One attainment gap:  a million stories
“ The fact that family background is  still such a strong determinant of a child ’ s outcomes  is an affront to a civilise...
A famous cohort study of those born in 1970 showed that  bright children from lower socio-economic groups quickly lost the...
Average rank of test scores at 22, 42, 60 & 120 months  by SES of parents and early rank position By age 10, a low SES chi...
This pattern looks set to  repeat for children in the  Millennium Cohort Study,   born in 2000
Source: Blanden and Machin. 2007.
1.  Education matters
It  matters  for  individuals…
<ul><li>“ Education-related inequalities have  an impact over the life-span, not  just in childhood. ” </li></ul>Source: E...
To start,  education and  happiness  are linked  Degree or PhD A Levels GCSE % Very Happy None Chicken  or  egg? 35 30 28 ...
The more you learn  the more you earn Over the course of a lifetime, a graduate from a Russell Group university will earn ...
Each extra year of education is  correlated with wages (almost) Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
Different degrees have  different effects on wages Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
NEET (Those not in Education, Employment or Training)
<ul><li>“ £35 billion  is the cost to the taxpayer for only one generation of NEET. No one can put a value on the human co...
17.1%  of 16-24 year olds are NEET.   That ’ s  19.9% of females and 14.3%  of males. 5%  of ALL 16 year olds are currentl...
28% of young people with no qualifications spent more than 12 months NEET  compared to 1% of their peers who attained 8 GC...
So what?  Does being NEET for  a while matter?
“ Spending time NEET  is a major predictor of  later unemployment, low income, depression and poor mental health ” Source:...
A Matter of  Life and Death <ul><li>Reports from the North of England estimate that  1  in   7  long term NEETs are dead w...
Teen Unemployment  has a lasting  effects… <ul><li>Teenage unemployment leaves permanent scars, not temporary blemishes:  ...
Thousands of young people  are excluded from school <ul><li>In England, between 2008  and 2009 there were: </li></ul><ul><...
So what?  Does being excluded  for a while matter?
Permanent Exclusions have  Permanent Effects <ul><li>“ Of those who are excluded on a permanent basis, only  27% of primar...
Who is at  highest risk  of exclusion? <ul><li>Boys:  x 3.5  (permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Educational Needs:  x 8...
So it is easy to see  how education also  matters for society. Take  crime  as an example…
High  Exclusion Rates  amongst  15-18 year olds Inside our Prisons “ 90%  of young men and  75%  of young women had  been ...
What do we know about the  82,000 adult prison inmates… Over  25%  are former  looked after children .  50%  of all males ...
Young Offender  Institutions  75% of young offenders  did not  attend school  past the age of 13   Source: Smart Justice f...
Nearly 3 in 4 of  young offenders  were  excluded  whilst at school Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March ...
<ul><li>Over half of those in  Young Offender Institutions (aged 15-21)  are below the expected level of an average 11 yea...
Through earnings,  we can also see  how education is linked  to health…
Life  expectancy <ul><li>People living in the poorest neighbourhoods in England will, on average,  die seven years earlier...
Parental income and  child mortality <ul><li>“ The infant mortality rate for babies with fathers in routine occupations  (...
Education  and the  Economy “ As the global economy changes, an economy ’ s prosperity will be  driven increasingly by its...
We   need   skills <ul><li>“ Skills are a key lever within our control to improve productivity in the workplace –  one fif...
We  need  futuristic skills! <ul><li>A focus on  'high levels of skill and creativity'   and  'technological change'  are ...
The UK ’ s  Skills Profile  is Low <ul><li>Of 30 OECD countries, the UK currently lies 17th on low skills, 20th on interme...
Question:  If inequalities are passed on from  one generation to the next,  how do we break the cycle?
2.  The attainment gap
There are gaps by  gender Source: Department for Education. 2010.
There are gaps by  ethnic group Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
The socio-economic attainment gap  starts early
<ul><li>1 Year </li></ul><ul><li>The gap in  ‘ school readiness ’  between  3-year-olds in the richest and poorest familie...
<ul><li>15 Months </li></ul><ul><li>The gap in vocabulary development between  5 year-olds in the richest  and poorest fam...
Vocabulary gaps  aged 62-months Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
The gaps don ’ t stop there.  They continue, and widen, throughout school
Gaps in  Key Stage 1  tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
Gaps  in Key Stage 2  tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
The Gaps widen by  Key Stage 4 <ul><li>2009 exam results by FSM for % 5 A*-C grades  including English and Maths: </li></u...
GCSE Gaps  by Local Income Deprivation In 2009,  38% of pupils  in schools in the  10%  most   deprived areas gained 5 A*-...
Income deprivation and GCSE results  are highly correlated,  but there is large variation between schools Source: National...
<ul><li>In 2007/2008 the  University of Oxford accepted: </li></ul><ul><li>711  Further Mathematics A-Levels </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Pupils at independent schools are roughly  three times   more likely to be doing further maths and  2.5  times mor...
Who gets  3 Grade As  at A-level? Source: Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009. “ While only 20% ...
From  7%  to  46% : Independent school representation from school to Oxford Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2008. E...
Different  lives Source: The Sutton Trust. 2009.
“ Britain is falling short in  its  aspiration to provide  equal chances for  everyone to thrive ” Source: Equality and Hu...
Gaps in Access to  Higher Education 16% of students at Russell Group universities are from  lower socio-economics backgrou...
Unequal access  to the professions Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009.
<ul><li>&quot;The data we have seen suggests that tomorrow ’ s professional is today growing up in a family richer than  s...
3.  Does such inequality  have a cost?
Yes. £1.3 trillion Source: The Sutton Trust. 2010.
How  has that been calculated? <ul><li>“ Improving levels of social mobility  for future generations in the UK would boost...
But currently we have the  lowest social mobility  in OECD Source: D ’ Addio. OECD. 2010.
Against other international rankings  we rate poorly…
PISA  2009  results <ul><li>Of  65 countries  the UK was ranked: </li></ul><ul><li>16 th  in Science </li></ul><ul><li>25 ...
PISA shows that England has  large variation in results… <ul><li>“ England had a wide spread of attainment compared with m...
The UK has  high variation  between its students Source: OECD. 2010.
4.  Why does this happen?  What are the  causes?
There are many interrelated causes. This presentation explores some of the inequalities in  ORE : O pportunities.  R esour...
<ul><li>“ In order to flourish in life,  every person needs a basic level of financial security and decent housing. ” </li...
Income deprivation  is concentrated in certain geographical areas Source: Office of National Statistics. 2010.
London:  wealth and poverty side by side Source: Greater London Authority. 2008.
13% of Children in England  live in severe poverty* <ul><li>That ’ s approximately  1.7 million  Children. </li></ul><ul><...
Question: Are socio-economic inequalities  getting better?
Incomes in the UK are  diverging % share of income &quot;The richest 20% of households in the UK have over 40% of the tota...
Child poverty  predicted to rise <ul><li>“ In 2013–14, we expect relative poverty to rise by about  200,000 children,100,0...
Question: What does  childhood look like?  How much  does it cost?
