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Astronomy Midterm Review

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Review questions for the Astronomy final.

Review questions for the Astronomy final.

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  • 1. Astronomy Midterm Review
  • 2. Some Questions 1
    • Most minor planets have orbits which lie completely in the orbits of the planets Mars and”
  • 3. Jupiter
  • 4. 2
    • Rocky debris larger than 100 meters in diameter seen orbiting the sun are:
  • 5. asteroids
  • 6. 3
    • The _______ Cloud is a huge, spherical region at the outer edge of the solar system, populated by many dark, cold cometary nuclei; Sedna is the largest member of it found to date.
  • 7. Oort
  • 8. 4
    • The _______Belt is a second, larger asteroid belt out beyond the orbit of Neptune.
  • 9. Kuiper
  • 10. 5
    • Although numbering perhaps a few billion distributed over a spherical volume of 100 000 A.U. in diameter, _______ are a minor constituent to the total mass of the solar system.
  • 11. comets
  • 12. 6
    • The bluish _______tail of a comet is pushed radially outward by the effects of the solar wind.
  • 13. gas or ion
  • 14. 7
    • The curved, yellowish ______ tail of a comet is left behind in the cometary orbit.
  • 15. dust
  • 16. 8
    • The _______ is the fuzzy spherical outgassing around the nucleus of a sun-bound comet.
  • 17. coma
  • 18. 9
    • The nucleus of a comet is composed primarily of:
  • 19. ices.
  • 20. 10
    • We now recognize that the largest Kuiper Belt Object is:
  • 21. Pluto
  • 22. 11
    • While long period comets are from the Oort Cloud, some short period comets may come from the closer _______ Belt.
  • 23. Kuiper
  • 24. 12
    • The most common class of meteorite is:
  • 25. stony.
  • 26. 13
    • The meteorites that are rich in organic molecules are classified as:
  • 27. Carbonaceous (chondrite).
  • 28. 14
    • A solid object from outer space that lands on the surface of any world is known as a:
  • 29. meteorite
  • 30. 15
    • Small debris in the solar system less than 100 meters in diameter are called _______; most are not detected unless they hit our atmosphere.
  • 31. meteoroids
  • 32. 16
    • Few _______ actually strike the Earth, because most are small and burn up in the atmosphere.
  • 33. meteors
  • 34. 17
    • The K-T Boundary Event happened about 65 million years ago when an asteroid the size of a small city struck the _______ Peninsula.
  • 35. Yucatan
  • 36. 18
    • Most meteor showers occur _____, as we again intersect the comet’s orbit.
  • 37. annually
  • 38. 19
    • All eight major planets travel in orbits which lie near to the:
  • 39. ecliptic.
  • 40. 20
    • In the currently accepted theory for the formation of the solar system, the planets and other minor bodies and the ________ formed at the same time.
  • 41. Sun
  • 42. 21
    • Most of the angular momentum of the solar system is found in the:
  • 43. orbits of the planets.
  • 44. 22
    • Most of the mass of the solar system is found in the:
  • 45. Sun.
  • 46. 23
    • The ecliptic plane is also the Sun's:
  • 47. equator.
  • 48. 24
    • Of all the planets, ________ is far and away the most massive, and controls much of how the rest of the planets condensed out of the solar nebula.
  • 49. Jupiter
  • 50. 25
    • While all planet orbits are ellipses, the eight large planets have fairly ________ eccentricities.
  • 51. low
  • 52. 26
    • A ________ planet is a relatively small body formed in the inner part of the solar system from condensation of metallic elements and rocky compounds.
  • 53. terrestrial
  • 54. 27
    • Bodies just large enough for their gravitational forces to attract other nearby bodies are called:
  • 55. planetesimals
  • 56. 28
    • Early in the history of the solar nebula, small condensation nuclei grew rapidly in size by the process of:
  • 57. accretion
  • 58. 29
    • The ________ theory describes the origin of the planets as having been formed by accretion of small particles into progressively larger and larger bodies.
  • 59. condensation
  • 60. 30
    • The chemical composition differences between the planets are basically the result of the fact that different elements condense out of gas at different:
  • 61. temperatures.
  • 62. 31
    • While the Sun gathered up most of the ________, the planets ended up with most of the angular momentum, as evidenced by their revolution around the Sun.
