English teaching in BilingualEnglish teaching in Bilingual
Public Schools:Public Schools:
Between education policyBetween ...
CONTENTSCONTENTS
• Introduction
• Context and Participants
• Background
• Literature framework
• Methodology
• Data collec...
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
“…se debe ver al bilingüismo no solo como una manera de
preparar a los individuos para las exigen...
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
“Una vez asumida esta concepción, el MEN y las secretarias de
educación, en compañía de la comuni...
CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTSCONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS
“Proyecto Piloto Bogotá Bilingüe”
• IED José Manuel Restrepo
• IED Cundin...
CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTSCONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS
1. School principals, coordinators, and teachers
2. Students:
• CEFR leve...
BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND
• The National Bilingual Program: a path to language
standardization and economical competitiveness (...
LITERATURE FRAMEWORKLITERATURE FRAMEWORK
• Bilingualism and CLIL: Suárez (2005)
• Dynamism and polysemy in the concept: Fa...
LITERATURE FRAMEWORKLITERATURE FRAMEWORK
Manifold perspectives on bilingualism: Fandiño and Bermudez (2012)
Multilinguism ...
METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY
• Type of research:
Three-stage educational research (Arnal, Rincón & Latorre, 1994)
• Purpose of r...
METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
STEPS OFTHE RESEARCH PROCESS
DATA COLLECTIONDATA COLLECTION
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
SURVEY
Purpose: Exploration
Temporal...
SURVEY ANALYSISSURVEY ANALYSIS
Gerlinger & Lee (2002)
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
Open-ended qu...
RESULTSRESULTS
• Generalities:
- 87% of school staff claims to know the “PNB” objectives
(improve L2, communicative compet...
RESULTSRESULTS
• School strategies and effectiveness (according to participants) :
- ‘Excellent’ teaching hours and immers...
RESULTSRESULTS
• Difficulties of implementation:
- Skepticism and lack of interest
- Teachers’ low English level
- Lack of...
CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
Section 1- Antecedents (according to participants):
• Constant teacher training (didactic strategie...
CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
Section 2- Resources and support :
• “SED has assigned some budget to every school” (68%)
• “There ...
CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
Section 2 - Resources and support :
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
Recorder...
CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
Section 3 - Expectations :
- 90% hope for improvement in Students’ English level, the
quality of cl...
RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS
UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA,
JUNE 7, 2013
Secretariats for
education
- Make se...
CHALLENGESCHALLENGES
• Accurate methodological and theoretical foundations and
strategies in bilingual plans
• Specific te...
REFERENCESREFERENCES
Arnal, J., Rincón D., & Latorre A. (1994). Investigación educativa. Fundamentos y metodologías.
Barce...
Thank you !Thank you !
M.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena UrrutiM.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena Urrutiaa
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ENGLISH TEACHING IN BILINGUAL PUBLIC SCHOOLS: BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICY AND CLASSROOM REALITY

519
-1

Published on

Bilingual education programs are a complex phenomenon that involves not only linguistic, sociocultural and psychological factors but also educational and political issues (Miranda, 2012). In this regards, Cruz (2012) argues for an understanding of the multidimensionality of bilingualism, which implies conducting close monitoring of the effectiveness bilingual programs in local realities. In this light, this paper presentation socializes the results of the first part of an exploratory-descriptive project sponsored by La Salle University. The main objectives of this initial stage sought to approach the situation in situ and to identify commonalities among five different bilingual schools, searching for views on their implementation of the national bilingualism plan. Within the framework of survey studies (Arnau, 1995; Baker, 1997), the researchers gathered and analyzed data about three main aspects of bilingual programs: Background, resources and external support and outcome expectations. Findings suggest a tension between language education policies based on globalization and standardization and classroom realities influenced by teachers and learners’ dynamics. These results agree with previous studies done in Colombia in similar contexts (Sánchez & Obando, 2008; Miranda & Echeverry, 2011). Finally, this presentation offers pedagogical and methodological recommendations aimed at helping overcome or alleviate some of the weaknesses and lacks found.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