Aged 3:  Has internet at home Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
Aged 3:  Watches more than  3 hours of TV per day 27% 13% 5% Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
Aged 3:  Is read to daily 45% 65% 78% Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
Aged 5:  Taken to museum/gallery  in last year  Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
1/5 The proportion of students who have received private tuition at some point during their school lives.  £24 The average...
Money spent on  education  outside  of  school is increasing.
<ul><li>$9 billion </li></ul><ul><li>The worldwide market for edutainment toys reached  $2.35   billion in  2007 .  </li><...
Question: Who can access this  increasing  market  in educational goods?
£6,762  vs  £10,713 (State vs Private) On average, nearly £4,000 more is spent per pupil in the private sector than the st...
Low expectations?  <ul><li>Which of the following best describes the frequency with which you advise the academically gift...
<ul><li>44% </li></ul><ul><li>The number of teachers in the Teachers Omnibus 2007 who believe studying at Oxbridge is more...
Internships: the unpaid route into the professions <ul><li>“ With  four  in  five  employers recruiting former interns, th...
“ the less advantaged are most put off by the costs of undertaking an internship ”   Unleashing Aspiration Report, 2009 . ...
Good teaching and leadership  is also a crucial resource…
“ Outstanding ”   or  “ Good ”  Leadership and Management relates to higher GCSE results Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
But,  1/3 of schools  are still not  meeting good standards of Leadership  and Management Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
And,  40% of schools  are still not meeting good standards of teaching quality Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
There are  shortages  in leadership Source: Howson. 2010.
<ul><li>40% </li></ul><ul><li>The  re-advertisement  rate of </li></ul><ul><li>primary head teacher posts across </li></ul...
<ul><li>28% </li></ul><ul><li>The  re-advertisement  rate of </li></ul><ul><li>secondary head teacher posts across </li></...
Teacher  turnover  can be high  Source: Passy and Golden. NFER. 2010.
Perhaps  wastage  matters more  than turnover? Of the teachers surveyed who resigned in 2006, 18% included wastage which i...
What causes  difficulties  in recruitment? <ul><li>Amongst the schools  facing more difficulties  in recruitment are those...
<ul><li>4% </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of trainee teachers without any previous experience in a challenging school, w...
Not up for the  challenge? <ul><li>Only  1  in  10  teachers, and  1  in  8  head teachers, are considering working in a s...
The  status  of teaching The research question: “ Thinking about teachers compared to other professions, which of the foll...
What  degrees classifications  do teachers have? Source: Freedman et al. Policy Exchange. 2008.
Diversity in  teaching? 9% 37% 0% Independent  Grammar  Secondary modern Comprehensive Oxbridge graduates in teaching All ...
We need to keep learning  more about which of these factors  really matter  for pupils.  But…
5.   An attainment gap  is not inevitable
Here, each  blue dot  is a school . Who are the outliers?  /  What are they doing? Source: National Pupil Database and Sch...
The cycle  can  be broken… <ul><li>12  ‘ outstanding ’  schools serving  disadvantaged communities… </li></ul>Source: OFST...
We know  their outstanding characteristics: Source: OFSTED. 2009.
We know  the features of schools that achieve, sustain and share excellence Source: OFSTED. 2009.
We don ’ t yet know all the answers,  but we know that things need to change.
The  next chapter  starts here… <ul><li>Start  debate… </li></ul>
Telling the story presentation
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Telling the story presentation

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What's the story?

This isn't a tale to be proud of. In the UK, the link between low socio-economic background and poor educational attainment is greater than in almost any other developed country. Nearly 50% of children claiming free school meals achieve no GCSE passes above a D grade (Cassen and Kingdon)

Educational-related inequalities have an impact throughout a child’s life. Education is linked with happiness and wellbeing and also mental and physical health and life expectancy. The more you learn, the more you earn. You are more at risk of spending time ‘not in education, employment or training’ if you have no qualifications.

Education matters to society – it is linked to crime rates and to the economy.

What's our story?

It doesn’t have to be that way. Demography doesn’t have to be destiny. This attainment gap so entrenched in our society is not inevitable. Change is possible.

At Teach First we are working in partnership with others to ensure that no child’s educational success is limited by their socio-economic background. We believe that the scale of change needed will only be achieved through the collective effort of leaders in classrooms, in schools and throughout society. Each must challenge and change the status quo child by child, classroom by classroom, school by school, community by community until educational disadvantage becomes a work of fiction, not fact.

We start by recruiting people with the potential to be inspirational teachers who embark on a rigorous two-year Leadership Development Programme. Through this they develop their teaching and leadership skills needed to raise the achievement, aspiration and access to opportunities of pupils from low-income communities. Beyond this they are motivated to tackle educational disadvantage in the long term as Teach First ambassadors.

What's your story?

Teach First cannot solve this problem alone. We work with individuals, schools, universities and businesses to achieve our aims. You too can play your role in creating a happy end to this story.

http://www.teachfirst.org.uk/tellingthestory

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  • Source: Feinstein et al. 2007. Source: Reducing Inequalities; realising the talents of all. Feinstein et al, 2007 The UK is known to be one of the least socially mobile countries of the developed world. Regardless of where we sit on international rankings, when you look ‘ inside ’ the UK you can see how averages break down to show stark inequalities (for example look at PISA data – Programme for International Student Assessment).
  • Source: Feinstein. 2003. Source: Paraphrased from Very Early Evidence. Centrepiece, Summer 2003. Feinstein. LSE. 2003.
  • Source: Feinstein. 2003. Source: Very Early Evidence. Centrepiece, Summer 2003. Feinstein. 2003. LSE. pp.29/30 (Note: SES = Social Economic Status, Q = quartile score)
  • Source: Blanden and Machin. 2007. Source: Intergenerational inequality in early years assessments. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing 13. Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin. p.4 &amp;quot;Those from the poorest fifth of households but in the brightest group at age three drop from the 88th percentile on cognitive tests at age three to the 65th percentile at age five. Those from the richest households who are least able at age three move up from the 15th percentile to the 45th percentile by age five... If this trend were to continue, the children from affluent backgrounds who are doing poorly at age three would be likely to overtake the poorer but initially bright children in test scores by age seven.&amp;quot; (Sutton Trust 2005 - work by Blanden and Machin on the MCS). &amp;quot;This result has been taken to imply that the interaction of schooling with SES has more influence on outcomes than early ability. For our purposes it should be noted that while the gap between high ability-low social class and high social class-low ability children narrows between 22 and 42 months, the two trajectories do not cross until later ages.&amp;quot; (Blanden and Machin 2007)
  • Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010. Source: How Fair is Britain? The first Triennial Review. Executive Summary. Equality and Human Rights Commission. October 2010. p.301 “ Educational outcomes differ markedly by gender, socio-economic group, ethnicity and disability. Boys, pupils from some ethnic minority groups, and those eligible for Free School Meals (FSM) are performing less well as early as age 5. For students from lower socio-economic groups, the gap widens during the school years. The gap in students’ GCSE results according to their family backgrounds remains wider than most other educational inequalities, although tentative evidence indicates that it has started to narrow since 2006. This gap is accentuated when combined with other factors associated with educational underperformance, such as gender and disability.”
