Theme-based syllabus design combined with de bonos 6 THs theory - antibullying activities

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Applications of 6 THs theory in ELT

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Theme-based syllabus design combined with de bonos 6 THs theory - antibullying activities

  1. 1. Theme-based syllabus designcombined with de Bono’s ‘6 Thinking Hats’ theory in ELT Vasiliki Papaioannou, EFL teacher Larissa, Greece
  2. 2. Presentation outline:• Facts and challenges in English language teaching in Greek senior high schools• Introduction to de Bono’s ‘6 Thinking hats’ theory: meaning of each hat color and applications in our field (classroom management case studies)• Theme-based syllabus design: creating lesson plans and designing activities for international ‘anti-bullying’ day• Looking at (anti-bullying) theme-based activities and tasks in combination with de Bono’s ‘6 Thinking hats’ theory (ELT case studies)
  3. 3. Facts in English Language teaching in Greeklower/senior high schools (γυμνάσια - ΕνιαίaΛύκεια) 2012-2013 :• English language teaching (as a FL) is not obligatory in senior high schools (32239/Γ2, 23-03-2012) while it is obligatory in lower high schools (14302/Γ2, 09-02-2012)• English Language teaching (as a FL) takes place in mixed ability classes in senior high schools as opposed to level teaching in lower high schools (Γ2/4230/12.7.96)• Minimum number of students in senior high school EFL classes: 14 – Maximum number of students: 30
  4. 4. • Photocopying English language books without the publishers’ permission is illegal and can be prosecuted (law 682/1977, article 42)• Books are not given to senior high school students for free (English language books approved by the Ministry of Education in 2012-2013: 102710/Γ2, 07- 09-2012) whereas they are given to lower high school students by the Ministry of Education.
  5. 5. What is impressive!:The curricula recommended byeducational authorities and otherdecision makers for teaching English inall levels of Greek public education aremainly in Greek!!!
  6. 6. 1. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο: Βασικό Επιμορφωτικό Υλικό, «Μείζον Πρόγραμμα Επιμόρφωσης Εκπαιδευτικών στις 8 Π.Σ., 3 Π.Σ. Εξ., 2Π.Σ.Εισ.», τόμος Β, ειδικό μέρος, ΠΕ06 Αγγλικών, Μάιος 2011, σελ. 1- 1062. Ελένη Κατσαρού και Μαρίνα Δεδούλη, Επιμόρφωση και Αξιολόγηση στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο, Αθήνα 2008, σελ. 1-217
  7. 7. 3. Βασιλική Δενδρινού, Ευδοκία Καραβά (eds.) Οι ξένες γλώσσες στο σχολείο, Οδηγός του εκπαιδευτικού των ξένων γλωσσών, Υπουργείο Παιδείας, Διά Βίου Μάθησης και Θρησκευμάτων, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο, 2011, σελ. 1-234http://rcel.enl.uoa.gr/xenesglosses/ (access 10 March 2013)4. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο στο πλαίσιο υλοποίησης της Πράξης «ΝΕΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ (Σχολείο 21ου αιώνα) – Νέο πρόγραμμα σπουδών, στους Άξονες Προτεραιότητας 1,2,3, -Οριζόντια Πράξη», με κωδικό MIS 295450 «Εκπόνηση Προγραμμάτων Σπουδών Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης και οδηγών για τον εκπαιδευτικό «Εργαλεία Διδακτικών Προσεγγίσεων», Διδακτική ξένων γλωσσών Γ’ Δημοτικού – Γ’ γυμνασίου, σελ. 1-46
  8. 8. Even more impressive!• The languages included each year in the school curriculum is a political issue• The languages offered in each school each year is related to technical and financial factors [Διδακτική ξένων γλωσσών Γ’ Δημοτικού – Γ’ γυμνασίου, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο στο πλαίσιο υλοποίησης της Πράξης «ΝΕΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ (Σχολείο 21ου αιώνα) – Νέο πρόγραμμα σπουδών, στους Άξονες Προτεραιότητας 1,2,3, -Οριζόντια Πράξη», με κωδικό MIS 295450, p.4]
  9. 9. What you can actually teach in senior highschool in Greece is described here(in Greek!): Πρόγραμμα σπουδών του μαθήματος της αγγλικής γλώσσας στο ενιαίο Λύκειο, Γ2/3994, ΦΕΚ 1868, 11/10/1999, pp. 1-32 http://www.pi-schools.gr/lessons/english/pdf/enia (access 8 March 2013)(Promoting all students’ skills, enriching their knowledge in vocabulary, improving their communication skills and learning horizons, exchanging information, improving social skills etc.)
