Astronomy Midterm Review

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Review questions for the Astronomy final.

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Astronomy Midterm Review

  1. 1. Astronomy Midterm Review
  2. 2. Some Questions 1 <ul><li>Most minor planets have orbits which lie completely in the orbits of the planets Mars and” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jupiter
  4. 4. 2 <ul><li>Rocky debris larger than 100 meters in diameter seen orbiting the sun are: </li></ul>
  5. 5. asteroids
  6. 6. 3 <ul><li>The _______ Cloud is a huge, spherical region at the outer edge of the solar system, populated by many dark, cold cometary nuclei; Sedna is the largest member of it found to date. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oort
  8. 8. 4 <ul><li>The _______Belt is a second, larger asteroid belt out beyond the orbit of Neptune. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kuiper
  10. 10. 5 <ul><li>Although numbering perhaps a few billion distributed over a spherical volume of 100 000 A.U. in diameter, _______ are a minor constituent to the total mass of the solar system. </li></ul>
  11. 11. comets
  12. 12. 6 <ul><li>The bluish _______tail of a comet is pushed radially outward by the effects of the solar wind. </li></ul>
  13. 13. gas or ion
  14. 14. 7 <ul><li>The curved, yellowish ______ tail of a comet is left behind in the cometary orbit. </li></ul>
  15. 15. dust
  16. 16. 8 <ul><li>The _______ is the fuzzy spherical outgassing around the nucleus of a sun-bound comet. </li></ul>
  17. 17. coma
  18. 18. 9 <ul><li>The nucleus of a comet is composed primarily of: </li></ul>
  19. 19. ices.
  20. 20. 10 <ul><li>We now recognize that the largest Kuiper Belt Object is: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pluto
  22. 22. 11 <ul><li>While long period comets are from the Oort Cloud, some short period comets may come from the closer _______ Belt. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Kuiper
  24. 24. 12 <ul><li>The most common class of meteorite is: </li></ul>
  25. 25. stony.
  26. 26. 13 <ul><li>The meteorites that are rich in organic molecules are classified as: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Carbonaceous (chondrite).
  28. 28. 14 <ul><li>A solid object from outer space that lands on the surface of any world is known as a: </li></ul>
  29. 29. meteorite
  30. 30. 15 <ul><li>Small debris in the solar system less than 100 meters in diameter are called _______; most are not detected unless they hit our atmosphere. </li></ul>
  31. 31. meteoroids
  32. 32. 16 <ul><li>Few _______ actually strike the Earth, because most are small and burn up in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  33. 33. meteors
  34. 34. 17 <ul><li>The K-T Boundary Event happened about 65 million years ago when an asteroid the size of a small city struck the _______ Peninsula. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Yucatan
  36. 36. 18 <ul><li>Most meteor showers occur _____, as we again intersect the comet’s orbit. </li></ul>
  37. 37. annually
  38. 38. 19 <ul><li>All eight major planets travel in orbits which lie near to the: </li></ul>
  39. 39. ecliptic.
  40. 40. 20 <ul><li>In the currently accepted theory for the formation of the solar system, the planets and other minor bodies and the ________ formed at the same time. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sun
  42. 42. 21 <ul><li>Most of the angular momentum of the solar system is found in the: </li></ul>
  43. 43. orbits of the planets.
  44. 44. 22 <ul><li>Most of the mass of the solar system is found in the: </li></ul>
  45. 45. Sun.
  46. 46. 23 <ul><li>The ecliptic plane is also the Sun's: </li></ul>
  47. 47. equator.
  48. 48. 24 <ul><li>Of all the planets, ________ is far and away the most massive, and controls much of how the rest of the planets condensed out of the solar nebula. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Jupiter
  50. 50. 25 <ul><li>While all planet orbits are ellipses, the eight large planets have fairly ________ eccentricities. </li></ul>
  51. 51. low
  52. 52. 26 <ul><li>A ________ planet is a relatively small body formed in the inner part of the solar system from condensation of metallic elements and rocky compounds. </li></ul>
  53. 53. terrestrial
  54. 54. 27 <ul><li>Bodies just large enough for their gravitational forces to attract other nearby bodies are called: </li></ul>
  55. 55. planetesimals
  56. 56. 28 <ul><li>Early in the history of the solar nebula, small condensation nuclei grew rapidly in size by the process of: </li></ul>
  57. 57. accretion
  58. 58. 29 <ul><li>The ________ theory describes the origin of the planets as having been formed by accretion of small particles into progressively larger and larger bodies. </li></ul>
  59. 59. condensation
  60. 60. 30 <ul><li>The chemical composition differences between the planets are basically the result of the fact that different elements condense out of gas at different: </li></ul>
  61. 61. temperatures.
  62. 62. 31 <ul><li>While the Sun gathered up most of the ________, the planets ended up with most of the angular momentum, as evidenced by their revolution around the Sun. </li></ul>
  63. 63. mass