  • Source: Ipsos Mori. 2008 ‘ Whose happy now? ’ PowerPoint by Ben Page 2008 Personal communication
  • Source: The Sutton Trust and Boston Consulting Group. 2010. Source: ‘ The Mobility Manifesto ’ . The Sutton Trust. Boston Consulting Group, Dec 2009 (published March 2010) These figures are ‘ discounted ’ . Starting Salary Employer research shows recruiters will pay an extra £2,261 per year to new staff with the minimum set of qualifications compared to someone with no qualifications. Employer research shows recruiters will pay an extra £2,261 per year to new staff with the minimum set of qualifications compared to someone with no qualifications. http://www.aldertraining.co.uk/news_info.asp?ID=5 (Alder Training) 21 st March 2011
  • Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003. Source: Education, earnings and productivity: recent UK evidence. Labour Market trends. Ian Walker and Yu Zhu. March 2003. p.145 – 152. “ Figure 3 shows the effect of each successive year of education (relative to leaving at 15, which many did pre-1973), again controlling for the age differences, union status etc. Both men and women seem to experience around a 50 per cent wage increase as education rises from leaving at 16 to leaving at 21. Although there is a dip in returns between 18 and 20 there are, in fact, relatively few individuals who leave education at those ages.”
  • Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003. Source: Education, earnings and productivity: recent UK evidence. Labour Market trends. Ian Walker and Yu Zhu. March 2003. p.145 – 152. Proportional effect of degree over two or more A-levels on wages by degree subject; England and Wales; 1993 to 2001
  • Source: Audit Commission. 2010. Source: Audit Commission. 2010. Cited in the Private Equity Foundation website, 14 th March 2011. Direct link: http://privateequityfoundation.org/
  • Source: Labour Force Survey. 2011. Source: Labour Force Survey. Cited in NEET Statistics-Quarterly Brief. DFE. February 2011.
  • Source: Department for Education. 2010. Source: What works re-engaging young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEET)? Summary of evidence from the activity agreement pilots and the entry to learning pilots. Young People Analysis Division Department for Education. November 2010. p.2
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008. Source: Reducing the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET). DCSF, 2008. p.i
  • Source: Jon Coles quoted in Children &amp; Young People Now. 2009. Source: Education a matter of life or death for Neets. Children &amp; Young People Now (website). Ross Watson. 7th August 2009. Direct link: http://www.cypnow.co.uk/news/ByDiscipline/Education/925858/Education-matter-life-death-Neets/ Taken from the article: A senior civil servant has described the work of schools as a &amp;quot;matter of life or death&amp;quot; after local research showed that 15 per cent of young people not in education, employment or training (Neet) had died within 10 years of leaving the education system. Jon Coles, director general of schools for the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF), revealed the findings at a Westminster Education Forum last month. He quoted research from &amp;quot;one city in the North&amp;quot; that had gone back to monitor the progress of long-term Neets who had left the education system 10 years ago. &amp;quot;They found one profoundly shocking thing, of their long-term Neets who had been out of the system for a long time,&amp;quot; said Coles. &amp;quot;Fifteen per cent of those young people of 10 years ago were dead when that research was done&amp;quot;. Coles said he hoped that the research was not representative of the country as a whole, but added: &amp;quot;For those who console ourselves with the thought that education is not a matter of life and death, actually for those young people, for the most vulnerable children and young people in our society, it really is.&amp;quot; A DCSF spokeswoman said: &amp;quot;To extrapolate on what Jon Coles said to paint a national picture is completely misleading. However, it is clear that young people who are Neet are at greater risk of poor health and negative outcomes in later life, which is one of the key reasons we see reducing the Neet numbers as such a high priority.&amp;quot; She also pointed out that only one per cent of young people are currently classified as long-term Neets, which requires them not to be in employment, education or training from the age of 16 onwards.
  • Source: Ellwood. 1982. Source: Teenage Unemployment: Permanent Scars or Temporary Blemishes? In The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. David Ellwood (1982). p.349-390. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Source: Department for Education. 2010. The latest national statistics on Permanent and Fixed Period Exclusions from Schools in England produced by the Department for Education were released on 29th July 2010 according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority
  • Source: Parsons. 1996. Source: Parsons, 1996. Cited in ‘ Schools, Education and Social Exclusion’. Jo Sparkes 1999. p.24 Question: what is mainstream defined as here? “ Permanent exclusions are punitive and damaging. It is a process which has no forward plan.” “ One study found that 50% of students who had been permanently excluded were not in education, employment or training (NEET) two years after the exclusion.” Source: Study of Young People Permanently Excluded From School. Department for Education and Skills. Daniels, H., Cole, T., Sellman, E., Sutton, J., Visser, J., with Bedward, J., 2003. Cited in A New Secret Garden? Alternative Provision, Exclusion and Children ’s Rights. Civitas. Tom Ogg with Emily Kaill. November 2010. p.10
  • Sources: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Social Exclusion Unit. 1998. Source of first 4 stats: Permanent and Fixed Period Exclusions from Schools and Exclusion Appeals in England, 2008/09. DCSF (2010) Source of last stat: Social Exclusion Unit, 1998.
  • Source: Cripps. 2009. Source: Children and Young People in Custody 2009–2010. An analysis of the experiences of 15–18-year-olds in prison. HM Inspectorate of Prisons. Youth Justice Board. Hayley Cripps. 2009. p.9
  • Source: Department for Communities and Local Government. 2008. From: Digital Exclusion Profiling of Vulnerable Groups. Ex-offended: A Profile October 2008 Department for Communities and Local Government
  • Source: Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March 2011. Direct link: http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
  • Source: Smart Justice for Young People website . March 2011. Direct link: http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
  • Source: An Audit of Education Provision within the Juvenile Secure Estate . A Report to the Youth Justice Board. 2001
  • Source: The Marmot Review. 2010. Source: Fair Society, Healthy Lives. The Marmot Review 2010. p.16
  • Source: Office for National Statistics. 2009. Source: Infant and perinatal mortality in England and Wales by social and biological factors. Office for National Statistics. November 2009. p.1 Clarify why this data doesn ’ t match with the slide above. Question: How far down the link do we want to go? E.g. do we want to include data on maternal health? Does it help us show the circularity – that children do not all start with a blank slate? If we do use it we have to decide where it should be placed. NB: The official definition of social class is the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC), based on occupation and employment status.
  • Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006. Source: Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills. Leitch Review of Skills. December 2006. p.7
  • Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006. Source: Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills. Leitch Review of Skills. December 2006. p.8/9.
  • Source: The Schools White Paper. 2010. Source: The Importance of Teaching. The Schools White Paper, 2010
  • Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006. Source: Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills. Leitch Review of Skills. December 2006.
  • Source: Department for Education. 2010. DfE: GCSE and Equivalent Attainment by Pupil Characteristics in England, 2009/10
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Source: Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09. DCSF. March 2010. p.3 This is a slide of GCSE performance in England showing what percentage of each broad ethnic group attained 5 A*- C grades at GCSE, including English and Maths. The purple line that runs along the graph shows the average performance of all students regardless of ethnicity. This graph shows that in 2009, on average just over 50% of young people nationally attained the benchmark 5 A*-C (Eng and Maths). However, this falls to below 10% for Travellers of Irish Heritage and young people from Gypsy and Romany backgrounds, and rises to over 70% for young people of Chinese ethnicity. This graphs helps show how complex the issues are even. There is not one profile for young people from Asian backgrounds. There are stark differences within broad ethnic groups, e.g. between young people from Indian and Pakistani backgrounds.
