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary is notified in an ancient sacred site surrounded by lush Evergreen forest. It is a favored habitatSacred grove of the Malabar Forest calotes Giant squirrel.Collection of local Spider flora for worship Shiva temple – One of the twelve important Jyotirlingas
IMPACTS ON NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY OF MAHARASHTRA The wilderness and Traditional hill slope agriculture-Development in progress wildlife is seriously ‘rab’, based on wood ash impacted by cultivation development, over use and misuse of natural resources. Impact of rural Forest loss – Mumbai – Pune industrialization expressway Impact of tourism on Destruction of plateau Impacts of pilgrimage wildlife vegetation – Panchgani tourism – Bhimashankar
THE UNIQUE WESTERN GHATS This hill range known as the “Sahyadhris” in Maharashtra is an incredible ‘hot spot’ of biodiversity. Its unique features are related to climate, topography, ecology, flora and fauna. Topography Climate Rugged steep western High precipitation in a escarpment with a typical short period. Hydrology crestline spurs and Highly varied plateau tops of laterite hydrological and basalt. featuresEcologyA complex ecosystem of varied forest Fauna and Floratypes ranging from evergreen to High levels of endemismdeciduous forms which are rich in flora with many endangeredand fauna. species. Threats Development projects, dams, ports, roads, mines, and townships which essentially alter traditional landuse patterns
THE UNIQUE WESTERN GHATSCONSERVATION INITIATIVES•Protected areas- Kalsubai, Tansa,Sanjay Gandhi NP, Koyna,Radhanagri, Chandoli.•Ecosensitive zone surrounded ofPAs are still not clearly demarcated.•Corridors- existing and potentialforests identified but not givenadministrative or legal protection.
THE UNIQUE “ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS” OF MAHARASTRA Matheran- Dahanu- Highly threatened forestA coastal area of importance path due to construction for its forest cover and for tourism. horticulture protectedagainst landuse change and power plants. Mahabaleshwar- Panchgani- Highest rainfall in the Western Ghats supports specialized evergreen hill forests and plateaus of great floral endemism damaged by rapid urbanization for tourism. All Protected area surrounds designated as 10km Ecologically Sensitive Areas (ESAs) around all National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.