  64. 64. 32 <ul><li>The age of the solar system, of 4.6 billion years, is determined from dating of: </li></ul>
  65. 65. meteorites.
  66. 66. 33 <ul><li>A good example of the role of catastrophes is the very large ________ circling us. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Moon
  68. 68. 34 <ul><li>The very odd tilt of the planet ________ is another example of the role major impacts may have played in creating irregularities in the present solar system. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Uranus
  70. 70. 35 <ul><li>All of the planets found orbiting other stars have been most similar to ________, except most of them have been much closer to their star than this planet is to the Sun. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Jupiter
  72. 72. 36 <ul><li>The planets orbiting other stars so far have been found by ________ shifts of the star's spectra. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Doppler
  74. 74. 37 <ul><li>The Sun has about the same average density as the planet: </li></ul>
  75. 75. Jupiter.
  76. 76. 38 <ul><li>Helios was the Greek name for the: </li></ul>
  77. 77. Sun.
  78. 78. 39 <ul><li>Energy produced in the solar core takes ________ to appear at the solar surface. </li></ul>
  79. 79. a million years
  80. 80. 40 <ul><li>Solar energy production is mainly due to the ________ cycle of thermonuclear reactions as hydrogen nuclei collide violently. </li></ul>
  81. 81. proton-proton
  82. 82. 41 <ul><li>The radioactive decay of U 238 in the Earth's core is a good example of the nuclear: </li></ul>
  83. 83. fission.
  84. 84. 42 <ul><li>In time, the fusion reactions will cause the amount of helium to ________ in the sun's core. </li></ul>
  85. 85. increase
  86. 86. 43 <ul><li>The weakest of the forces in nature is: </li></ul>
  87. 87. gravity.
  88. 88. 44 <ul><li>The solar photosphere is not uniform in brightness, but has a mottled appearance termed: </li></ul>
  89. 89. granulation.
  90. 90. 45 <ul><li>Energy transport as hot gases rise can occur by large-scale motions of the solar material in regions called: </li></ul>
  91. 91. convective zones.
  92. 92. 46 <ul><li>The observable ________ is a thin layer in which the solar material becomes suddenly much more opaque as we look deeper into the Sun. </li></ul>
  93. 93. photosphere
  94. 94. 47 <ul><li>In contrast to the photosphere's continuum, the spectrum of the chromosphere is dominated by ________ lines. </li></ul>
  95. 95. emission
  96. 96. 48 <ul><li>The ________ is the outermost, hottest part of the Sun's atmosphere. </li></ul>
  97. 97. corona
  98. 98. 49 <ul><li>The most visible interaction of the solar wind with our magnetic field is the: </li></ul>
  99. 99. aurora
  100. 100. 50 <ul><li>The ________-year solar cycle is characterized by a variation in the number of sunspots and a reversal of the polarity of the Sun as a whole. </li></ul>
  101. 101. 22
  102. 102. 51 <ul><li>The solar magnetic field is strongest in those regions called ________, which are poles and usually thus occur in pairs. </li></ul>
  103. 103. sunspots
  104. 104. 52 <ul><li>The only particle we can detect coming directly from a stellar interior is the: </li></ul>
  105. 105. neutrino.
  106. 106. 53 <ul><li>The method by which we obtain distances to the nearest stars is through the use of: </li></ul>
  107. 107. parallax shifts.
  108. 108. 54 <ul><li>A star with a parallax of 1 second of arc is at a distance of ________ by definition. </li></ul>
  109. 109. one parsec
  110. 110. 55 <ul><li>The ________ magnitude of a star depends directly upon its luminosity and distance. </li></ul>
  111. 111. apparent
  112. 112. 56 <ul><li>The Sun's absolute magnitude is: </li></ul>
  113. 113. +4.82 or +4.8 or +5
  114. 114. 57 <ul><li>From hottest to coolest, the seven letters for the star types are: </li></ul>
  115. 115. OBAFGKM
  116. 116. 58 <ul><li>Most of the apparently bright stars in the sky are bright because they are: </li></ul>
  117. 117. very hot or very luminous
  118. 118. 59 <ul><li>Knowing the apparent temperature of a star, its luminosity may be calculated if we also know its ________. </li></ul>
  119. 119. size
  120. 120. 60 <ul><li>Absorption lines in stellar spectra are caused by the absorption of photons of specific energy when electrons jump from one energy level to a ________ level. </li></ul>
  121. 121. higher
  122. 122. 61 <ul><li>Compact stars that are typically as big as the largest sunspots on our star are: </li></ul>
  123. 123. white dwarfs.
  124. 124. 62 <ul><li>Stars of the ________, like our Sun, are converting hydrogen into helium, and are common. </li></ul>
  125. 125. main sequence
  126. 126. 63 <ul><li>On the main sequence, our Sun lies about: </li></ul>
  127. 127. the center.
  128. 128. 64 <ul><li>The binary systems that allow us to directly calculate the diameters of each star are: </li></ul>
  129. 129. eclipsing.
  130. 130. 65 <ul><li>A star's position on the Main Sequence is determined fundamentally by its: </li></ul>
  131. 131. mass.
  132. 132. <ul><li>Questions from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Instructor Resource Center.”Astronomy Today. CD-ROM. Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2005. </li></ul></ul>

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