  • Source: George et al. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. 2007. Source: Millennium Cohort Study – Cognitive Development. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Anitha George, Kirstine Hansen and Ingrid Schoon. June 2007. See also: Centre for Longitudinal Studies – News. Direct Link: http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.asp?section=000100010003&amp;item=409
  • Source: Blanden and Machin. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing. 2010. Source: Intergenerational inequality in early years assessments. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing 13. Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin. Based on the top and bottom income quintiles
  • Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: Low income and early cognitive development in the U.K. The Sutton Trust. Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth Washbrook. February 2010. p.45
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Source: Key Stage 1 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2009/10. Statistical First Release. Department for Children, Schools and Families. November 2010. p.8
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Source: Key Stage 2 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09. Statistical First Release. Department for Children, Schools and Families. November 2009. p.4.
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
  • Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Note: Here, deprivation is being measured by the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI). This is an index of how many young people live in income deprived households, measured through the uptake of certain benefits and income levels. You could also look at this attainment gap using the Free School Meal measure, but the IDACI is more nuanced and accurate because it is a spectrum measure.
  • Source: National Pupil Database and School Census information. 2010. Each blue dot is a secondary school in England.
  • Source: Fazackerley and Chant. Policy Exchange. 2008. Source: The hard truth about ‘ soft ’ subjects. Improving transparency about the implications of A-level subject choice. Policy Exchange. Anna Fazackerley and Julian Chant. December 2008
  • Source: Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009. Source: Submission from The Russell Group of Universities: Innovation, Universities, Skills and Science. Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009.
  • Source: Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009. Source: Submission from The Russell Group of Universities: Innovation, Universities, Skills and Science. Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009. “ While only 20% of A-level students come from independent and grammar schools, they account for over half of those gaining 3As. Only 7% of candidates in comprehensive schools gain 3As. ”
  • Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2008. Emery. Cambridge Assessment. 2009. University of Oxford. 2009. Multiple sources from left to right: Pupils aged 11 Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. A-Level Entrants and 3 A Grades Source: Numbers achieving 3 A grades in specific A-Level combinations by school type and LEA. Statistics Report Series No. 9. Joanne L. Emery. Cambridge Assessment. February 2009 University of Oxford Source: University of Oxford figures 2009
  • Source: The Sutton Trust. 2009. Source: ‘ The Mobility Manifesto ’ . Sutton Trust. Boston Consulting Group, Dec 2009 (published March 2010)
  • Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010. Source: How Fair is Britain? The first Triennial Review. Executive Summary. Equality and Human Rights Commission. October 2010. p.56 NB: It was recognised in the development of this framework that it is important to capture: • Inequality of outcomes (the things in life that individuals and groups actually achieve). • Inequality of process (reflecting inequalities in treatment through discrimination or disadvantage by other individuals and groups, or by institutions and systems, including lack of dignity and respect). • Inequality of autonomy (i.e. inequality in the degree of empowerment people have to make decisions affecting their lives, how much choice and control they really have given their circumstances).
  • Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. UCAS Statistical Services. 2009. The Sutton Trust. 2008. Sources from top: Source 1: Unleashing Aspiration Report. The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. Source 2: UCAS statistical Service. 2009 Source 3: The Sutton Trust. 2008.
  • Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. p.18 &amp;quot;Over one third (35%) of MPs elected in the 2010 General Election attended independent schools, which educate just 7% of the school population. The proportion of MPs attending independent schools is 3 percentage points higher than in the previous 2005 Parliament.&amp;quot; (The Sutton Trust, May 2010).
  • Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. p.6
  • Source: The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: ‘ The Mobility Manifesto ’ . Sutton Trust. Boston Consulting Group, Dec 2009 (published March 2010) These calculations are based on a methodology developed by the US economist Eric Hanushek, linking education performance and GDP gains for countries. Matching Finnish levels of social mobility would add £6 billion a year to GDP by 2030 and £56 billion a year by 2050 (at today ’s prices). Bringing below average students in the UK to the national average would add £14 billion a year to GDP by 2030 and £140 billion by 2050.
  • Source: The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: ‘ The Mobility Manifesto ’ . Sutton Trust. Boston Consulting Group, Dec 2009 (published March 2010) These calculations are based on a methodology developed by the US economist Eric Hanushek, linking education performance and GDP gains for countries. Matching Finnish levels of social mobility would add £6 billion a year to GDP by 2030 and £56 billion a year by 2050 (at today ’s prices). Bringing below average students in the UK to the national average would add £14 billion a year to GDP by 2030 and £140 billion by 2050.
  • Source: D ’ Addio. OECD. 2010. Source: Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage: Mobility or Immobility across Generations? Cited in: Economic Policy Reforms, Going for Growth. A Review of the Evidence for OECD Countries. OECD. 2010. Anna Cristina d ’ Addio 2007.
  • Source: PISA. 2009. Source: What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science. OECD. PISA 2009 Results. NB: PISA is conducted every three years, with a primary focus on one area each cycle. PISA 2000 focused on reading literacy; mathematics literacy was the focus in 2003, and science literacy was the focus in 2006. PISA 2009 rotated back to focusing on reading literacy.
  • Source: PISA. 2006. Source: Achievement of 15-year-olds in England: PISA 2006 National Report. OECD Programme for International Student Assessment. Jenny Bradshaw, Linda Sturman, Hanna Vappula, Rob Ager and Rebecca Wheater. 2007.
  • Source: OECD. 2010. Source: ECONOMIC POLICY REFORMS: GOING FOR GROWTH. OECD 2010 (page 151) Y axis: Standard deviation of average student performance in mathematics, science and reading.
  • Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010. Source: How Fair is Britain? The first Triennial Review. Executive Summary. Equality and Human Rights Commission. October 2010. p.460
  • Source: Office of National Statistics. 2010. Source: Office of National Statistics. Indices of multiple deprivation (rank) for each constituent country of the UK. July 2010.
  • Source: Greater London Authority. 2008. Source: Indices of Deprivation 2007. Government office for London. 2007. p.5
  • Source: Save the Children. 2010. Title Stat Source: Measuring severe child poverty in England. Policy Briefing. Save the Children. January 2010. p.1 1.7 Million Stat Source: Measuring severe child poverty in England. Policy Briefing. Save the Children. January 2010. p.1 1 in 5 Stat Source: Website article. Britain ’s shame as one in five children live in severe poverty. March 2011. Direct link: http://www.sec-ed.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/article/article.html?uid=82376;type_uid=1;section=News Poverty can be defined in many ways, but here the New Policy Institute has chosen to look at what they call ‘ severe poverty ’ – defined by what the basic monetary needs are of a small family, and seeing who are below that benchmark (£12,220 for a family of 3 people). This is only one benchmark to give an idea of the economic contexts some young people grow up in. As the New Policy Institute and Save the Children define it in their own words: “ According to our definition, children are living in severe poverty if they live in… “… a household with an income of below 50 per cent of the median (after housing costs), and where both adults and children lack at least one basic necessity, and either adults or children or both groups lack at least two basic necessities.” 4 This means that families living in severe poverty make ends meet on less than £12,220 a year (for a couple with one child). That equates to less than £33 per day to cover all basic essentials such as food, utility bills and clothing. ”
  • Source: Office for National Statistics. 2009.