  10. 10. The national curriculum (for teachingEnglish in senior high schools) isvaguely linked to the CommonEuropean Framework of Reference(CEFR) in language teaching, learningand assessment.The Common European Framework in itspolitical and educational context,Cambridge University Press: LanguagePolicy Division, Council of Europe,Strasbourg, p.144
  11. 11. Are there any other challenges thatteachers face today when teaching Englishin senior high schools? - very few (obligatory or mandatory) free available teacher training courses (locally mainly) related to particular levels of education where teachers can be trained and share their experiences about: -CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT -CLASSROOM ARRANGEMENT -PEDAGOGY-DIDACTICS
  12. 12. Specifically about…• how to enhance student motivation to study English at schools• how to create an atmosphere of creativity, excitement & fun learning for senior high students• How to emphasise on the process rather on the outcome• How to be involved in European projects and keep an eye open in the outside world (& market)• How to deal with ‘tourists’ in the EFL classroom (Rogers & Freiberg 1994)• How to help students communicate ‘more’ & exceed the mental barriers created by the worries of making errors?• How to fit in the suggested curriculum tasks and activities which promote a variety of skills?
  13. 13. Other challenges?• lack of teacher observation in Greek schools• limited English language teaching resources• differentiation in students’ English language competency?• (obvious) differentiation in students’ personal abilities, learning style and skills• lack of sociocultural knowledge which is not distorted by stereotypes• a (relatively) difficult time-table where English is usually taught in the last hours
  14. 14. Student evaluation in Greek senior highschools:Presidential decree no 60, Αρ. Φύλλου 65, 30March 2006, article 15 [ΦΕΚ 73 τ.Α. 1242001]
  15. 15. Speaking is not actually officially gradedin the national exams, however, speakingis an equally important skill which needsto be properly developed in the EnglishLanguage classroom.
  16. 16. What were the objectives for the creationof CEFR? • the establishment of an effective European system of information exchange covering aspects of teaching in learning, research, assessment and making use of technology • to promote research and development programmes leading to methods and materials (for all levels) best suited to enable students to acquire a communicative proficiency appropriate to their specific needs • the development of an intercultural approach which promotes the development of learner’s whole personality & sense of identity enriching his/her experience in language and culture • To promote mutual understanding and tolerance, respect for identities and cultural diversity through more effective international communication.
  17. 17. De Bono’s ‘6 Thinking Hats” theory Who is Edward de Bono?: • One very important aspect of motivation is the willingness to stop and to look at things that no one else has bothered to look at. This simple process of focusing on things that are normally taken for granted is a powerful source of creativity. • Studies have shown that 90% of error in thinking is due to error in perception. If you can change your perception, you can change your emotion and this can lead to new ideas. [Edward de Bono]
  18. 18. How to Use the Tool• You can use Six Thinking Hats in generating new ideas or while resolving complicated issues.• In meetings it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking styles discuss the same problem.
  19. 19. Ditton Primary School, Manchester• The creative idea must • Ditton Primary is an accredited have value Thinking School, committed according to the head teacher,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjSjZOjNIJg to creating Carol Lawrenson, "little thinking creatures". The four-year-olds are taking part in• In order for the children a discussion about improving to be respectful, playtime. They dont know it, but responsible, resourceful, they are using Edward De Bonos good creators and successful in whatever structured thinking technique, intelligences they show… the Six Thinking Hats, that colour codes different ways of tackling a question, to give them a framework for problem-solving and exploring ideas. The hats have been turned into teddies, given the pupils age.