519
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • E:
  • E:
  • Y:
  • Y:
  • E: PNB 2004 – 2019 for improving L2 and for competitiveness (globalization); B1 highschool and B2 teachers 2006: “Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés” socialized with 15,000 T’s Plus Schools adapting curriculum 2007: Assessment, consistent with Pruebas Saber Pro like CEF &&… T training plans (38 SED’s, ME!!!) Plus Support from ANDES, JAVE, UNAL, DISTRI (T’s exams)
  • E: CUÀNTOS PRINCIPALS Y COORD… SS have been OVERDIAGNOSED Social capital : resources based on group membership, relationships, networks of influence and suppor symbolic capital  : resources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition Cultural capital : forms of knowledge, skills, education, and advantages that a person has, which give them a higher status in society
  • Y: ya no existe NBP sino fortalecimiento de competencias de lenguas extranjeras. Multilingualism and multimodality
  • Y: ya no existe NBP sino fortalecimiento de competencias de lenguas extranjeras. Multilingualism and multimodality
  • Y: cross-curricular work Organizational culture & institutional climate
  • E: Additive bilingualism
  • E:
  • Y: RECURSIVE -FREEMAN
  • Y: BASED ON PREVIOUS SURVEY STUDIES WE DEVELOPED OUR OWN HYPER LINK TO SURVEY, YES?
  • E: QL / QT
  • E:
  • Y: OTHER STUDIES?
  • Y:OTHER STUDIES?
  • E: THREE-SECTION SURVEY …………………. Cross– curricular work? Empowerment of IED’s by the SED?
  • E: NO EVIDENCE OF BUDGET ADMINISTRATION OR EXECUTION T’s own mat?
  • EEE: CO? PARENTS? COMMUNITY? PUBLISHING HOUSES?
  • Y: RELATIVE POSITIVISM CONCERNS ON LANGUAGE LEVEL & DISADVANTAGE BETWEEN PUBLIC & PRIVATE ied’S
  • Y:
  • Y: METHODOGY, TRAINING = TEACHER CHALLENGE: INSTITUTIONS IN AND OUT. IF THERE’S NO PNB, WHAT WILL BE THE HTEORETICAL FRAMEWORK? MULTILINGUALISM? MULTILITERACY? MULTICULTURALITY?
  • ENGLISH TEACHING IN BILINGUAL PUBLIC SCHOOLS: BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICY AND CLASSROOM REALITY

    1. 1. English teaching in BilingualEnglish teaching in Bilingual Public Schools:Public Schools: Between education policyBetween education policy and classroom realityand classroom reality M.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena UrrutiM.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena Urrutiaa
    2. 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS • Introduction • Context and Participants • Background • Literature framework • Methodology • Data collection • Results • Conclusions • References UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    3. 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION “…se debe ver al bilingüismo no solo como una manera de preparar a los individuos para las exigencias y necesidades socioeconómicas de un mundo globalizado, sino como la posibilidad de promover hombres y mujeres conscientes de la variedad lingüística y cultural del mundo, ciudadanos respetuosos del otro e interesados en reconocer y proteger las diferencias y las particularidades de las lenguas y sus culturas.” (Fandiño, Bermudez, & Lugo, 2012, p. 377). Bilingualism: Beyond socioeconomic needs and globalization. Closer to awareness and respect of linguistic and cultural variety. UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    4. 4. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION “Una vez asumida esta concepción, el MEN y las secretarias de educación, en compañía de la comunidad educativa colombiana, deben precisar y articular acciones que permitan trascender la instrumentalización, la estandarización y la certificación de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras para explorar y estudiar planes y proyectos que apuesten por el desarrollo integral de una competencia no solo comunicativa sino intercultural y multilingüe.” (Fandiño, Bermudez, & Lugo, 2012, p. 377). Bilingual plan: Beyond instrumentalization, standardization and certification. Closer to all-round formation and multilingual and multimodal competence. UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    5. 5. CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTSCONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS “Proyecto Piloto Bogotá Bilingüe” • IED José Manuel Restrepo • IED Cundinamarca • IED La Candelaria • IED Saludcoop Norte • Liceo Femenino Mercedes Nariño • Primer ciclo UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    6. 6. CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTSCONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS 1. School principals, coordinators, and teachers 2. Students: • CEFR level (A1-) • Affective filter 3. Other factors: • Location & Socio-economical issues • Capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural (Bordieu, 1986) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    7. 7. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    8. 8. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND • The National Bilingual Program: a path to language standardization and economical competitiveness (MEN, 2006). • Design: Ideological concern (Fandiño, Bermúdez, & Lugo, 2012; Mufwene, 2010) • Implementation: Country’s conditions (Cardenas, 2006) • Criticism to education and language policies (Usma, 2009) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    9. 9. LITERATURE FRAMEWORKLITERATURE FRAMEWORK • Bilingualism and CLIL: Suárez (2005) • Dynamism and polysemy in the concept: Fandiño and Bermúdez (2012) • Multiple perspective and directions: Martínez (2006) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    10. 10. LITERATURE FRAMEWORKLITERATURE FRAMEWORK Manifold perspectives on bilingualism: Fandiño and Bermudez (2012) Multilinguism Plurilingualism Biculturalism Interculturality Biliteracy El multilingüismo es el conocimiento de varias lenguas o la coexistencia de distintas lenguas en una sociedad determinada (De Deus, 2008). El enfoque plurilingüe enfatiza la expansión lingüística de un individuo en entornos culturales con presencia de más de una lengua en pro del desarrollo .de una competencia comunicativa a la que contribuyen todos los conocimientos y las experiencias lingüísticas y en la que las lenguas se relacionan entre sí (De Deus, 2008). La competencia o habilidad del individuo para actuar en dos contextos de acuerdo con los requisitos y las reglas de cada cultura (Oksaar, 1983). La interculturalidad es comprendida como reconocimiento y aceptación de la diversidad cultural en un contexto de permanente comunicación y negociación Social (Reyes, 2011) La “bialfabetización” se entiende como la capacidad de leer y escribir en dos lenguas, lo cual permite la comprensión de los matices culturales subyacentes a las lenguas, y entender los marcos para organizar y expresar pensamientos efectivamente (Carlson, 2011).
    11. 11. METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY • Type of research: Three-stage educational research (Arnal, Rincón & Latorre, 1994) • Purpose of research: Descriptive and explanatory studies (Dankhe, 1989) • Research method: First stage- Survey research (Arnau, 1995; León & Montero, 1993) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    12. 12. METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 STEPS OFTHE RESEARCH PROCESS
    13. 13. DATA COLLECTIONDATA COLLECTION UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 SURVEY Purpose: Exploration Temporal dimension: Cross-sectional (many subjects at one point in time) Information sense: Retrospective and prospective Type of survey: Personal Sample: Non-probability = Convenience sample. Types of questions: Open-ended and closed-ended. Design : 3 sections Response format: - Dichotomous (the respondent has two options) - Nominal polytomous (the respondent has more than two unordered options) - Ordinal polytomous (the respondent has more than two ordered options)
    14. 14. SURVEY ANALYSISSURVEY ANALYSIS Gerlinger & Lee (2002) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 Open-ended questions Closed-ended questions -Listing all questions -Observing frequencies -Noting patterns or trends -Classifying patterns or trends -Naming / creating themes - Assigning a code to each theme - Coding - Creating matrixes creating - Filling out matrixes - Applying descriptive statistics
    15. 15. RESULTSRESULTS • Generalities: - 87% of school staff claims to know the “PNB” objectives (improve L2, communicative competence, socio-cultural skills, and better future opportunities). - Stage: ‘implementation’ (15%) against words like ‘initial’, ‘intermediate’, ‘training’, ‘piloting’, ‘syllabus and material design’ (85%). UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    16. 16. RESULTSRESULTS • School strategies and effectiveness (according to participants) : - ‘Excellent’ teaching hours and immersions; - ‘Very Good’ training from universities; - ‘Good’ L2 training (courses and tests); - ‘Acceptable’ resources for TESL and SED follow-up; - ‘Unacceptable’ conversation clubs in L2 UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    17. 