PREFINAL HANDOUT#3
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PREFINAL HANDOUT#3

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PREFINAL HANDOUT#3 PREFINAL HANDOUT#3 Document Transcript

  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Norms of Morality c Ethics has two fundamental questions that it seeks to answer: q What is morality? q What is the ultimate purpose of man? c The science of ethics directs us to do which is right. c The right and good things are the only way to happiness. c Why do you think so?Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 1 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Norms of Morality c Good act befits human nature. c This is because it gives him happiness and peace of mind. c Human nature is a complex concept q Man is an economic being having basic needs to survive q Man is a social being (“no man is an island”) q Man is a logical being THESE ARE JUST SOME OF ASPECTS OF HUMAN NATURE!Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 2 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Norms of Morality c Morality is therefore based on human nature. c Difference of opinion does occur as to what is the interpretation of right and wrong. c There may be a difference but there is a distinction. c Theories have been devised to understand what is the metric of morality – the standard or norm.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 3 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories on the Norm of Morality c HEDONISM is an ethical theory based on pleasure. c Man seeks to act on anything that is pleasurable to him. c Morality is grounded on the pleasure or satisfaction of an act. c Good actions equates pleasure, bad actions equates pain. c Could you name some pleasurable acts? q Sleeping q Eating q Surfing the net q SexNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 4 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Utilitarianism c A theory closely linked to hedonism where utility is the main norm of morality. c Good brings temporal welfare and happiness to man where as bad produces the opposite. c As one would note, the basis on assessing the act to be good or bad is the consequence or the effect of the action. c There are two types of utilitarianism: q Individual q SocialNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 5 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Kinds of Utilitarianism c Individual utilitarianism is based on the self q Actions that bring welfare to the self is good q Actions does not regard the effect on others but on personal effect that links this theory to hedonism q Other names include egoistic utilitarianism or egoism c Social utilitarianism is based on society q Actions that bring welfare and temporal happiness to society is deemed good q Other names include altruistic utilitarianism or altruismNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 6 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Critical Thoughts on Hedonism and Utilitarianism c Both theories have merit in bringing into light that man is also an emotional being c Good acts bring pleasure to man but there is a limit. Do you agree? c On the negative side, it makes morality relative. Since all good acts must result in pleasure or welfare, morality is constantly assessed on the results. “The goodness of an act must be based on the act itself and not the effect.”Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 7 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Communism c Communism is primarily an economic theory. c Since we have stated that part of man is him being an economic being there is warrant in looking at this theory. c Communism holds that matter is the only reality. Anything beyond that does not exist. This results in the denial of the following: q God q Freedom of will q Immortality (spirit) c Since all of these is not matter to begin with it is denied!Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 8 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Communism c The classless state is the ultimate goal. c Any means to achieve this is accepted as good. c Use of violence resulting in bloodshed, war or famine is acceptable. c Primary source of the end justifies the mean concept. c The primacy of economic theory is present.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 9 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Thoughts on Communism c Economic theory is given high importance but man is more than an economic being. c What is the difference between Christian ethics and communism?Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 10 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Rationalism c Rationalism is a branch of epistemology which maintains that all knowledge and truths are based on reason. c Human reason is the source of all knowledge, truths, laws and principles. c Immanuel Kant is a German philosopher that advocated this theory. c Moral rationalism means that all moral laws and moral obligations is human reason. c Reason commands and those commands are absolute and unconditional binding all men.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 11 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Rationalism c Categorical imperative is what the previous statement is termed by Kant. c Good must be done because we must and virtuous acts must be practiced for virtues sake. c Reason makes the law and that same reason compels the entity that has reason to obey it. c Since reason is universal the test of goodness could be made universally without contradiction.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 12 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Criticism of Moral Rationalism c Merit lies in the acceptance of the absoluteness of morality. c Negative side is the absence of motive behind actions. c Moral rationalism maintains that an act must be done for the sake of the act. Motivation could also be a basis to judge whether an act is moral.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 13 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Evolutionism c Under this theory, morality is never constant. c Morality and ethics are constantly changing. c It is an application of biological evolution theory to morality. c Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philosopher, believed that in the beginning there is no distinction between right and wrong. c According to Nietzsche, the laws we have are laws of slaves with the aid of priests when they overcame aristocrats.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 14 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Evolutionism c These are the laws that Christianity seeks to propagate. c These laws elevates and glorifies the weak according Nietzsche. c Nietzsche stated that we must produce the strong. c The survival of the fittest is applied to morality as well. The production of superman. c The superman is a product of hardship, hatred, cruelty, war etc. c This is the end of morality.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 15 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Evolutionism c Good would produce the “superman” c Bad would produce the weak c This theory resonates the militaristic theory of the Germans during the warNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 16 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Positivism c Theory that states that morality is based on the laws of the state. c Good which is in accord with the law; Bad which is prohibited. c One famous exponent is Hobbes, English philosopher. c He stated that prior to the formation of states and law that man was in constant war. c In order to ensure the survival of the race the state and laws were established.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 17 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Critic on Moral Positivism c The existence of laws are indeed utilized for litigations. It is the metric to which actions are given sentence. c The problem however arises because under this theory murder is wrong because it is prohibited by laws rather than murder is prohibited because it is wrong.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 18 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Theories: Moral Sensism c This theory asserts that man is endowed with a special moral sense separate and distinct from reason. c There is however no positive proof that would substantiate this claim.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 19 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Specific Determinants of Morality c An act to be morally good must be good in all aspects. c A healthy person is not considered healthy if the consideration is only to the physical. c Health comes as a totality so does morality. c An act must be entirely and wholly good, anything that lacking would make it bad.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 20 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Specific Determinants of Morality c The End of Action c The End of Agent c The CircumstanceNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 21 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation The Circumstance c The specific determinants c Affect the goodness and badness of an action c Aside from that which determine the quality of an actionNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 22 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation End of Action c Natural purpose of an act c The act in its nature terminates or results c Learning is the by-product of the end action c Primary determinant of morality of an actionNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 23 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation End of Agent c The intent c The aim of the entity that initiates and finishes the action c Would vary between agents whereas the end of action would always be the sameNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 24 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Situation Ethics c A modern approach to assessing the ethical weight of an action. c It does advocate the relativity of moral standards meaning there is no absolute right or wrong. c It takes two forms: q The total denial of moral standards q Softening the role of morality standards to solve dilemmas c The circumstance must be taken into consideration because this is where ethical assessment is based.Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 25 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Situation Ethics c There are categories of circumstance: q Aggravating – adds seriousness to an offense q Mitigating – lessens the gravity of the crime q Justifying – makes the action right q Exempting – exempts the agent from liability c Take the case of Murder c When does it become aggravating, mitigating, justifying, and exempting?Norms of Morality * Property of STI Page 26 of 27
  • Professional Ethics with Values Formation Situation Ethics Example c MURDER q Aggravating when • There is planning • There is real intent • Use of influence or money to undertake the crime q Mitigating when • There was no planning • No real intent or by accident q Justifying • Self-defense q Exempting • Mental illness • UnderageNorms of Morality * Property of STI Page 27 of 27