  20. 20. Objectives for using the ‘6 Thinking Hats” theory:• Removal of ego (reduces confrontation)• Adopt critically defined strategies• Gain structure and communication skills in problem solving situations• Build confidence in personal ability to think effectively• Accomplish something creative and constructive designing the way forward & have fun• Increase productivity and even more important – be a more effective teacher• Maximize and organize each students thoughts and ideas through lateral thinking• Get to the right solution quickly and with a shared vision• Create, evaluate and implement action plans
  21. 21. Things to have in mind before implementing the 6 Thinking Hats theory: (1)• Each ‘hat’ represents a way of thinking.• If you are working with a group of children, give them a different colour hat each and ask each of them for their response based on the colour of their hat.• No student names are used – only names of hat colours• If you are working with an individual child you can rotate the hats and ask for responses to the question based on each one of the hats in turn.• ‘Wear’ one hat at a time when considering a problem.• You can ‘put on’ and ‘take off’ a hat. Everyone can and should use all the hats.
  22. 22. Things to have in mind before implementing the 6 Thinking Hats theory: (2)• You can wear the same hat as many times as possible• You always start with the blue hat (and end with it).• You have to decide which hat will come next at the beginning of the process.• One person is designated as the facilitator and is expected to wear the blue hat at all times.• The only hat that anyone can use at any time is the blue hat.• The yellow hat followed by the black hat may be used to assess an idea, however, the black hat followed by the green hat may be used to improve an idea.• To discover the positive and negative aspects of an idea you can use the yellow hat before the black hat.
  23. 23. The Blue Hat Control of theOrganization of other Hats thinking (monitors the (summaries, thinking and overviews makes sure the conclusions) rules are observed) Referee Conductor
  24. 24. • Here we consider the ‘overall’ picture.• What are the consequences of what I am learning?• What should I learn next?• When you think of blue, think of the sky and an overview. The blue hat is the hardest one to understand. It deals with controlling the thinking process• The blue hat comments on the thinking being used, asks for conclusions, decisions, etc. The blue hat can move from person to person, or can be a chairperson.
  25. 25. The White Hat :• In this phase we think about the facts of what we are learning, about what facts we have and what facts we need to understand a given topic.• When you think of white, think of neutral. de Bono has categorized information as a neutral subject. The white hat has to do with data and information.• What information do we have here?• What information is missing?• What information would we like to have?• How are we going to get the information?• When you ask for white hat thinking you are asking people to forget about proposals and arguments and to concentrate directly on the information. What information is needed, what is available, and how it can be obtained.
  26. 26. The Red Hat• This stage is characterized by an emotional response to what we are learning. What do I feel about this issue?• When you think of red, think of fire and passion. The red hat allows people to show their emotions and hunches on a subject, their sentiments and feelings.• People dont need to justify their statements. It is often important to get feelings out in the open, rather than have people at a meeting have hidden agendas, feelings, or misgivings.• The red hat allows these feelings to be expressed, to come out in the open.
  27. 27. The Black Hat• In this stage we use our critical judgment. We think about problems, dangers, if we are wasting time with a topic, etc.• When you think of black, think of negative, risks, dangers, obstacles, potential problems and downside of a suggestion. The black hat is for critical judgment. It points out what cannot be done.• The hope is that the black hat role will prevent us from making mistakes.
  28. 28. The Yellow Hat• Here, we use our judgment again. However, now we are positive and optimistic, constructive and positive thinkers. We think about the advantages, benefits, hopeful side to what we are learning.• When you think of yellow, think of the sun and sunny, positive thoughts. The yellow hat role is for discussing ONLY the positive view of problems and solution possibilities.• The yellow hat looks for benefits (and feasibility), but must be logically based, not intuitive like the red hat.