  • Source: Brewer and Joyce. Institute for Fiscal Studies. 2010. Source: Child and Working-Age Poverty from 2010 to 2013. Institute for Fiscal Studies Briefing Note 115. Mike Brewer and Robert Joyce. 2010. p.3
  • Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: Low Income and Early Cognitive Development in the U.K. Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth Washbrook. Sutton Trust. February 2010. p.53 NB: Income boundaries in these slides correspond to the incomes of the 1 st , 3 rd and 5 th quintiles of households in the Millennium cohort study: 1 st quintile mean before tax income: £10,300 2 nd quintile mean before tax income: £20,200 3 rd quintile mean before tax income: £30,200 4 th quintile mean before tax income: £42,900 5 th quintile mean before tax income: £79,500
  • Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: Low Income and Early Cognitive Development in the U.K. Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth Washbrook. Sutton Trust. February 2010. p.50 NB: Income boundaries in these slides are: Low, middle and high income group indicates membership of the first, third and fifth income quintile groups respectively.
  • Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: Low Income and Early Cognitive Development in the U.K. Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth Washbrook. Sutton Trust. February 2010. p.50 NB: Income boundaries in these slides are: Low, middle and high income group indicates membership of the first, third and fifth income quintile groups respectively.
  • Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010. Source: Low Income and Early Cognitive Development in the U.K. Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth Washbrook. Sutton Trust. February 2010. p.50 NB: Income boundaries in these slides are: Low, middle and high income group indicates membership of the first, third and fifth income quintile groups respectively.
  • Sources: Ipsos Mori. 2010. Tanner et al. NCSR. 2009. Source 1: Ipsos Mori 2010. Young People Omnibus 2010 conducted for the Sutton Trust Source 2: Private Tuition in England. DCSF Research Brief. Emily Tanner, Naomi Day, Rosalind Tennant and Ola Turczuk: National Centre for Social Research. February 2009.
  • Source: www.instat.com. 2008. Source: Continued Growth in the Worldwide Market for Portable, Electronic-Based Edutainment Toys. May 7, 2008 Direct Link: http://www.instat.com/abstract.asp?id=27&amp;SKU=IN0804073ID DUBLIN  Irish Baile Átha Cliath, county borough (1991 pop. 915,516), Leinster, capital of the Republic of Ireland, on Dublin Bay at the mouth of the Liffey River. , Ireland -- Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/c91090) has announced the addition of &amp;quot;Continued Growth in the Worldwide Market for Portable, Electronic-Based Edutainment  Toys&amp;quot; to their offering. Today&apos;s child is incredibly comfortable using technology. As a result, young children now represent a key target demographic for digital consumer electronic (CE) products. There are a number of children&apos;s toys on the market today that incorporate digital technology. In fact, one of the fastest growing segments in the overall toy industry is the edutainment market. Edutainment toys aim to educate while they entertain, and sophisticated digital technology, such as 3D graphics and wireless capability, is now being incorporated into edutainment toys. The worldwide market for edutainment toys reached $2.35 billion in 2007. We expect this figure to reach $9 billion by 2012. The growth in the edutainment toy segment is taking place as the costs of microprocessors  and memory chips drop significantly. We believe that semiconductor companies now have an opportunity to leverage existing, portable multimedia solutions in order to power products found in the price-sensitive edutainment toy market. Our latest report includes worldwide forecasts for unit shipments, average sales price, and revenues for electronic-based, edutainment toys. It offers company profiles for the leading edutainment toy manufacturers, such as LeapFrog and VTech, and provides a composite semiconductor forecast for a typical edutainment toy on the market today.
  • Sources: Estimates based on DCSF figures. 2009. Independent School Council CENSUS. 2010. State funding: http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/TIM/m002012/NSRStatsJuneGDP140809.xls Have taken the ‘ revenue and capital figure from 2007-08 and times it by 7.5% to get it into today ’ s prices. NB: It is likely to be lower now given cuts, especially loss of BSF – final figures have not been released by the DfE. Source 2: Independent School Council CENSUS 2010 Have taken the average termly day pupil fee and times it by 3.
  • Source: IPSOS MORI Teachers Omnibus. 2007. Source: Ipsos MORI Teachers Omnibus 2007. The Sutton Trust. 2007. p.8
  • Source: IPSOS MORI Teachers Omnibus. 2007. Source: Teachers Omnibus 2007 for The Sutton Trust
  • Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report . The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. p.56 Opportunities to undertake internships are not fairly distributed. You are less likely to be able to do an internship if: You lack the means to work for free You lack the means to travel or live near to the internship You come from a background where a professional internship is never considered or discussed. The cost of undertaking an internship can put many people off. Internships are often low-paid or not paid at all. Those with the least financial resources are less likely to be in a position to forgo the opportunity to earn more in order to undertake an internship.
  • Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions. 2009. p.101
  • Source: OFSTED. 2007/08. Source: Ofsted Annual Report of Her Majesty ’ s Chief Inspector of Education, Children ’ s Services and Skills 2007/08. of Her Majesty ’ s Chief Inspector of Education, Children ’ s Services and Skills 2007/08.
  • Source: OFSTED. 2007/08. Source: Ofsted Annual Report of Her Majesty ’ s Chief Inspector of Education, Children ’ s Services and Skills 2007/08.
  • Source: OFSTED. 2007/08. Source: Ofsted Annual Report of Her Majesty ’ s Chief Inspector of Education, Children ’ s Services and Skills 2007/08. of Her Majesty ’ s Chief Inspector of Education, Children ’ s Services and Skills 2007/08. p.21
  • Source: Howson. 2010. Source: 25 th Annual Survey of Senior Staff Appointments in Schools Across England and Wales . Professor John Howson. January 2010. p.24
  • Source: Howson and Sprigade. 2011. Source: 26 th Annual Survey of Senior Staff Appointments in Schools Across England and Wales. Professor John Howson &amp; Dr Almut Sprigade. January 2011. Executive Summary.
  • Source: Howson and Sprigade. 2011. Source: 26 th Annual Survey of Senior Staff Appointments in Schools Across England and Wales. Professor John Howson &amp; Dr Almut Sprigade. January 2011. Executive Summary.
  • Source: Passy and Golden. NFER. 2010. Source: Teacher Resignation and Recruitment Survey. Report 41. Local Government Association. Published by NFER. Rowena Passy and Sarah Golden. February 2010. * Data not available for Greater Manchester and Black Country **Teacher turnover has been calculated by expressing the number of teachers who have left as a percentage of the total number of teachers employed in all schools *** System wide issues include London property prices and teachers moving to outside of London when they turn 30
  • Source: Passy and Golden. NFER. 2010. . *Total number of resignations = 1362
  • Source: Howson. 2010. Source: 25th Annual Survey of Senior Staff Appointments in Schools Across England and Wales . Professor John Howson. January 2010. p.24 “ The issue of staffing and leading some of our most challenging schools is one that has taxed policy makers throughout the 25 year period that this survey has been conducted.”
  • Source: Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University. 2009. Source: NQT Quality Improvement Study for the Training and Development Agency for Schools. Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University.
