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  • 1. Research-Based Informationto keep in mind while teaching English Language Learners
    American Educator, Summer 2008, Teaching English Language Learners.
    Susana Dutro/2008, A Focused Approach to Systematic ELD.
  • 2. Achievement Gap for ELLs
    2007 National Assessment of Educational
    Progress, Fourth Grade ELLs:
    * scored 36 points below non-ELLs in reading.
    * scored 25 points below non-ELLs in math.
    Eighth grade scores: 42 points below in reading
    37 points below in math
  • 3. Statistics
    1990 – 1 in 20 students
    2008 – 1 in 9 students
    2028 – demographers project 1 in 4 students
    80% of ELLs are Spanish speakers
    *24% are from families below poverty level before immigrating.
    *Less than 40% of the adult immigrants have a high school education.
    *87.5% of ELL population were born in the US.
    Language and socioeconomic factors put ELLs at
    risk of poor educational outcomes.
  • 4. CREDE ReviewA report on researched findings about educating English language learners:
    *Teaching students to read in their L1 promotes higher levels of reading in English.
    *What we know about good instruction and curriculum in general holds true for ELLs as well; but
    *When instructing ELLs in English, teachers must modify instruction, taking into account students ‘ language limitations.
  • 5. Overview of English Proficiency Levels
    Student uses gestures, learns high-frequency words and basic phrases.
    Effective Instructional Practices:
    *Exposure to abundant basic vocabulary supported with visuals and realia.
    *Making explicit connections to known vocabulary/concepts in L1 if possible.
    *Model simple sentence patterns.
    *Provide many repetitions.
  • 6. Early intermediate:
    Student learns to use routine expressions independently, responds orally/writing using simple sentences when provided scaffold.
    Effective Instructional Practices:
    *Give extensive practice in variety of ways to communicate thoughts.
    *Provide instructional feedback.
    *Repetitive and patterned text extends grammatical forms practice.
    *Begin building standard content vocabulary around standard content themes.
  • 7. Intermediate:
    Student learns to use a variety of verb tenses and grammatical structures, express ideas, describe events, give information orally/writing, comprehend basic content learning. (All using scaffolds)
    Suggested Teaching Strategies:
    *Focus on array of academic purposes.
    *Explore word relationships: word sorts/graphic organizers.
    *Increasingly precise vocabulary using frames, stems …
    Exposure to varied and extended texts with scaffolds.
    *Build English content vocabulary within thematic content.
  • 8. Early Advanced:
    Student initiates and sustains spontaneous language interactions
    Is able to comprehend increasingly complex oral and written material.
    Uses academic vocabulary to represent thoughts.
    Effective Instructional Practices:
    *Consistent exposure to complex narrative and expository text, focused on comprehension.
    *Develop academic vocabulary and complex tenses.
    *Address persistent problem areas in grammar.
    *Discuss and use metaphoric and figurative language.
  • 9. Advanced:
    The student comprehends general and implied meanings.
    Writes for social and academic purposes, although expression is sometimes stilted.
    Have mastered language conventions for formal and informal use.
    Effective Instructional Practices:
    *Repeated opportunities to express thinking about abstract concepts.
    *Authentic practice opportunities to develop fluency and automaticity in communication.
    *Direct instruction of finer, more subtle points of usage.
  • 10. Addressing the needs of ELLs through Research- Based Strategies will:
    Help to close the wide learning gap between
    Ells and English speaking students.
    Benefit L1 and L2 students through best
    Instructional practices.
    Reduce the costs of large scale under-
    achievement in the future of US society.
    If any of these arguments appeals to you, then
    Advocate for research-based, ESOL instruction.