  29. 29. The Green hat• This is the creative phase. What is my response to this?• When you think of green, think of plants and growth. The green hat is for new ideas, for creativity, for new alternative solutions, proposals and suggestions.• Could this be done in another way?• Might there be another explanation?• Does anyone have another idea?
  30. 30. Brainstorming Guidelines• Have all the ideas written down or recorded• Keep your mind open to all ideas• Do not belittle any ideas• Only until your team has exhausted all ideas, you can discard the impossible ideas• Always think about how an extreme idea might be interpreted in another way that might be useful• You end up with a manageable number of alternative solutions• Everyone is encouraged to participate – Everyone is treated with respect
  31. 31. What is the order the hats should be used?(suggestions) If there is a new topic for development the hat order should be: – Blue Hat (to manage the process of thinking) – White hat (gaining information) – Green hat (for creative ideas and alternatives) – Yellow hat (combined with the black hat) in order to evaluate alternative ideas – Red Hat (for reacting impulsively) – Blue hat (to manage the process of action/thinking)
  32. 32. But if there is a problem which is already known and needs to overcome the hat order should be:• Blue Hat• Red Hat• Yellow hat• Black Hat• Green hat (to overcome the negative sides)• White hat• Blue hat
  33. 33. Each ‘Thinking Hat’ is a different style of thinking These are explained in the following slides -
  34. 34. Problem 1: Tom (15 yrs oldteenager) lost his pocket money atschool and asks for a meeting withhis classmates & teacher to discusshis problem and find a solution.The teacher wears the blue hat andbecomes the facilitator.
  35. 35. • Students are requested to wear their blue hats : Tom lost his money and solutions need to be found about ways that this could have been prevented.• Students are requested to wear their white hats and state the facts: Tom had his money in his bag when he left home in the morning, the classroom is always open during the breaks, there are/not always supervising teachers in the corridors during the breaks, Tom had the money in his pocket when he bought food from the school canteen etc.• Students are requested to wear their red hats in order to express their feelings: If I were Tom, I would be very upset/the two people staying in the classroom during the break should give Tom his money back as they are responsible for the theft/Tom has a weak memory as he is not certain about where he lost his money/I am upset cause teacher supervision in the corridors during the break is not very effective/ I feel unsafe in a school where money is lost etc…
  36. 36. • Students are requested to wear their black hats: we should trust anyone in this school/ is it fair to suspect each other?/Is it possible that Tom lost his money and accuses his classmates as he wants his money back?• Students are requested to wear their yellow hats: the money is not stolen/it will be found soon, we all need to remember what happened that particular day/ we can all bring a small amount of money to collect the amount and give it to Tom/ we can have an art bazaar (with the help of the teachers) at the end of the year to raise money/ we can ask for the money from the parents’ association etc.• Students are requested to wear their green hats: /we need to be careful with our stuff/ students and teachers who are supervising should be more responsible/ it would be a good idea for Tom to have a wallet/we can have our own locked cupboards in the classroom etc.
  37. 37. Problem 2: Τhere are students in theclass who are talking when theteacher is teaching.Solution?? Are teacher imposed classroom rules enough to tell them off?
  38. 38. • How about this? • How about expelling the student from your class?
  39. 39. • - For how long will you • How about giving have them outside the them the right to English language learning express themselves? environment?• - How ‘pedagogically’ correct is to have the same students frequently expelled from your English language classroom just to make them understand that speaking on top of others is not the right thing to do?• - Is it legal?