  • Source: Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University. 2009. Source: NQT Quality Improvement Study for the Training and Development Agency for Schools. Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University. p.11
  • Source: Freedman et al. Policy Exchange. 2008. Source: More Good Teachers. Policy Exchange. Sam Freedman, Briar Lipson and Professor David Hargreaves. p.18 Professionals and undergraduates thought that teaching was most like the caring professions: social work, nursing and policing. Very few respondents felt that teaching was similar to any of the high-status professions on the list, such as doctor, solicitor or architect
  • Source: Freedman et al. Policy Exchange. 2008. Source: More Good Teachers. Policy Exchange. Sam Freedman, Briar Lipson and Professor David Hargreaves. p.22
  • Source: Smithers and Tracey. Centre for Education and Employment Research. 2003. Source: Teacher Qualifications. Centre for Education and Employment Research. Alan Smithers and Louise Tracey. January 2003. p.4 “ Of every 100 Oxbridge graduates in teaching, 54 are to be found in independent schools, 9 in grammars, 37 in comprehensives and none in secondary moderns. Of every 100 teachers, 13 are employed in independent schools, 4 in grammar schools, 79 in comprehensives and 4 in secondary moderns. ”
  • Source: National Pupil Database and School Census information. 2010. Each blue dot is a secondary school in England.
  • Source: OFSTED. 2009. Source: Twelve outstanding secondary schools Excelling against the odds. Ofsted. 2009. p.7 “ The schools are chosen from the small number that have been judged outstanding in two or more inspections, which serve disadvantaged communities and which have exceptionally good results. Some of the schools – and their headteachers – are well known; others less so. They are straightforward maintained schools, included on merit, without any evident advantages except the quality of their leadership, their staff, and the teaching and learning provided in them. ”
  • Source: OFSTED. 2009.
  • Source: OFSTED. 2009. Source: Twelve outstanding secondary schools Excelling against the odds. Ofsted. 2009. p.9
  • Telling the story presentation

    1. 1. One attainment gap: a million stories
    2. 2. “ The fact that family background is still such a strong determinant of a child ’ s outcomes is an affront to a civilised, progressive society ” Source: Feinstein et al. 2007.
    3. 3. A famous cohort study of those born in 1970 showed that bright children from lower socio-economic groups quickly lost their initial advantage… Source: Feinstein. 2003
    4. 4. Average rank of test scores at 22, 42, 60 & 120 months by SES of parents and early rank position By age 10, a low SES child with an upper quartile score in cognitive development at 22 months is predicted to have fallen behind their high SES peers with a lower quartile score. Source: Feinstein. 2003
    5. 5. This pattern looks set to repeat for children in the Millennium Cohort Study, born in 2000
    6. 6. Source: Blanden and Machin. 2007.
    7. 7. 1. Education matters
    8. 8. It matters for individuals…
    9. 9. <ul><li>“ Education-related inequalities have an impact over the life-span, not just in childhood. ” </li></ul>Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010.
    10. 10. To start, education and happiness are linked Degree or PhD A Levels GCSE % Very Happy None Chicken or egg? 35 30 28 23 Source: Ipsos Mori. 2008
    11. 11. The more you learn the more you earn Over the course of a lifetime, a graduate from a Russell Group university will earn on average £371,000 more than someone who left school with less than 5 good GCSEs. Source: The Sutton Trust and Boston Consulting Group. 2010.
    12. 12. Each extra year of education is correlated with wages (almost) Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
    13. 13. Different degrees have different effects on wages Source: Walker and Zhu. 2003.
    14. 14. NEET (Those not in Education, Employment or Training)
    15. 15. <ul><li>“ £35 billion is the cost to the taxpayer for only one generation of NEET. No one can put a value on the human cost. ” </li></ul>Source: Audit Commission. 2010.
    16. 16. 17.1% of 16-24 year olds are NEET. That ’ s 19.9% of females and 14.3% of males. 5% of ALL 16 year olds are currently NEET. Non-NEETs NEET 17.1% Source: Labour Force Survey. 2011.
    17. 17. 28% of young people with no qualifications spent more than 12 months NEET compared to 1% of their peers who attained 8 GCSEs at A*-C level. You are more at risk of spending time NEET if you have no qualifications No Qualifications 8 A* -C GCSEs 72 28 99 1 Source: Department for Education. 2010.
    18. 18. So what? Does being NEET for a while matter?
    19. 19. “ Spending time NEET is a major predictor of later unemployment, low income, depression and poor mental health ” Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008.
    20. 20. A Matter of Life and Death <ul><li>Reports from the North of England estimate that 1 in 7 long term NEETs are dead within a decade. </li></ul><ul><li>“ For those who console ourselves with the thought that education is not a matter of life and death, actually for those young people, for the most vulnerable children and young people in our society, it really is.” </li></ul>Source: Jon Coles quoted in Children & Young People Now. 2009.
    21. 21. Teen Unemployment has a lasting effects… <ul><li>Teenage unemployment leaves permanent scars, not temporary blemishes: </li></ul><ul><li>“ T he effects of a period without work do not end with that spell ” </li></ul>Source: Ellwood. 1982.
    22. 22. Thousands of young people are excluded from school <ul><li>In England, between 2008 and 2009 there were: </li></ul><ul><li>6,550 </li></ul><ul><li>permanent exclusions </li></ul><ul><li>363,280 </li></ul><ul><li>fixed period exclusions. </li></ul>Source: Department for Education. 2010.
    23. 23. So what? Does being excluded for a while matter?
    24. 24. Permanent Exclusions have Permanent Effects <ul><li>“ Of those who are excluded on a permanent basis, only 27% of primary age pupils and 15% of secondary pupils return to mainstream education” </li></ul>Source: Parsons. 1996.
    25. 25. Who is at highest risk of exclusion? <ul><li>Boys: x 3.5 (permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Educational Needs: x 8+ (permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Black Caribbean Pupils: x 3 (permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Free School Meals Pupils: x 3 (fixed term or permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Young people in care: x 10 (fixed term or permanent) </li></ul>Sources: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010. Social Exclusion Unit. 1998.
    26. 26. So it is easy to see how education also matters for society. Take crime as an example…
    27. 27. High Exclusion Rates amongst 15-18 year olds Inside our Prisons “ 90% of young men and 75% of young women had been excluded from school.” Source: Cripps. 2009.
    28. 28. What do we know about the 82,000 adult prison inmates… Over 25% are former looked after children . 50% of all males and 33% of all females were excluded from school. Over 50% of all males and 70% of all females achieved no qualifications at all at school or college. Men Women 25% 50% 25% 33% 50% 70% Were excluded from school Former looked after children Achieved no qualifications at school or college Source: Department for Communities and Local Government. 2008.
    29. 29. Young Offender Institutions 75% of young offenders did not attend school past the age of 13 Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March 2011. http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
    30. 30. Nearly 3 in 4 of young offenders were excluded whilst at school Source: Smart Justice for Young People website. March 2011. http://www.smartjustice.org/ypfacts.html
    31. 31. <ul><li>Over half of those in Young Offender Institutions (aged 15-21) are below the expected level of an average 11 year old in numeracy and literacy </li></ul>Source: An Audit of Education Provision within the Juvenile Secure Estate. 2001.
