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Basic Sentence, Clauses
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Basic Sentence, Clauses

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  • 1. SENTENCE – includes, at a minumum, two things: a subject and a predicate<br />SUBJECT - a person, a place, an object, an abstract, a pronoun that refers to some entity identified elsewhere or an action functioning as a noun<br />PREDICATE - gives someinformation about the subject, either describing it or identifying an action that it performs or that is performed upon it<br />
    • Usually, the subject preces the predicate.
    • 2. Fish swim.
    • 3. Subject is a ____________ noun.
    • 4. Predicate identifies an action performed by the subject.
    • 5. The silence was shattered.
    • 6. Subject is an ____________ noun.
    • 7. Predicate identifies something done to the subject.
    • 8. I rest my case.
    • 9. Subject is a ___________.
    • 10. Predicate identifies an action performed by the subject plus the target of this action (called the object).
    • 11. Vivian is no rocket scientist.
    • 12. Subject is a ___________ noun.
    • 13. Predicate describes the subject.
    • 14. Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
    • 15. Subject is a ____________, an action functioning as a noun.
    • 16. Predicate describes the subject.
    To drive a Zamboni was his ambition.<br />Subject is an ____________, an action functioning as a noun.<br />Predicate describes the subject.<br />
    • The predicate may precede the subject.
    • 17. Off went the runners.
    • 18. Out came the sun.
    • 19. There’s my missing briefcase!
    • 20. Speeding over the crest came the cyclists.
    • 21. A clause may contain more than one subject. This is referred to as a compound subject (if linked by and) or an alternative subject (if linked by or).
    • 22. Ella and her sister are both writers.
    • 23. Either Saturday or Sunday should be a good day for starting the revolution.
    • 24. A predicate may provide its subject with more than one description or have it performing more than one action, or have it performing that action upon more than one object, or have more than one object affected by that action. This is referred to as a compound predicate.
    • 25. His arms were tanned and slim.
    • 26. [two ___________ ]
    • 27. The storekeeper looked at the money in the till and sighed.
    • 28. [two ___________ ]
    Josh ate an entire box of cookies and six chocolate bars.<br />[multiple recipients of the action “________”]<br />The mayor gave Mike and me citations for bravery.<br />[two entities affected by what was given]<br />An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.<br />Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his Chemistry quiz.<br />A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.<br />When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)<br />A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.<br />When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.<br />Some common dependent markers are: <br />after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever,whether, and while.<br />Connecting Dependent and Independent Clauses<br />There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.<br />1. Coordinating Conjunction<br />The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma (,) is needed before the coordinating conjunction:<br />Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.<br />2. Independent Marker Word - is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon (;) is needed before the independent marker word.<br />Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.<br />Common Independent Markers: also, consequently, furthermore, however,moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.<br />Some Common Errors to Avoid<br />A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.<br />Incorrect: I like this class, it is very interesting.<br />Correct: I like this class. It is very interesting.<br />(or) I like this class; it is very interesting.<br />(or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.<br />(or) I like this class because it is very interesting.<br />(or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.<br />Fused sentences/ Run-on sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.<br />Incorrect: My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.<br />Correct: My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.<br />(or) My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.<br />(or) My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.<br />(or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from her.<br />Sentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete thought or by removing the dependent marker.<br />Incorrect: Because I forgot the exam was today.<br />Correct: Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.<br />(or) I forgot the exam was today.<br />Sources:<br />Grammatically Correct by Anne Stilman<br />http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/598/01/<br />

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