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Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
Paragraph writing   the abc's of paragraphs
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Paragraph writing the abc's of paragraphs

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A presentation about how to write paragraphs. Examples, phrases and expressions are used to better explain what to do when writing good paragraphs.

A presentation about how to write paragraphs. Examples, phrases and expressions are used to better explain what to do when writing good paragraphs.

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  • 1. Distrital universityschool of sciences and educationlebei<br />THE ABC’S OF PARAGRAPHS<br />ENGLISH COMPOSITION <br />YAMITH J. FANDIÑO <br />MA IN TEACHING<br />
  • 2. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />The topic sentence<br /> The sentence introduces an overall idea that you want to discuss later in the paragraph. <br /> Suppose that you want to write a paragraph about the natural landmarks of your hometown.   The first part of your paragraph might look like this: <br /> <br />My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.<br /> Note how the first sentence, My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing geographical features, is the most general statement. This sentence is different from the two sentences that follow it, since the second and third sentences mention specific details about the town's geography, and are not general statements.<br />
  • 3. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Here are some examples of sentences that cannot be used as topic sentences. Can you figure out why they are inappropriate?<br />- My hometown is famous because it is located by Wheaton River, which is very wide, and because it is built near an unusually steep hill called Wheaton Hill.<br /> - There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission and two reasons why others like cars with manual transmission.<br /> - Clouds are white.<br />The problem with sentence # 1 is that it contains too many details. Topic sentences are general, and details should appear later in the paragraph. A better topic sentence would be like the one mentioned above, My hometown is famous for several amazing geographical features.<br />
  • 4. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Sentence # 2 is not appropriate as a topic sentence because it mentions two topics, not just one. Paragraphs are usually about one main thing and so their topic sentences should also be about only one main thing.<br />The problem with sentence #3 is that it is too general. It is also very boring! Would you like to read a paragraph with this topic sentence? Most people would not. <br />We can rewrite sentences #2 and #3 in the following ways to make it better:<br />- There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission. In a different paragraph, there are two reasons why some people like cars with manual transmission. <br /> - The shapes of clouds are determined by various factors.<br />
  • 5. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />The supporting sentences<br />My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. Thethirdamazingfeatureisthe Big OldTree. Thistree stands twohundredfeettall and isprobablyaboutsixhundredyearsold.<br />The second sentence (First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful) gives some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is a famous town. Similarly, we can see that the third and fourth sentences also give some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is famous by giving other examples of "amazing natural features," in this case, Wheaton Hill and The Big Old Tree<br />The second and third sentences are called supporting sentences.  They "support," or explain, the idea expressed in the topic sentence.  Of course, paragraphs in English often have more than two supporting ideas. At minimum, you should have at least five to seven sentences in your paragraph.<br />
  • 6. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Details in Paragraphs<br /> Whenever possible, you should include enough details in your paragraphs to help your reader understand exactly what you are writing about. In the paragraph about Wheaton, three natural landmarks are mentioned, but we do not know very much about them. For example, we could add a sentence or two about Wheaton river concerning HOW wide it is or WHY it is beautiful. <br />My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is 175 feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind.  In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.  Even though it is steep, climbing this hill is not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs.  There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away.  The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old.  These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.<br />
  • 7. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />The concluding sentence<br />In formal paragraphs you will see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. This is the concluding sentence. You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse. Let's see how a concluding sentence (in bold font) might look in our sample paragraph about Wheaton:<br />My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.<br /> Notice how the concluding sentence (These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place)summarizes the information in the paragraph.  Notice also how the concluding sentence is similar to, but not exactly the same as, the topic sentence. <br />
  • 8. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Coherence and unity<br /> Coherence refers to a certain characteristic or aspect of writing. Literally, the word means "to stick together." Coherence in writing means that all the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence. With coherence, the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express. Consider the paragraph that we saw before:<br />My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is 175 feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind.  In autumn the leaves of these treesfall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow.  Second, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.  Even though it is steep, climbing this hillis not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs.  There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away.  The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.<br />
  • 9. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Major Connectors<br /> Do you see how the words in bold help guide the reader? For example, consider the words, First, Second, and The third amazing feature. We can call these words major connectors. Major connectors help organize the main parts of your paragraph. <br /> This paragraph has three main parts: (1) a part about the Wheaton River, (2) a part about Wheaton Hill, and (3) a part about the Big Old Tree. Another way of saying this is that this paragraph has three main points which are indicated by the major connectors. Using such major connectors is an important way of providing coherence in a paragraph.<br />Minor Connectors<br /> What about the other words in bold, such as those appearing in the phrases "these trees" and "this hill"? We can call these minor connectors. Minor connectors provide coherence to a paragraph by connecting sentences within each of the main parts of your paragraph. That is, when you write about your main points, you can use minor connectors to link your details to each main point.<br />