    32. 32. Through earnings, we can also see how education is linked to health…
    33. 33. Life expectancy <ul><li>People living in the poorest neighbourhoods in England will, on average, die seven years earlier than those living in the richest neighbourhoods. The gap is bigger between some areas: </li></ul>Kensington and Chelsea Male = 88 years Tottenham Green Male = 71 years Source: The Marmot Review. 2010.
    34. 34. Parental income and child mortality <ul><li>“ The infant mortality rate for babies with fathers in routine occupations (NS-SEC group 7) was twice that for babies with fathers in the higher managerial occupations. ” </li></ul>Source: Office for National Statistics. 2009.
    35. 35. Education and the Economy “ As the global economy changes, an economy ’ s prosperity will be driven increasingly by its skills base ” Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
    36. 36. We need skills <ul><li>“ Skills are a key lever within our control to improve productivity in the workplace – one fifth or more of the UK ’ s productivity gap with countries such as France and Germany results from the UK ’ s relatively poor skills. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Increasingly, skills are a key determinant of employment – less than half of those with no qualifications are in work, compared to nearly 90 per cent of those with graduate level qualifications. ” </li></ul>Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
    37. 37. We need futuristic skills! <ul><li>A focus on 'high levels of skill and creativity' and 'technological change' are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We require a skills system that not only responds to demand but is also able to anticipate future growth in the economy in areas such as low carbon or bioscience , or in those driven by broader demographic change such as the care, hospitality and leisure sectors.” </li></ul>Source: The Schools White Paper. 2010.
    38. 38. The UK ’ s Skills Profile is Low <ul><li>Of 30 OECD countries, the UK currently lies 17th on low skills, 20th on intermediate skills and 11th on high skills </li></ul><ul><li>“ 5 million adults in the UK lack functional literacy, and 17 million adults have difficulty with numbers. ” </li></ul>Source: Leitch Review of Skills. 2006.
    39. 39. Question: If inequalities are passed on from one generation to the next, how do we break the cycle?
    40. 40. 2. The attainment gap
    41. 41. There are gaps by gender Source: Department for Education. 2010.
    42. 42. There are gaps by ethnic group Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
    43. 43. The socio-economic attainment gap starts early
    44. 44. <ul><li>1 Year </li></ul><ul><li>The gap in ‘ school readiness ’ between 3-year-olds in the richest and poorest families </li></ul>Source: George et al. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. 2007.
    45. 45. <ul><li>15 Months </li></ul><ul><li>The gap in vocabulary development between 5 year-olds in the richest and poorest families </li></ul>Source: Blanden and Machin. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing. 2010.
    46. 46. Vocabulary gaps aged 62-months Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    47. 47. The gaps don ’ t stop there. They continue, and widen, throughout school
    48. 48. Gaps in Key Stage 1 tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
    49. 49. Gaps in Key Stage 2 tests by FSM status Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
    50. 50. The Gaps widen by Key Stage 4 <ul><li>2009 exam results by FSM for % 5 A*-C grades including English and Maths: </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage point gap = 27 points . </li></ul>FSM 27 54 Non-FSM % 5 A*-C GCSEs (Eng & Maths) National 51 Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
    51. 51. GCSE Gaps by Local Income Deprivation In 2009, 38% of pupils in schools in the 10% most deprived areas gained 5 A*-C grades (including English and Maths) at GCSE. 63% achieved this benchmark in the 10% least deprived areas. This is a gap of 25 percentage points. Most deprived areas Least deprived areas % 5 A*-C GCSEs (E&M) 63 38 Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2010.
    52. 52. Income deprivation and GCSE results are highly correlated, but there is large variation between schools Source: National Pupil Database and School Census information. 2010.
    53. 53. <ul><li>In 2007/2008 the University of Oxford accepted: </li></ul><ul><li>711 Further Mathematics A-Levels </li></ul><ul><li>494 in total of the following A-Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting, Art & Design, Business Studies, Communication Studies, Design & Technology, Drama/Theatre Studies, Film Studies, Home Economics, ICT, Law, Media Studies, Music Technology, Psychology, Sociology, Sports Studies/Physical Education and Travel & Tourism A-level. </li></ul>A-Level Choices Matter Source: Fazackerley and Chant. Policy Exchange. 2008.
    54. 54. <ul><li>Pupils at independent schools are roughly three times more likely to be doing further maths and 2.5 times more likely to be doing a language A-level than those at comprehensive schools. </li></ul>Who is taking Further Maths? Source: Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009.
    55. 55. Who gets 3 Grade As at A-level? Source: Select Committee Inquiry into Students and Universities. 2009. “ While only 20% of A-level students come from independent and grammar schools, they account for over half of those gaining 3As. Only 7% of candidates in comprehensive schools gain 3As. ”
    56. 56. From 7% to 46% : Independent school representation from school to Oxford Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2008. Emery. Cambridge Assessment. 2009. University of Oxford. 2009.
    57. 57. Different lives Source: The Sutton Trust. 2009.
    58. 58. “ Britain is falling short in its aspiration to provide equal chances for everyone to thrive ” Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010.
    59. 59. Gaps in Access to Higher Education 16% of students at Russell Group universities are from lower socio-economics backgrounds. In 2008, out of over ½ a million applicants to higher education through UCAS, only 4.9% were from students with a family background of routine occupations. 1/3 of admissions to Oxbridge came from 100 elite schools during the last 5 years. Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009. UCAS Statistical Services. 2009. The Sutton Trust. 2008.
    60. 60. Unequal access to the professions Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009.
    61. 61. <ul><li>&quot;The data we have seen suggests that tomorrow ’ s professional is today growing up in a family richer than seven in ten of all families in the UK.” </li></ul>Sources: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009.
    62. 62. 3. Does such inequality have a cost?
    63. 63. Yes. £1.3 trillion Source: The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    64. 64. How has that been calculated? <ul><li>“ Improving levels of social mobility for future generations in the UK would boost the economy by up to £140 billion a year by 2050 in today ’ s prices – or an additional 4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over and above any other growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall the UK ’ s economy would see cumulative gains of up to £1.3 trillion in GDP over the next 40 years. ” </li></ul>Source: The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    65. 65. But currently we have the lowest social mobility in OECD Source: D ’ Addio. OECD. 2010.
    66. 66. Against other international rankings we rate poorly…
    67. 67. PISA 2009 results <ul><li>Of 65 countries the UK was ranked: </li></ul><ul><li>16 th in Science </li></ul><ul><li>25 th in Reading </li></ul><ul><li>28 th in Maths </li></ul>Source: PISA. 2009.
    68. 68. PISA shows that England has large variation in results… <ul><li>“ England had a wide spread of attainment compared with many other countries. As well as high achievers, England had a substantial ‘tail’ of low-scoring students. Only two PISA countries had a wider spread than England (New Zealand and Israel). ” </li></ul>Source: PISA. 2006.
    69. 69. The UK has high variation between its students Source: OECD. 2010.
    70. 70. 4. Why does this happen? What are the causes?
    71. 71. There are many interrelated causes. This presentation explores some of the inequalities in ORE : O pportunities. R esources. E xpectations.
