• Save
Organic Chemistry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Organic Chemistry

on

  • 15,560 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
15,560
Views on SlideShare
15,487
Embed Views
73

Actions

Likes
38
Downloads
322
Comments
6

5 Embeds 73

http://cesium2012.blogspot.com 45
http://www.slideshare.net 21
http://beb7651.1bestarinet.net 3
http://www.guru-app.com 2
https://bea4601.1bestarinet.net 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

15 of 6 Post a comment

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • copy those images i mean download it for free..............
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thanks
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • This presentation looks very professional. I think it would be helpful for teaching some of these principles to my class. Thank You.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thanks all of you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thanks
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Presentation Transcript

  • Organic Chemistry
    • Introduction
    • Functional Groups
    • Alkanes
    • Alkenes
    • Alkynes
    • Alcohols
    • Acids, Esters and Amides
  • Introduction
    • Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds
      • especially compounds containing C-C bonds
    • The field of organic chemistry is very important for a wide variety of reasons .
      • A huge number of carbon-containing compounds are known.
        • More than 16 million known compounds
        • About 90% of new compounds made each year contain carbon
  • Introduction
    • Most of the advances in the pharmaceutical industry are based on a knowledge of organic chemistry.
      • Many drugs are organic compounds
    • Life as we know it is based on organic chemistry.
      • Most biologically important compounds contain carbon:
        • DNA, RNA
        • proteins
        • carbohydrates
  • Introduction
    • Learning organic chemistry requires you to integrate and apply many of the concepts you’ve learned in general chemistry:
    • Electron configuration
    • Valence bond theory
    • Lewis structures
    • Resonance structures
    • Hybrid orbitals
    • Molecular geometry
      • Acid/base reactions
      • Oxidation/reduction
      • Kinetics
      • Equilibrium
      • Thermodynamics
      • Stoichiometry
  • Introduction
    • Some familiar organic compounds:
    methane acetylene acetone propane
  • Introduction
    • Some familiar organic compounds:
    Acetic acid Ethyl alcohol “ ether” aspirin
  • Introduction
    • Most organic compounds have a “skeleton” that is composed of C-C bonds.
        • The C-C bonds may be single bonds, double bonds, or triple bonds.
    • The “skeleton” of an organic compound has H’s attached to it.
      • other “heteroatoms” like O, halogens or N may be present as well
  • Introduction
    • The number of bonds formed by C in an organic compound is determined by the electron configuration of C.
      • Carbon has four valence electrons:
    • 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2
  • Introduction
    • Carbon generally forms 4 equivalent bonds.
    • The formation of four equivalent bonds is best explained using the concept of hybrid orbitals.
  • Introduction
    • The structure of an organic compound can be predicted by drawing a Lewis structure:
    H O H H C C C H H H acetone
  • Introduction
    • In organic molecules, we generally describe the geometry around each carbon atom.
    • Geometry is predicted using:
      • VSEPR
      • hybrid orbitals
  • Introduction
    • When C forms four single bonds :
      • sp 3 hybrid orbitals are involved
        • tetrahedral geometry
    • When C forms a double bond :
      • sp 2 hybrid orbitals are used
        • trigonal planar geometry
    • When C forms a triple bond :
      • sp hybrid orbitals are used
        • linear geometry
  • Introduction
    • Example: Identify the electron domain geometry and hybrid orbitals used by each atom (except hydrogen) in the following compound.
  • Introduction
    • Organic compounds contain not only C-C bonds but also C-H bonds.
    • C-C and C-H bonds tend to be non-polar because there is a small difference in electronegativites
    • Most (but not all) organic compounds are relatively non-polar
        • generally not very soluble in water
  • Hydrocarbons
    • The simplest organic compounds are the hydrocarbons:
      • organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
      • four general types:
        • alkanes
        • alkenes
        • alkynes
        • aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Hydrocarbons
    • Alkanes:
      • hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
    • Examples:
      • Methane CH 4
      • ethane H H
      • H – C – C – H
      • H H
  • Hydrocarbons
    • Alkenes:
      • hydrocarbons that contain a C = C double bond
      • H 2 C = CH 2 (ethylene)
    • Alkynes:
      • hydrocarbons that contain a C C triple bond
      • H – C C – H (acetylene)