  40. 40. Do we all agree that something differentneeds to be done?Purpose of SIX THINKING HATS • Focus and improve the thinking process • Encourage creative, parallel and lateral thinking • Improve communication • Speed up decision making • Avoid debate
  41. 41. Case Study 2: Students are talking to each other when other students are speaking or the teacher is teachingThe ………….. Hat:• …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………..• …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….• …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  42. 42. Syllabus Design…why?:• Advantages:• You plan according to your equipment, materials and resources• It’s personalized: You take into account students’ level, age, personal needs, attitude, willingness to learn and special talents e.g. drawing, listening to music etc. as you should (ΦΕΚ 1868, 11/10/1999)• You have the option to use as much English as you want• You can use authentic material in your classes• You can involve students in designing via planning• Interaction and English language production can take place in the classroom as students discuss with their peers or take feedback• You take into account knowledge that is already acquired and you activate previous schemata (learning focus)• Learning is better accomplished through design (μάθηση μέσω σχεδιασμού)
  43. 43. Disadvantages:• It is easy to get lost without a coursebook• It can be time consuming• Colleagues and outsiders may accuse you that you are not doing anything important because you don’t have a book• Internet might not be working on that day or pc access might not be available for the activities planned• Students might forget their contribution for the next lesson (you can’t always count on students – you always need to have a back up plan)
  44. 44. Theme-based syllabus design: Advantages:• You approach a theme via a combination of activities, tasks, exercises and related subthemes (e.g. healthy diet via British food, crimes via bullying)• Although the theme is the same you might set a different objective in every lesson and (maybe) promote a different skill or a combination of skills• You can design 5-8 thematic units per year and in combination with 2 projects, you have effectively covered the school year curriculum• One theme lasts from 1 week to 2 months.• After so many theme-based activities you are pretty sure your students understand the topic very well (and know relevant vocabulary)• You can do a project after each theme-based unit and give students the chance to be creative and improvise
  45. 45. Advantages:• It works well for intermediate level (B1 and above)• Every theme you tackle, you can involve a cultural element into it• You can get plenty of ideas about your theme on the internet• Authentic material can be used in real classroom situation• It takes into account learner differences even within the same grade level or the same class (mixed ability classes)• English language learning becomes more meaningful because vocabulary items are related to the same theme• You can include various points into a variety of themes
  46. 46. Disadvantages:• It is time consuming (for relevant materials to be found, to be appropriately combined, to suit your learners’ needs, age and level and to promote as many skills as possible)• It can get boring tackling one topic for two months (especially for 2nd and 3rd graders who are taught English twice a week)• Students might not know how to revise at the exams (or at the end of the year)• It will not automatically make learners become more interested in learning English, unless teachers are able to use interesting activities and suitable (authentic) materials• Others may use or circulate your materials without your permission• You might be accused that you should not be doing this since there are so many EFL books and not all teachers want to design their syllabuses• It needs clear planning and flexibility• You have to give (repeat or modify) your instructions for your activities in order for students to understand.
  47. 47. Anti-BULLYING Day (celebrated on6th March 2013)Introducing the ‘6 Thinking Hats’perspective• Part a: Increasing self-confidence• Part b: Talking about bullying• Part c: Talking about Crimes and Penalties
  48. 48. -What is a mature person? (try to think from you hat’s perspective)- What is an immature person?
  49. 49. Try to categorise the following behaviours under the labelsprovided:Verbal, physical, psychological, cyber bullying, social – Abusive or threatening verbal – Teasing and text messages – Name-calling – Silent calls – Leaving someone out on purpose – Tripping/pushing – Telling other children not – Taking or breaking someone’s to be friends with belongings someone – Making mean or rude hand – Saying mean or gestures humiliating things – Making sexist or racist remarks – Spreading rumors about – Intimidating or manipulating someone someone – Embarrassing someone in – Making inappropriate sexual public comments – Hitting/kicking/pinching – Taunting – Spitting – Threatening to cause harm – Defamation – Spreading rumours online – Sending unwanted messages
  50. 50. Bullying, like harassment and discrimination, canhappen for many reasons. …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… ……… People may bully because they: …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …… ……..
  51. 51. What can a person be bullied about? A person can be bullied about:
  52. 52. WHAT CAN I DO AT SCHOOL? …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… ……… What can you do to avoid bullying at …………… …………… school? …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …… ……..