    72. 72. <ul><li>“ In order to flourish in life, every person needs a basic level of financial security and decent housing. ” </li></ul>Source: Equality and Human Rights Commission. 2010.
    73. 73. Income deprivation is concentrated in certain geographical areas Source: Office of National Statistics. 2010.
    74. 74. London: wealth and poverty side by side Source: Greater London Authority. 2008.
    75. 75. 13% of Children in England live in severe poverty* <ul><li>That ’ s approximately 1.7 million Children. </li></ul><ul><li>And means that more than 1 in 5 children in the UK live in severe poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>That ’ s 260,000 higher than the figures for 2004! </li></ul>13% *Severe poverty is defined as couple living on less than £12,220 a year when they have one child. Source: Save the Children. 2010.
    76. 76. Question: Are socio-economic inequalities getting better?
    77. 77. Incomes in the UK are diverging % share of income &quot;The richest 20% of households in the UK have over 40% of the total income. On the other hand, the bottom 20% receive under 10%.&quot; Source: Office for National Statistics. 2009.
    78. 78. Child poverty predicted to rise <ul><li>“ In 2013–14, we expect relative poverty to rise by about 200,000 children,100,000 working-age parents and 200,000 working-age adults without children, and absolute poverty to rise by about 100,000 children, 100,000 working-age parents and 100,000 working-age adults without children. ” </li></ul>Source: Brewer and Joyce. Institute for Fiscal Studies. 2010.
    79. 79. Question: What does childhood look like? How much does it cost?
    80. 80. Aged 3: Has internet at home Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    81. 81. Aged 3: Watches more than 3 hours of TV per day 27% 13% 5% Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    82. 82. Aged 3: Is read to daily 45% 65% 78% Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    83. 83. Aged 5: Taken to museum/gallery in last year Source: Waldfogel and Washbrook. The Sutton Trust. 2010.
    84. 84. 1/5 The proportion of students who have received private tuition at some point during their school lives. £24 The average (median) cost of an hour of private tuition in 2009. Sources: Ipsos Mori. 2010. Tanner et al. NCSR. 2009.
    85. 85. Money spent on education outside of school is increasing.
    86. 86. <ul><li>$9 billion </li></ul><ul><li>The worldwide market for edutainment toys reached $2.35 billion in 2007 . </li></ul><ul><li>This figure is expected to reach </li></ul><ul><li>$9 billion by 2012 . </li></ul>Source: www.instat.com. 2008.
    87. 87. Question: Who can access this increasing market in educational goods?
    88. 88. £6,762 vs £10,713 (State vs Private) On average, nearly £4,000 more is spent per pupil in the private sector than the state sector. £ Sources: Estimates based on DCSF figures. 2009. Independent School Council CENSUS. 2010.
    89. 89. Low expectations? <ul><li>Which of the following best describes the frequency with which you advise the academically gifted pupils that you teach (or have taught) to apply to Oxbridge? </li></ul>Source: IPSOS MORI Teachers Omnibus. 2007.
    90. 90. <ul><li>44% </li></ul><ul><li>The number of teachers in the Teachers Omnibus 2007 who believe studying at Oxbridge is more expensive than studying at other universities. </li></ul><ul><li>(They may now be right.) </li></ul>Source: IPSOS MORI Teachers Omnibus. 2007.
    91. 91. Internships: the unpaid route into the professions <ul><li>“ With four in five employers recruiting former interns, there is also compelling evidence that internships have become one of the most important routes into the professions. ” </li></ul>Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009.
    92. 92. “ the less advantaged are most put off by the costs of undertaking an internship ” Unleashing Aspiration Report, 2009 . Opportunities Come at a Cost Source: Unleashing Aspiration Report. 2009.
    93. 93. Good teaching and leadership is also a crucial resource…
    94. 94. “ Outstanding ” or “ Good ” Leadership and Management relates to higher GCSE results Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
    95. 95. But, 1/3 of schools are still not meeting good standards of Leadership and Management Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
    96. 96. And, 40% of schools are still not meeting good standards of teaching quality Source: OFSTED. 2007/08.
    97. 97. There are shortages in leadership Source: Howson. 2010.
    98. 98. <ul><li>40% </li></ul><ul><li>The re-advertisement rate of </li></ul><ul><li>primary head teacher posts across </li></ul><ul><li>England in 2009/10 </li></ul>Source: Howson and Sprigade. 2011.
    99. 99. <ul><li>28% </li></ul><ul><li>The re-advertisement rate of </li></ul><ul><li>secondary head teacher posts across </li></ul><ul><li>England in 2009/10 </li></ul>Source: Howson and Sprigade. 2011.
    100. 100. Teacher turnover can be high Source: Passy and Golden. NFER. 2010.
    101. 101. Perhaps wastage matters more than turnover? Of the teachers surveyed who resigned in 2006, 18% included wastage which is the movement of teachers to the independent sector or leaving the teaching profession entirely Source: Passy and Golden. NFER. 2010.
    102. 102. What causes difficulties in recruitment? <ul><li>Amongst the schools facing more difficulties in recruitment are those who meet two or more of the following characteristics from the list below: </li></ul>Source: Howson. 2010.
    103. 103. <ul><li>4% </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of trainee teachers without any previous experience in a challenging school, who say they are very likely to apply to teach in one for their first job. </li></ul>Source: Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University. 2009.
    104. 104. Not up for the challenge? <ul><li>Only 1 in 10 teachers, and 1 in 8 head teachers, are considering working in a school in challenging circumstances. </li></ul>Source: Centre for Education and Inclusion Research and Division of Education and Humanities Sheffield Hallam University. 2009.
    105. 105. The status of teaching The research question: “ Thinking about teachers compared to other professions, which of the following do you feel has a similar social status to teaching? ” Source: Freedman et al. Policy Exchange. 2008. Professionals Undergraduate Social Worker 58 52 Nurse 57 51 Police Officer 47 45 Librarian 39 29 Pharmacist 20 19 Accountant 13 15 Engineer 12 7 Surveyor 12 8 Doctor 10 10 Solicitor 9 10 Vet 9 11 None of the above 8 13 Architect 6 5 Website Designer 5 6 Management Consultant 3 6 Surgeon 3 3 Barrister 3 4
    106. 106. What degrees classifications do teachers have? Source: Freedman et al. Policy Exchange. 2008.
    107. 107. Diversity in teaching? 9% 37% 0% Independent Grammar Secondary modern Comprehensive Oxbridge graduates in teaching All teachers 79% 4% Source: Smithers and Tracey. Centre for Education and Employment Research. 2003.
    108. 108. We need to keep learning more about which of these factors really matter for pupils. But…
    109. 109. 5. An attainment gap is not inevitable
    110. 110. Here, each blue dot is a school . Who are the outliers? / What are they doing? Source: National Pupil Database and School Census information. 2010.
    111. 111. The cycle can be broken… <ul><li>12 ‘ outstanding ’ schools serving disadvantaged communities… </li></ul>Source: OFSTED. 2009.
    112. 112. We know their outstanding characteristics: Source: OFSTED. 2009.
    113. 113. We know the features of schools that achieve, sustain and share excellence Source: OFSTED. 2009.
    114. 114. We don ’ t yet know all the answers, but we know that things need to change.
    115. 115. The next chapter starts here… <ul><li>Start debate… </li></ul>
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