  • Hydrocarbons
    • Aromatic hydrocarbons:
      • contain a planar ring structure in which the carbon atoms are connected by a combination of both  and  bonds
    H C C - H C - H H - C H - C C H benzene
  • Introduction
    • Organic compounds that are soluble in polar solvents such as water generally have a polar functional group present in the molecule.
      • An atom or group of atoms that influences the way the molecule functions, reacts or behaves.
      • an atom or group of atoms in a molecule that undergoes predictable chemical reactions
      • the center of reactivity in an organic molecule
  • Introduction
    • Functional groups that contain O or N atoms often lead to a polar organic molecule
      • large difference in electronegativity
        • C vs. O
        • C vs. N
    • Examples of familiar polar organic compounds:
      • glucose
      • acetic acid
      • Vitamin C
      • amino acids
    Functional groups contain C-O bonds Functional groups contain C-O and C-N bonds
  • Functional Groups
    • Since functional groups are responsible for the many of the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds, we often classify and study organic compounds by the type of functional group present.
    • On your exam, you will be responsible for recognizing and naming the various common functional groups that are found in organic compounds:
  • Functional Groups
  • Functional Groups
  • Functional Groups
  • Functional Groups
  • Functional Groups
    • Example: Name the functional groups that are present in the following compounds:
    • CH 3 CH 2 OH
    • O
    • H 2 C = CHCOH
    • CH 3 CH 2 NCH 3
    • CH 3
  • Functional Groups
    • Example: Name the functional group(s) that is (are) present in the following compounds:
    • H 2 C CH 2
    • H 2 C CH 2
    • CH 3 NHCH 2 CH 2 OCH 3
    O
  • Hydrocarbons
    • Alkanes are often called saturated hydrocarbons
      • they contain the largest possible number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom.
    • Alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons are called unsaturated hydrocarbons
      • they contain less hydrogen than an alkane having the same number of carbon atoms
  • Alkanes
    • Organic compounds can be represented in many different ways:
      • molecular formula: C 4 H 10 (butane)
      • Lewis structure:
      • Condensed structural formula
        • CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
      • Line angle drawings
  • Alkanes
    • Some of the simplest alkanes:
    You must know these!!!
  • Alkanes
    • Some of the simplest alkanes:
    You must know these!!!
  • Alkanes
    • The previous alkanes are also called straight-chain hydrocarbons:
      • all of the carbon atoms are joined in a continuous chain
    • Alkanes containing 4 or more carbons can also form branched-chain hydrocarbons (branched hydrocarbons)
      • some of the carbon atoms form a “branch” or side-chain off of the main chain
  • Alkanes
    • An example of a straight chain hydrocarbon:
      • C 5 H 12 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 pentane
    • Examples of a branched hydrocarbon:
      • C 5 H 12 CH 3 CHCH 2 CH 3 CH 3
      • CH 3 CH 3 CCH 3
      • CH 3
    2-methylbutane 2,2-dimethylpropane
  • Alkanes
    • The three structures shown previously for C 5 H 12 are structural isomers :
      • compounds with the same molecular formula but different bonding arrangements
    • Structural isomers generally have different properties:
      • different melting points
      • different boiling points
      • often different chemical reactivity
  • Alkanes
    • Alkanes with three or more carbons can also form rings or cycles.
    • Cycloalkanes:
      • Alkanes containing a ring structure that is held together by C – C single bonds
    • Examples:
    CH 2 CH 2 H 2 C cyclopropane
  • Alkanes
    • Examples of cycloalkanes:
    CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 C H 2 C cyclopentane cyclohexane H 2 C H 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2
  • Alkanes
    • Organic compounds can be named either using common names or IUPAC names.
    • You must be able to name alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and alcohols with 10 or fewer carbons in the main chain using the IUPAC naming system.
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and use the name of the chain for the base name of the compound:
        • longest chain may not always be written in a straight line
    CH 3 - CH - CH 3 CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Base name: hexane
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • Number the carbon atoms in the longest chain beginning with the end of the chain closest to a substituent
        • groups attached to the main chain that have taken the place of a hydrogen atom on the main chain
    CH 3 - CH - CH 3 CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 A substituent
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • Name and give the location of each substituent group
