Research-Based Informationto keep in mind while teaching English Language Learners<br />Bibliography:<br />American Educator, Summer 2008, Teaching English Language Learners.<br />Susana Dutro/2008, A Focused Approach to Systematic ELD.<br />
Achievement Gap for ELLs<br />2007 National Assessment of Educational<br />Progress, Fourth Grade ELLs:<br />* scored 36 points below non-ELLs in reading.<br /> * scored 25 points below non-ELLs in math.<br />Eighth grade scores: 42 points below in reading<br /> 37 points below in math<br />
Statistics <br />1990 – 1 in 20 students <br />2008 – 1 in 9 students<br />2028 – demographers project 1 in 4 students <br />80% of ELLs are Spanish speakers<br /> *24% are from families below poverty level before immigrating. <br />*Less than 40% of the adult immigrants have a high school education.<br /> *87.5% of ELL population were born in the US.<br />Language and socioeconomic factors put ELLs at<br />risk of poor educational outcomes.<br />
CREDE ReviewA report on researched findings about educating English language learners:<br />*Teaching students to read in their L1 promotes higher levels of reading in English.<br />*What we know about good instruction and curriculum in general holds true for ELLs as well; but<br />*When instructing ELLs in English, teachers must modify instruction, taking into account students ‘ language limitations.<br />
Overview of English Proficiency Levels<br />Beginning: <br />Student uses gestures, learns high-frequency words and basic phrases.<br />Effective Instructional Practices:<br />*Exposure to abundant basic vocabulary supported with visuals and realia.<br />*Making explicit connections to known vocabulary/concepts in L1 if possible.<br />*Model simple sentence patterns.<br />*Provide many repetitions.<br />
Early intermediate:<br />Student learns to use routine expressions independently, responds orally/writing using simple sentences when provided scaffold.<br />Effective Instructional Practices:<br />*Give extensive practice in variety of ways to communicate thoughts.<br />*Provide instructional feedback.<br />*Repetitive and patterned text extends grammatical forms practice.<br />*Begin building standard content vocabulary around standard content themes.<br />
Intermediate:<br />Student learns to use a variety of verb tenses and grammatical structures, express ideas, describe events, give information orally/writing, comprehend basic content learning. (All using scaffolds)<br />Suggested Teaching Strategies:<br />*Focus on array of academic purposes.<br />*Explore word relationships: word sorts/graphic organizers.<br />*Increasingly precise vocabulary using frames, stems …<br />Exposure to varied and extended texts with scaffolds. <br />*Build English content vocabulary within thematic content.<br />
Early Advanced:<br />Student initiates and sustains spontaneous language interactions <br />Is able to comprehend increasingly complex oral and written material.<br />Uses academic vocabulary to represent thoughts. <br />Effective Instructional Practices:<br />*Consistent exposure to complex narrative and expository text, focused on comprehension.<br />*Develop academic vocabulary and complex tenses.<br />*Address persistent problem areas in grammar.<br />*Discuss and use metaphoric and figurative language.<br />,<br />
Advanced:<br />The student comprehends general and implied meanings.<br />Writes for social and academic purposes, although expression is sometimes stilted.<br />Have mastered language conventions for formal and informal use.<br />Effective Instructional Practices:<br />*Repeated opportunities to express thinking about abstract concepts.<br />*Authentic practice opportunities to develop fluency and automaticity in communication.<br />*Direct instruction of finer, more subtle points of usage.<br />
Addressing the needs of ELLs through Research- Based Strategies will:<br />Help to close the wide learning gap between <br />Ells and English speaking students.<br />Benefit L1 and L2 students through best <br />Instructional practices.<br />Reduce the costs of large scale under-<br />achievement in the future of US society. <br />If any of these arguments appeals to you, then<br />Advocate for research-based, ESOL instruction.<br />
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