  53. 53. ListeningNovember-19-06-14-56.bullied.mp3
  54. 54. BIBLIOGRAPHY1. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_bono_six_thinking_ha (access 23/02/2013)2. Teaching Children English Using The Six Thinking Hats Techniquehttp://www.skypeenglishclasses.com/skype-english-blog/teaching-children (access 23/02/2013)3. Akiko Doi, Let The Felt Sense Speak In English: Experiential Learning and Teaching of English as a Second Language. The Folio 2008; pp. 206-2124. Rogers, C. R. and Freiberg, H. J. (1994) Freedom to learn (3rd Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.5. Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope, New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education, Cambridge University Press, second edition, 20126. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο: Βασικό Επιμορφωτικό Υλικό, «Μείζον Πρόγραμμα Επιμόρφωσης Εκπαιδευτικών στις 8 Π.Σ., 3 Π.Σ. Εξ., 2Π.Σ.Εισ.», τόμος Β, ειδικό μέρος, ΠΕ06 Αγγλικών, Μάιος 2011, σελ. 1-1067. Ελένη Κατσαρού και Μαρίνα Δεδούλη, Επιμόρφωση και Αξιολόγηση στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο, Αθήνα 2008, σελ. 1-217
  55. 55. 8. Βασιλική Δενδρινού, Ευδοκία Καραβά et al. Οι ξένες γλώσσες στο σχολείο, Οδηγός του εκπαιδευτικού των ξένων γλωσσών, Υπουργείο Παιδείας, Διά Βίου Μάθησης και Θρησκευμάτων, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο, 2011, σελ. 1-234http://rcel.enl.uoa.gr/xenesglosses/ (access 10 March 2013)9. «Εκπόνηση Προγραμμάτων Σπουδών Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης και οδηγών για τον εκπαιδευτικό «Εργαλεία Διδακτικών Προσεγγίσεων», Διδακτική ξένων γλωσσών Γ’ Δημοτικού – Γ’ γυμνασίου, Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο στο πλαίσιο υλοποίησης της Πράξης «ΝΕΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ (Σχολείο 21ου αιώνα) –Νέο πρόγραμμα σπουδών, στους Άξονες Προτεραιότητας 1,2,3, -Οριζόντια Πράξη», με κωδικό MIS 295450, σελ. 1-46http://digitalschool.minedu.gov.gr/info/newps/%CE%9E%CE %AD%CE%BD%CE%B5%CF%82%20%CE%93%CE%BB%CF %8E%CF%83%CF%83%CE%B5%CF%82/%CE%A0%CE %A3%20%CE%9E%CE%AD%CE%BD%CF%89%CE%BD %20%CE%93%CE%BB%CF%89%CF%83%CF%83%CF%8E %CE%BD.pdf (access 10 March 2013)10. V. Ryan 2000-2012, Growing up – Adolescence, World Association of Technology teachers (W.A.T.T), www.technologystudent.com (access 20 March 2013)
  56. 56. 11. Council of Europe, Common European Framework for the Language: Learning, Teaching and Evaluation (in Greek), pp. 1-23812. The Common European Framework in its political and educational context, Cambridge University Press: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, p.144 [pp:1- 264 ISBN : HB 0521803136 - PB 0521005310]• www.uk.cambridge.org/elt (access 22 March 2013)13. Chi-Sing Li et al. Six Thinking Hats for group supervision with Counselor interns, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2008, 2/2:1-814. Put your thinking hat on: How Edward de Bonos ideas are transforming schools, The Independent, by Rachel Pugh, Thursday 29 January 2009• http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/schools/put-your (access 24 March 2013)15. Τεχνικές Δημιουργικότητας: Training Material in Creativity and Innovation for European R & D Organization Smes, pp: 1-8
  57. 57. Thank you! Theme-based syllabus design combinedwith de Bono’s ‘6 Thinking Hats’ theory in ELT Vasiliki Papaioannou, EFL teacher (BA, MA, EdD, QTS) (elryab@gmail.com)

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