17. RESULTSRESULTS • Difficulties of implementation: - Skepticism and lack of interest - Teachers’ low English level - Lack of continuous training and teaching resources - Lack of articulation of project to research phase - Little motivation from school administrators - Lack of support form parents - Lack of resources (human, technological, physical) - Students drop-out UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    18. 18. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS Section 1- Antecedents (according to participants): • Constant teacher training (didactic strategies and L2) • Constant monitoring and follow-up plans by SED and unviersities • Unification of implementation criteria by SED • Connection to other subjects and areas of knowledge • Higher motivation and better resources for teachers • Connection of all the academic community to the project • Establishment of inter-institutional relations UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    19. 19. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS Section 2- Resources and support : • “SED has assigned some budget to every school” (68%) • “There is some budget for the project” (73%) • “There have been informative sessions about the administration of budget” (44%) - ‘Good’ support from SED and universities (resources and teacher training) - ‘Acceptable’ support from MEN, embassies, governmental and private institutions UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    20. 20. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS Section 2 - Resources and support : UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 Recorders, TV sets, DVD's CRI, Internet, Video beams Textbooks, libraries, materials,smartboards
    21. 21. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS Section 3 - Expectations : - 90% hope for improvement in Students’ English level, the quality of classes, and the atmosphere at their schools, whereas the teachers’ level would remain unchanged - 92% doubt English classes can be taught in L2, since teacher’s L2 level is poor - 92% point out level in public school vs. private schools (students and teachers) UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    22. 22. RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 Secretariats for education - Make serious diagnoses - Assume a concise position in regards to L1 in bilingual education - Strengthen interdisciplinary work and cross-curricular projects - Extend coverage and scope of training programs Schools and teachers - Regard bilingualism as a transverse axis in the curriculum - Design and implement strategies to boost students’ interest and motivation - Work on communicative and academic language - Use activities that integrate all the community - Implement ongoing formative assessment - Favor the use or authentic and meaningful resources Universities and training institutions - Take into account intercultural and interlinguistic competences - Promote writing and reading based on communication and biliteracy - Create and implement multilingual policies and practices
    23. 23. CHALLENGESCHALLENGES • Accurate methodological and theoretical foundations and strategies in bilingual plans • Specific teacher training in terms of bilingual education • Interdisciplinary projects in and out-of the classroom • Systematic and articulate teacher work • Acknowledgement of L1 in bilingual education • Bilingual process:  First cycle – ludic activities and L1/L2 awareness and strengthening  Second cycle and up – reading and writing in both language together with use of L2 in one or two content classes UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013
    24. 24. REFERENCESREFERENCES Arnal, J., Rincón D., & Latorre A. (1994). Investigación educativa. Fundamentos y metodologías. Barcelona: Editorial Labor. Arnau, J. (1995). Fundamentos del método. Metodología de investigación en psicología. En M.T. Anguera, J. Arnau, M. Ato, R. Martínez, J. Pascual y G. Vallejo. (Eds.), Métodos de investigación en psicología (pp. 45-66). Madrid: Síntesis. Baker, T. L. (1997). Doing Social Research (2nd edition). USA: McGraw-Hill. Bermúdez, J., & Fandiño, Y. (2012). El fenómeno bilingüe: perspectivas y tendencias en bilingüismo. Revista de la universidad de La Salle, 59, 99-124. Buendía. L. (1998) La investigación por encuesta. En L. Buendía, P. Colás y F. Hernández, Métodos de investigación en Psicopedagogía (pp. 119-155) Madrid: McGrawHill. Cárdenas, M. (2006). Bilingual Colombia: Are we ready for it? What is needed? [en línea]. Ponencia presentada en la 19th EA Annual Education Conference. Disponible en: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/ea_conference2006/proceedings/pdf/Cardenas.pdf. Carlson, A. (2011, April 23). Issues in Adding Biliteracy to Bilingualism and Biculturalism. Paper presented at Nagoya conference on multiculturalism. Nagoya international school, Nagoya, Japan. Cowman, S. (1993). Triangulation: a means of reconciliation in nursing research. Journal of advanced nursing, 18, 788-792. Cruz, F. (2012). La multidimensionalidad del bilingüismo: consideraciones conceptuales e implicaciones en torno al Plan Nacional de Bilingüismo. Revista de la universidad de La Salle, 59, 125-141. Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingual Education and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy. San Diego: College Hill Danhke, G.L. (1989). Investigación y comunicación. En C. Fernández-Collado y G.L. Danhke (Eds.), La comunicación humana: ciencia social (385-454). México, D.F.: McGrawHill. Oksaar, E. (1983). Multilingualism and multiculturalism from the linguist’s point of view. In: T. Husén & S. Opper (Eds.), Multicultural and multilingual education in immigrant countries (pp. 17- 36). Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press. De Deus, J. (2008). El perfil del multilingüismo en la Unión Europea (UE) y la promoción del plurilingüismo. Revista de Humanidades, 23 (1), 47-56. Fandiño, Y., Bermúdez, J., & Lugo, V. (2013). Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo. Colombia Bilingüe. Educación Y Educadores, 15(3), 363-382. Retrieved from http://educacionyeducadores.unisabana.edu.co/index.php/eye/article/view/2172 Garza, A. (1988). Manual de Técnicas de Investigación para Estudiantes de Ciencias Sociales. México: Harla, Colegio de México. UNIVERSIDAD DEL TOLIMA, IBAGUE, COLOMBIA, JUNE 7, 2013 Kerlinger, F. y Lee, H. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: métodos de investigación en Ciencias Sociales. México: McGraw-Hill. León, O., &y Montero, I. (1993). Diseño de investigaciones. Introducción a la lógica de la investigación en Psicología y Educación. Madrid: McGraw-Hill. López, B., De Mejía, A., Mejía, A., Fonseca, L., & Guzmán, M. (2009). Necesidades y políticas para la implementación de un programa bilingüe en colegios distritales. En J. V. Montoya (Ed.), Educación para el siglo XXI: Aportes del Centro de Investigación y Formación en Educación, 2001-2008 (pp. 409 - 466). Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes. Méndez, A. (2007). Metodologías y técnicas de investigación aplicadas a la comunicación. Venezuela: Universidad del Zulia. Martínez, G. (2006). Mexican Americans and language. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Miranda, I. R. (2012). Insights on bilingualism and bilingual education: A sociolinguistic perspective. ÍKALA, revista de lenguaje y cultura, 17(3) 263-272. Recovered from http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=255025411004 Miranda, N. y Echeverry, A. (2011). La gestión escolar en la implementación del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo en instituciones educativas privadas de Cali (Colombia). ÍKALA revista de lenguaje y cultura, 16 (29), 67-125. Mufwene, S. (2010). Globalization, global English and world English(es): Myths and facts. En N. Coupland (ed.), The handbook of language and globalization (pp. 31-55). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. Oksaar, E. (1983). Multilingualism and multiculturalism from the linguist’s point of view. In: T. Husén & S. Opper (Eds.), Multicultural and multilingual education in immigrant countries (pp. 17-36). Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press. Pimiento, R. (2000). Encuestas probabilísticas vs. no probabilísticas. Política y cultura, (13), 236- 276. Reyes, J. (2011). Las estrategias discursivas de grupos sociales en la Universidad nacional de Colombia en relación con la Escritura académica en situaciones de bilingüismo e Interculturalidad (tesis). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Sánchez, A. and Obando, G. (2008). Is Colombia Ready for “Bilingualism”? PROFILE Issues in teachers’ professional development, 9, 181-195. Suárez, M. (2005, 27 de julio). Claves del éxito del aprendizaje integrado de contenidos y lengua extranjera (AICLE). Charla presentada en la 5ta Jornada sobre Aprendizaje Cooperativo del grupo GIAC. Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao. Usma, W. (2009). Education and language policy in Colombia: exploring processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification in times of global reform. PROFILE Issues in teachers’ professional development, 11, 123-141.
    25. 25. Thank you !Thank you ! M.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena UrrutiM.A. Yamith Fandiño – M.A. Elena Urrutiaa
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×