        • A substituent group that is formed by removing an H atom from an alkane is called an alkyl group:
      • Name alkyl groups by dropping the “ane” ending of the parent alkane and adding “yl”
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • Common alkyl groups (substituents):
        • CH 3 methyl
        • CH 3 CH 2 ethyl
        • CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 propyl
        • CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 butyl
    2-methylhexane CH 3 - CH - CH 3 CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Know these!
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • Halogen atoms are another common class of substituents.
        • Name halogen substituents as “halo”:
          • Cl chloro
          • Br bromo
          • I iodo
  • Alkanes
    • Alkane Nomenclature:
      • When two or more substituents are present, list them in alphabetical order:
        • Butyl vs. ethyl vs. methyl vs. propyl
      • When more than one of the same substituent is present (i.e. two methyl groups), use prefixes to indicate the number:
        • Di = two
        • Tri = three
        • Tetra = four
        • Penta = five
    Know these.
  • Alkanes
    • Example: Name the following compounds:
    • CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CH 3
    • CH 3
    • CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
    • CH 3 CHCHCH 3
    • CH 3
  • Alkanes
    • Example: Name the following compounds:
    • CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3
    • CH 2 CH 2 Br
    • CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
    • CH 3 CHCHCH 3
    • Cl
  • Alkanes
    • You must also be able to write the structure of an alkane when given the IUPAC name.
    • To do so:
      • Identify the main chain and draw the carbons in it
      • Identify the substituents (type and #) and attach them to the appropriate carbon atoms on the main chain.
      • Add hydrogen atoms to the carbons to make a total of 4 bonds to each carbon
  • Alkanes
    • Example: Write the condensed structure for the following compounds:
    • 3, 3-dimethylpentane
    • 3-ethyl-2-methylhexane
    • 2-methyl-4-propyloctane
    • 1, 2-dichloro-3-methylheptane
  • Alkenes
    • Alkenes:
      • unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a C=C double bond
    • Alkene Nomenclature:
      • Names of alkenes are based on the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms that contains the double bond.
  • Alkenes
    • Alkene Nomenclature
      • Find the longest continuous carbon chain containing the double bond.
      • Change the “ane” ending from the corresponding alkane to “ene”
        • butane butene
        • propane propene
        • octane octene
  • Alkenes
    • Alkene Nomenclature
      • Indicate the location of the double bond using a prefix number
        • designate the carbon atom that is part of the double bond AND nearest to the end of the chain
      • Name all other substituents in a manner similar to the alkanes.
      • Use a prefix to indicate the geometric isomer present, if necessary.
  • Alkenes
    • Alkene Nomenclature
    • Different geometric isomers are possible for many alkenes.
      • Compounds that have the same molecular formula and the same groups bonded to each other, but different spatial arrangements of the groups
        • cis isomer
        • trans isomer
  • Alkenes
    • Alkene Nomenclature
      • Cis isomer:
        • two identical groups (on adjacent carbons) on the same side of the C = C double bond
      • Trans isomer:
        • two identical groups (on adjacent carbons) on opposite sides of the C = C double bond
  • Alkene
    • cis-2-butene
    CH 3 CH 3 C = C H H CH 3 H C = C H CH 3 trans-2-butene
  • Alkene For an alkene with the general formula A P C = C B Q cis and trans isomers are possible only if A = B and P = Q
  • Alkene
    • Example: Name the following alkenes:
    • CH 3 CH 2 H
    • C = C
    • H H
    • CH 3 CH 2 H
    • C = C
    • CH 3 CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 3
    • CH 3
  • Alkenes
    • Example: Draw the structures for the following compounds:
    • 2-chloro-3-methyl-2-butene
    • trans-3, 4-dimethyl-2-pentene
    • cis-6-methyl-3-heptene
  • Alkynes
    • Alkynes:
      • unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a
      • C C triple bond
    • Alkyne Nomenclature:
      • Identify the longest continuous chain containing the triple bond
      • To find the base name, change the ending of the corresponding alkane from “ane” to “yne”
  • Alkynes
    • Alkyne Nomenclature:
      • Use a number to designate the position of the triple bond
        • number from the end of the chain closest to the triple bond
          • just like with alkenes
      • Name substituents like you do with alkanes and alkenes
  • Alkynes
    • Example: Name the following compounds:
    • CH 3 CH 2 C CCHCH 3
    • CH 2 CH 3
    • CH 2 CH 2 C CH
    • Cl
  • Alkynes
    • Example: Draw the following alkynes.
    • 4-chloro-2-pentyne
    • 3-propyl-1-hexyne