  • 63. mass
  • 64. 32
    • The age of the solar system, of 4.6 billion years, is determined from dating of:
  • 65. meteorites.
  • 66. 33
    • A good example of the role of catastrophes is the very large ________ circling us.
  • 67. Moon
  • 68. 34
    • The very odd tilt of the planet ________ is another example of the role major impacts may have played in creating irregularities in the present solar system.
  • 69. Uranus
  • 70. 35
    • All of the planets found orbiting other stars have been most similar to ________, except most of them have been much closer to their star than this planet is to the Sun.
  • 71. Jupiter
  • 72. 36
    • The planets orbiting other stars so far have been found by ________ shifts of the star's spectra.
  • 73. Doppler
  • 74. 37
    • The Sun has about the same average density as the planet:
  • 75. Jupiter.
  • 76. 38
    • Helios was the Greek name for the:
  • 77. Sun.
  • 78. 39
    • Energy produced in the solar core takes ________ to appear at the solar surface.
  • 79. a million years
  • 80. 40
    • Solar energy production is mainly due to the ________ cycle of thermonuclear reactions as hydrogen nuclei collide violently.
  • 81. proton-proton
  • 82. 41
    • The radioactive decay of U 238 in the Earth's core is a good example of the nuclear:
  • 83. fission.
  • 84. 42
    • In time, the fusion reactions will cause the amount of helium to ________ in the sun's core.
  • 85. increase
  • 86. 43
    • The weakest of the forces in nature is:
  • 87. gravity.
  • 88. 44
    • The solar photosphere is not uniform in brightness, but has a mottled appearance termed:
  • 89. granulation.
  • 90. 45
    • Energy transport as hot gases rise can occur by large-scale motions of the solar material in regions called:
  • 91. convective zones.
  • 92. 46
    • The observable ________ is a thin layer in which the solar material becomes suddenly much more opaque as we look deeper into the Sun.
  • 93. photosphere
  • 94. 47
    • In contrast to the photosphere's continuum, the spectrum of the chromosphere is dominated by ________ lines.
  • 95. emission
  • 96. 48
    • The ________ is the outermost, hottest part of the Sun's atmosphere.
  • 97. corona
  • 98. 49
    • The most visible interaction of the solar wind with our magnetic field is the:
  • 99. aurora
  • 100. 50
    • The ________-year solar cycle is characterized by a variation in the number of sunspots and a reversal of the polarity of the Sun as a whole.
  • 101. 22
  • 102. 51
    • The solar magnetic field is strongest in those regions called ________, which are poles and usually thus occur in pairs.
  • 103. sunspots
  • 104. 52
    • The only particle we can detect coming directly from a stellar interior is the:
  • 105. neutrino.
  • 106. 53
    • The method by which we obtain distances to the nearest stars is through the use of:
  • 107. parallax shifts.
  • 108. 54
    • A star with a parallax of 1 second of arc is at a distance of ________ by definition.
  • 109. one parsec
  • 110. 55
    • The ________ magnitude of a star depends directly upon its luminosity and distance.
  • 111. apparent
  • 112. 56
    • The Sun's absolute magnitude is:
  • 113. +4.82 or +4.8 or +5
  • 114. 57
    • From hottest to coolest, the seven letters for the star types are:
  • 115. OBAFGKM
  • 116. 58
    • Most of the apparently bright stars in the sky are bright because they are:
  • 117. very hot or very luminous
  • 118. 59
    • Knowing the apparent temperature of a star, its luminosity may be calculated if we also know its ________.
  • 119. size
  • 120. 60
    • Absorption lines in stellar spectra are caused by the absorption of photons of specific energy when electrons jump from one energy level to a ________ level.
  • 121. higher
  • 122. 61
    • Compact stars that are typically as big as the largest sunspots on our star are:
  • 123. white dwarfs.
  • 124. 62
    • Stars of the ________, like our Sun, are converting hydrogen into helium, and are common.
  • 125. main sequence
  • 126. 63
    • On the main sequence, our Sun lies about:
  • 127. the center.
  • 128. 64
    • The binary systems that allow us to directly calculate the diameters of each star are:
  • 129. eclipsing.
  • 130. 65
    • A star's position on the Main Sequence is determined fundamentally by its:
  • 131. mass.
  • 132.
    • Questions from
      • “ Instructor Resource Center.”Astronomy Today. CD-ROM. Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2005.