TOK Prescribed Title # 3Using history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to at...
Identify
Key
Words
and
PhrasesUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible...
Contestable
Concepts
in
ContextUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,ehavene the claim that it is possibl...
Contestable
ConceptUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,ehavene the claim that it is possible to attain ...
Paul Reveres illustraion
John Puffords Illustration
Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowled...
Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that u...
Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that u...
Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or Claim in a way that unc...
The Claim to be ExaminedUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to at...
The Claim to be ExaminedUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that It is possible to at...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to atta...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to atta...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it?
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it?                              Define it
The Areas of Knowledge                              In what ways is it Biased?Using history - What is it?                 ...
The Areas of Knowledge                              In what ways is it Biased?Using history - What is it?                 ...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it?
The Areas of Knowledge  Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the re...
The Areas of Knowledge  Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the re...
The Areas of Knowledge  Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the re...
The Areas of Knowledge  Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the re...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to atta...
The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to atta...
The Areas of KnowledgeYou must choose another aok
The Areas of Knowledge   Natural Science?
The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history?                  Natural Science?
The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history?                  Natural Science?        Yes?
The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history?                  Natural Science?        Yes?                         No?
The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history?                  Natural Science?        Yes?                         No? ...
The Areas of Knowledge    Human Sciences?
The Areas of Knowledge           Human Sciences?Yanomamo
The Areas of Knowledge              Human Sciences?Yanomamo -the mirror of other’s dreams?
The Areas of KnowledgeWhile we’re at it...make sure you define your Areasof knowledge here (i.e. history) but personalize ...
A Worker Reads History by Bertolt BrechtWho built the seven gates of Thebes?The books are filled with names of kings.Was it...
A Worker Reads History by Bertolt BrechtDo history books leave out the whole truth? As history has changed/evolved?,histor...
consider again theCommand Term
consider again the          Command TermExamine
consider again the                                       Command Term       ExamineTo consider an argument or concept in a...
consider again the                                       Command Term       ExamineTo consider an argument or concept in a...
A Final Thought     consider the implications of three popular theories of truth•The Correspondence Theory of Truth•The Co...
The Correspondence Theory of Truth:The Correspondence Theory of Truth is probably the most common and widespread way of un...
The Coherence Theory of Truth:The Coherence Theory of truth is probably second in popularity to the Correspondence Theory ...
The Pragmatic Theory of Truth:The Pragmatic Theory of truth determines whether or not a belief is true or not based on whe...
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  • Tok prescribed title # 3 copy

    1. 1. TOK Prescribed Title # 3Using history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    2. 2. Identify
Key
Words
and
PhrasesUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    3. 3. Contestable
Concepts
in
ContextUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,ehavene the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    4. 4. Contestable
ConceptUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,ehavene the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection Is this true?
    5. 5. Paul Reveres illustraion
    6. 6. John Puffords Illustration
    7. 7. Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    8. 8. Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers theassumptions and interrelationships of the issue
    9. 9. Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers theassumptions and interrelationships of the issue
    10. 10. Command TermUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine Consider an argument or Claim in a way that uncovers the Knowledge conceptassumptions and interrelationships of the issue
    11. 11. The Claim to be ExaminedUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    12. 12. The Claim to be ExaminedUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that It is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection.
    13. 13. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    14. 14. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    15. 15. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history
    16. 16. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it?
    17. 17. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it? Define it
    18. 18. The Areas of Knowledge In what ways is it Biased?Using history - What is it? Define it
    19. 19. The Areas of Knowledge In what ways is it Biased?Using history - What is it? Define it What problems of selection?
    20. 20. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history - What is it?
    21. 21. The Areas of Knowledge Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the relevant facts.What are the problems inherent in this? Doesn’t this filtering depend on thehistorian? The historian’s culture? a host of other things? Despite these problems,don’t we know some history?
    22. 22. The Areas of Knowledge Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the relevant facts.What are the problems inherent in this? Doesn’t this filtering depend on thehistorian? The historian’s culture? a host of other things? Arnold Toynbee: Brilliant British historian or culturally biased, dead, white guy?
    23. 23. The Areas of Knowledge Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the relevant facts.What are the problems inherent in this? Doesn’t this filtering depend on thehistorian? The historian’s culture? a host of other things? Probably both
    24. 24. The Areas of Knowledge Using history - What is it?In History, the historian has to filter information, looking for the relevant facts.What are the problems inherent in this? Doesn’t this filtering depend on thehistorian? The historian’s culture? a host of other things? He is known for radically changing his views (i.e. on Greece/Turkey, pro/anti-zionism) based on argument, evidence and the persuasion of others.
    25. 25. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    26. 26. The Areas of KnowledgeUsing history and at least one other area of knowledge,examine the claim that it is possible to attain knowledgedespite problems of bias and selection
    27. 27. The Areas of KnowledgeYou must choose another aok
    28. 28. The Areas of Knowledge Natural Science?
    29. 29. The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history? Natural Science?
    30. 30. The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history? Natural Science? Yes?
    31. 31. The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history? Natural Science? Yes? No?
    32. 32. The Areas of KnowledgeLess biased than history? Natural Science? Yes? No? Why?
    33. 33. The Areas of Knowledge Human Sciences?
    34. 34. The Areas of Knowledge Human Sciences?Yanomamo
    35. 35. The Areas of Knowledge Human Sciences?Yanomamo -the mirror of other’s dreams?
    36. 36. The Areas of KnowledgeWhile we’re at it...make sure you define your Areasof knowledge here (i.e. history) but personalize thedefinition don’t just webster dictionary-slap yourreader.
