Robert J. Havighurst: Developmental TasksPresentation Transcript
Robert J. Havighurst DevelopmentalTasks
His life.. (June 5, 1900 in De Pere, Wisconsin – January 31, 1991 in Richmond, Indiana) was a professor, physicist, educator, and aging expert. Educational theory before Havighurst was basically old school where children learned by rote and little concern was given to how children developed. From 1948 to 1953 he developed his highly influential theory of human development and education. The crown jewel of his research was on developmental task.
Havighurst identified Six Major Stages in human life covering birth to old age: Infancy & early childhood (Birth - 6 years old)
Middle childhood (6–13 years old)
Adolescence (13–18 years old)
Early Adulthood (19–30 years old)
Middle Age (30-60years old)
Later maturity (60 years old and over)
From there, Havighurst recognized that each human has three sources for developmental tasks. Which are: Tasks that arise from physical maturation: Learning to walk, talk, control of bowel and urine, behaving in an acceptable manner to opposite sex, adjusting to menopause. Tasks that arise from personal values: Choosing an occupation, figuring out ones philosophical outlook. Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society: Learning to read, learning to be responsible citizen.
Developmental tasks (Ages 0–6) Learning to:
Take solid food
Control the elimination of body wastes
Learning sex differences and sexual modesty
Getting ready to read
Learning language to describe social and physical reality.
(Ages 6–18) Learning:
Get along with age mates.
Physical skills necessary for ordinary games
Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism.
Appropriate masculine or feminine social role
Developing concepts necessary for
Developing conscience, morality
and a scale of values
Achieving personal independence.
Developing attitudes toward social
groups and institutions.
Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
Accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively
Achieving new and more mature relations with age mates of both sex
Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults
Preparing for marriage and family life
Acquiring a set of values and an ethical
system as a guide to behavior
Desiring and achieving socially responsible
Selecting an occupation
Selecting a mate
Learning to live with a partner
Getting started in occupation
Taking on civic responsibility
Finding a congenial social group.
Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults
Achieving adult social and civic responsibility
Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in one’s occupational career
Developing adult leisure time activities
Relating oneself to one’s spouse as a person
To accept and adjust to the physiological changes of middle age
Adjusting to aging parents.
(60 and over)
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health
Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
Adjusting to death of a spouse
Establishing an explicit affiliation with one’s age group
Adopting and adapting social
roles in a flexible way
physical living arrangements
Examples: In this eight tasks of which Robert Havighurst speaks it is important to know how to recognize what have we done as persons, we know that for all us it can happen in different ages or circumstances in life. In the age when is found that you have already made three tasks that are: accepting your own body and learn to use it, we think that since children we have already accept us as we are, and without any complex, the second one is to train new and mature relationships with peers of both sex that have developed it at the time we started to interact with others and usually occurs when we already entered to a classroom to interact with people and you have to adapt and learn to live with your colleagues. Third task is to adopt a male or female sexual role, here usually everyone have already defined their role and at the same time they took the role given by society. We as teachers must identify which students have already begin to accomplish these tasks from those who are more advanced and if we don’t help them is gonna be like Havighurst says: there will be some people who failed that could not develop these tasks and their life will not have this security to resolve it. In these times we as teachers must be counselors and a guide in the life of the student.
Bibliography Adolescencia [On line] Available at: http://ktadol.blogspot.com/2009/06/robert-havighurst-plantea-la-teoria-de.html [ConsultedonWednesday June 1st 2011] Robert J. Havighurst [On line] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_J._Havighurst [ConsultedonWednesday June 1st 2011]