Tok natural science introduction
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Transcript

  • 1. ToK: Natural Science
  • 2. What is science and what isn’t science?
  • 3. What is science and what isn’t science? • Boiling an egg • Predicting the weather • Mapping a mountain • Drilling for oil • Choosing a new camera • Eating a salad • Watering a potted plant
  • 4. The Sciences
  • 5. The Sciences• Biology• Chemistry• Physics• Environmental Systems (?)• Design Tech (?)
  • 6. The Sciences • Geology (?)• Biology • Computer Science (?)• Chemistry • Psychology (?)• Physics • Geography (?)• Environmental Systems (?) • Mathematics (?)• Design Tech (?) • History (?)
  • 7. A body of knowledge?
  • 8. A body of knowledge? Or… a way of thinking?
  • 9. Does it matter?
  • 10. Does it matter?• Science works, doesn’t it?
  • 11. Does it matter?• Science works, doesn’t it? a t is m ra g m P
  • 12. Karl Popper turns science upside down
  • 13. Karl Popper turns science upside down Falsification
  • 14. Karl Popper turns science upside down Falsification “A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is nonscientific” “Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it”
  • 15. Karl Popper turns science upside down Falsification • Here is my hypothesis…… • Try to shoot it down!
  • 16. Karl Popper turns science upside down Falsification If it can’t be falsified, it is not science
  • 17. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions
  • 18. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions Paradigm shifts
  • 19. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions Paradigm shiftsparadigmnoun1 technical a typical example or pattern ofsomething; a model : there is a new paradigmfor public art in this country.• a worldview underlying the theories andmethodology of a particular scientificsubject : the discovery of universal gravitationbecame the paradigm of
  • 20. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions Paradigm shiftsParadigms are “universallyrecognized scientificachievements that for atime provide modelproblems and solutions to acommunity ofpractitioners.”
  • 21. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions Paradigm shiftsParadigms are “universallyrecognized scientificachievements that for atime provide modelproblems and solutions to acommunity ofpractitioners.”
  • 22. Thomas Kuhn’s scientific revolutions Paradigm shifts • Science progresses by leaps, when crisis point is reached in the current paradigm
  • 23. Is IB science real science?What are the skills you are expected to show?
  • 24. Is IB science real science? • Planning (a) Focusing the test • Planning (b) Methodology • Data Collection • Data Processing and Presentation • Conclusion and Evaluation • Manipulative skills • Personal skills (a) Teamwork • Personal skills (b) Motivation and ethics
  • 25. Words to describe science? Predictive LogicalBeautiful Progressive Cultural Creative