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  1. 1. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Morality c Morality is the quality of right and wrong of human acts. c We consistently judge actions of people being right or wrong. c There may be a difference in opinion regarding morality but the basic fact remains there is indeed a difference between right and wrong. c However, there must exist a basis on which one would state that an act is right or wrong.Morality * Property of STI Page 1 of 14
  2. 2. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Norm of Morality c Norm q Standard c Norm of Morality q Standard of right and wrong q Reason why some actions are morally right and some morally wrongMorality * Property of STI Page 2 of 14
  3. 3. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Human Acts c Ethics deals with morality of human acts q The rightness or wrongness of an action c Human Acts q Voluntary acts of men q Acts done with knowledge and consent q Acts that are proper to man as man; since man alone has control of his mental faculties and has free will q Acts which are consciously undertaken and are under our control q Human acts are those of which man is the master; doing or not doing as he pleasesMorality * Property of STI Page 3 of 14
  4. 4. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Human Acts c Human acts must be done with consent and full knowledge. c Only then would this have moral bearing. c If a soldier is caught and is coerced to kill one of his troop member is he morally wrong? c A gun used in a killing is not liable. The liability lies in the person who pulled the trigger. As far as natural law is concerned the gun provided the service it was created for.Morality * Property of STI Page 4 of 14
  5. 5. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Voluntariness and Responsibility c Voluntariness is equated to freedom of will in man. c Ethics accepts that man is able to control his own will and thus do actions as he pleases. c Ethics, morality, liability, responsibility, rewards and punishments are all interrelated; and all of these have man as a free agent as a premise.Morality * Property of STI Page 5 of 14
  6. 6. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Voluntariness and Responsibility c Voluntariness and ethics – ethics is the study of human acts and by definition human acts are voluntary. c Morality and voluntariness – only acts that are done with consent have moral bearing. Can we hold dogs, stones, cars morally liable? c Human act and voluntariness – these two concepts are inseparable. c Voluntariness and responsibility – knowledge and consent equates to being responsible with all aspects of the action. c Punishment – what do you think is the relationship of punishment and voluntariness?Morality * Property of STI Page 6 of 14
  7. 7. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Further Study on Voluntariness c The difference between perfect and imperfect voluntariness must be established. c Direct voluntariness versus indirect voluntariness is also distinguished.Morality * Property of STI Page 7 of 14
  8. 8. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Perfect vs. Imperfect Voluntariness c Perfect voluntariness implies full knowledge and consent q This is where an act is understood clearly by the initiator q Performed with consent c Imperfect voluntariness then implies the partial knowledge and/or partial consent q One must see that two areas are concerned knowledge and consent q If one is lacking then imperfect voluntariness is presentMorality * Property of STI Page 8 of 14
  9. 9. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Direct vs. Indirect Voluntariness c An act is directly voluntary when the act is intended for its own sake q Example: A person who willingly goes to a bar for drinking is a directly voluntary act. q When one cuts class with friends to watch a movie. The cutting class, accompaniment of friends, and viewing of a film are all voluntary acts. c An act is indirectly voluntary when the act is not intended for its own sake q Example: A holdup occurs and the criminal asks for your money. q When you go to a bar for drink and you end up in a fight. q These events or actions may not be intended but they occurred nevertheless.Morality * Property of STI Page 9 of 14
  10. 10. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Actions Having Dual Effects c It is entirely possible that an act may be ethical or morally right even if it produces both good and evil effects. c These however must satisfy some basic requirements. These are: q The act in itself should be good or at least amoral (morally indifferent) q The evil effect is not intended but allowed to happen as a regrettable side issue q The reason for doing such an act should be grave and heavily rooted in reason q Evil effect must never outweigh the good effectMorality * Property of STI Page 10 of 14
  11. 11. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Factors that Lessens Accountability c Ignorance, Passions, Fear, and Violence are factors that could lessen accountability c Would an Aeta living in the mountains be held accountable when he comes to Manila and violates traffic laws? How about a Manileño who does not know that there is a new law?Morality * Property of STI Page 11 of 14
  12. 12. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Ignorance c Ignorance is the absence of knowledge. c Ignorance is categorized into two: q Invincible – a type of ignorance that could not be dispelled with any amount of effort because under the situation it is impossible q Vincible – a type of ignorance that could be dispelled with diligence c Our Aeta friend could not be held liable because at that instant his ignorance is invincible. He cannot comprehend what law he has violated because to him it is non existent. The Manila fellow on the other hand knows there are traffic laws and he should be updated. He is vincible therefore liable.Morality * Property of STI Page 12 of 14
  13. 13. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Passion and Fear c Passion and fear are terms of emotion. c When there is a presence of extreme emotions then the will of a person is not at free. c When one acts out of fear the freedom is restricted and the responsibility diminishes as well.Morality * Property of STI Page 13 of 14
  14. 14. Professional Ethics with Values Formation Violence c The impulse from something external that forces an agent to do something that is against his will. c This occurs when one agent enforces his will on another. c Is there a time when the use of violence is warranted? c YES, when?Morality * Property of STI Page 14 of 14