    37. 37. A Worker Reads History by Bertolt BrechtWho built the seven gates of Thebes?The books are filled with names of kings.Was it the kings who hauled the craggy blocks of stone?And Babylon, so many times destroyed.Who built the city up each time? In which of Limas houses,That city glittering with gold, lived those who built it?In the evening when the Chinese wall was finishedWhere did the masons go? Imperial RomeIs full of arcs of triumph. Who reared them up? Over whomDid the Caesars triumph? Byzantium lives in song.Were all her dwellings palaces? And even in Atlantis of the legendThe night the seas rushed in,The drowning men still bellowed for their slaves.Young Alexander conquered India.He alone?Caesar beat the Gauls.Was there not even a cook in his army?Phillip of Spain wept as his fleetwas sunk and destroyed. Were there no other tears?Frederick the Greek triumphed in the Seven Years War.Who triumphed with him?Each page a victoryAt whose expense the victory ball?Every ten years a great man,Who paid the piper?So many particulars.So many questions.
    38. 38. A Worker Reads History by Bertolt BrechtDo history books leave out the whole truth? As history has changed/evolved?,history has concerned itself more with the unexplored details. The daily life ofthe little guy has become a major focus of history study but we still knowabout Caesar.
    39. 39. consider again theCommand Term
    40. 40. consider again the Command TermExamine
    41. 41. consider again the Command Term ExamineTo consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue..
    42. 42. consider again the Command Term ExamineTo consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue. From here you might have a conclusion of your own. Basically, yes you can gain knowledge despite bias or no you can’t. Even better: yes you can but..... or no you can’t but.....
    43. 43. A Final Thought consider the implications of three popular theories of truth•The Correspondence Theory of Truth•The Coherence Theory of Truth•The Pragmatic Theory of Truth
    44. 44. The Correspondence Theory of Truth:The Correspondence Theory of Truth is probably the most common and widespread way of understanding thenature of truth and falsehood. Put quite simply, the Correspondence Theory argues that “truth” is whatevercorresponds to reality. An idea which corresponds with reality is true while an idea which does not correspondwith reality is false.It is important to note here that “truth” is not a property of “facts.” This may seem odd at first, but a distinctionis being made here between facts and beliefs. A fact is some set of circumstances in the world while a belief isan opinion about those what those facts are. A fact cannot be either true or false, it simply is because that isthe way the world is. A belief, however, is capable of being true or false because it may or may not accuratelydescribe the world.Under the Correspondence Theory of Truth, the reason why we label certain beliefs as “true” is because theycorrespond to those facts about the world. Thus, the belief that the sky is blue is a “true” belief because of thefact that the sky is blue. Along with beliefs, we can count statements, propositions, sentences, etc. as capableof being true or false.
    45. 45. The Coherence Theory of Truth:The Coherence Theory of truth is probably second in popularity to the Correspondence Theory eventhough it often seems to be an accurate description of how our conception of truth actually works. Putsimply: a belief is true when we are able to incorporate it in an orderly and logical manner into a larger andcomplex system of beliefs or, even more simply still, a belief is true when it fits in with the set of all ourother beliefs without creating a contradiction.Sometimes this seems like an odd way to actually describe truth. After all, a belief can be an inaccuratedescription of reality and fit in with a larger, complex system of further inaccurate descriptions of reality,according to the Coherence Theory, that inaccurate belief would still be called “truth” even though it didn’tactually describe the way the world really was. Does that really make any sense?Well, possibly … the reason is because statements can’t really be verified in isolation. Whenever you testan idea, you are also actually testing a whole set of ideas at the same time. For example, when you pickup a ball in your hand and drop it, it isn’t simply our belief about gravity which is tested but also our beliefsabout a host of other things, not least of which would be the accuracy of our visual perception.Because of this, the Coherence Theory does manage to capture something important about the way weactually conceive of truth in our daily lives. It isn’t that unusual to dismiss something as false preciselybecause it fails to cohere with a system of ideas which we are confident are true. Granted, maybe thesystem we assume to be true is quite a way off the mark, but so long as it continues to be successful andis capable of slight adjustments in the light of new data, our confidence is reasonable.
    46. 46. The Pragmatic Theory of Truth:The Pragmatic Theory of truth determines whether or not a belief is true or not based on whether it has auseful (pragmatic) application in the world. If it does not, then it is not true. As with Coherence Theory, truth inthis sense is nothing to do with the way the world ‘really is’ but is just a function of whether an idea can beused as a model to make useful predictions about what is going to happen in the world. As a result pragmatictruths can only be learnt through interaction with the world: we don’t discover truth by sitting alone in a roomand thinking about it.There are, of course, a number of obvious objections that can be raised against the Pragmatic Theory ofTruth. For one thing, the notion of “what works” is very ambiguous. What happens when a belief works in onesense, but fails in another? For example, a belief that one will succeed may give a person the psychologicalstrength needed to accomplish a great deal but in the end, they may fail in their ultimate goal. Was their belief“true”?Furthermore, when a belief “works” in this sense, why call it “true”? Why not call it something like “useful”? Auseful belief is not necessarily the same as a true belief and, what’s worse, is that people don’t typically usethe word “true” in normal conversation to mean useful. For example, for the average person, the statement “Itis useful to believe that my spouse is faithful” does not at all mean the same as “It is true that my spouse isfaithful.” Granted, it may be the case that true beliefs are also usually the ones that are useful, but not always.As Nietzsche argued, sometimes untruth may be more useful than truth.Now, pragmatism may be a handy means for distinguishing truth from untruth. After all, that which is trueshould produce predictable consequences for us in our lives. In order to determine what is real and what isunreal, it would not be unreasonable to focus primarily upon that which works. This, however, is not quite thesame as the Pragmatic Theory of Truth.
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