  • 10. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Now, look at this paragraph. Can you identify the main points?<br /> Each of the U.S. manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. The Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. The Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. The Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space. Gemini astronauts took "spacewalks." They floated outside their spacecraft in a spacesuit, connected to it by a tether. Gemini astronauts tried out new flying skills. Some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous." On some Gemini flights, astronauts physically linked two spacecraft together. Linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. The Apollo project, with three astronauts, was intended to test spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it. Performing scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth were goals.<br />
  • 11. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Was this paragraph a little confusing to read? Now consider the same paragraph with a few changes:<br /> <br /> Each of the U.S. manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. In addition, the Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. As another example, the Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space. One way of doing this was by having Gemini astronauts take "spacewalks." That is, they floated outside their spacecraft in a spacesuit, connected to it by a tether. Gemini astronauts also tried out new flying skills. For example, some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous." On some Gemini flights, astronauts physically linked two spacecraft together. This linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. Finally, the Apollo project, with three astronauts, had the goal of testing spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it. Other goals included performing scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth.<br />
  • 12. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Do you see which of the connectors above are major and which are minor? The major ones are For example in the second sentence, which introduces the first supporting point (the Mercury program); As another example, which begins the second main point (the Gemini program); and the word Finally, which introduces the third and last main point (the Apollo moon program). (In the paragraph above, all of the major connectors are underlined.)<br />As for the minor connectors, we can divide them into three groups:<br />- The first group of minor connectors provides coherence for the first main point (the Mercury program). There is only one minor connector in this first group, In addition.<br />- The second group of minor connectors consists of That is, also, and also the phrase For example. Notice that this last minor connector is the same as the major connector at the beginning of the paragraph. However, the function of each is different, depending on the meaning of the sentences. <br />- The third group of minor connectors in this particular paragraph also has one member, which is Other goals included.<br />
  • 13. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Paragraph unity<br /> Unity is a very important characteristic of good paragraph writing. Paragraph unity means that one paragraph is about ONLY ONE main topic. That is, all the sentences -- the topic, supporting sentences, the detail sentences, and (sometimes) the concluding sentence -- are all telling the reader about ONE main topic. If your paragraph contains a sentence or some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic, then we say that the paragraph "lacks unity," or that the sentence is "off-topic."<br />Look at the following paragraph, which is similar to the paragraph that we have studied above. Does it have perfect unity? Try to find the sentence that is off-topic:<br />Each of the Russian manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. For another example, the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk." That is, he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft, connected to it by a tether. The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White. Finally, the Soyuz project, with three cosmonauts, had goals of testing spacecraft and spaceflight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit.<br />
  • 14. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Paragraph unity<br />Paragraph unity means that one paragraph is about ONLY ONE main topic. That is, all the sentences are all telling the reader about ONE main topic. <br />Look at the following paragraph, which is similar to the paragraph that we have studied above. Does it have perfect unity? Try to find the sentence that is off-topic:<br />Each of the Russian manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. For another example, the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk." That is, he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft, connected to it by a tether. The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White. Finally, the Soyuz project, with three cosmonauts, had goals of testing spacecraft and spaceflight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit.<br /> The sentence (Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White) does not have anything to do with the major goals of the various Russian space projects. That is, it is an "off-topic" sentence. In order to improve the paragraph, we should omit this sentence, even though it is historically accurate.<br />
  • 15. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Types of paragraphs: Narration Paragraph<br /> Narration paragraphs are most distinctively used in fiction. As such, they will contain all necessary components of action development: protagonist, setting, goal, obstacle, climax and resolution. Writing a narration paragraph requires, consequently, sequential order and chronology. There are many descriptive elements included into the body of a narration paragraph but, if composed correctly, the paragraph will feature much more action than depiction.<br />Example:<br /> Around 2 a.m. something woke Charles Hanson up. He lay in the dark listening. Something felt wrong. Outside, crickets sang, tree-frogs chirruped. Across the distant forest floated two muffled hoots from a barred owl. It was too quiet. At home in New Jersey, the nights are filled with the busy, comforting sounds of traffic. You always have the comforting knowledge that other people are all around you. And light: At home he can read in bed by the glow of the streetlight. It was too quiet. And much too dark. Even starlight failed to penetrate the 80-foot canopy of trees the camper was parked beneath. It was the darkest dark he had ever seen. He felt for the flashlight beside his bunk. It was gone. He found where his pants were hanging and, as he felt the pockets for a box of matches, something rustled in the leaves right outside the window, inches from his face. He heard his wife, Wanda, hold her breath; she was awake, too. Then, whatever, was outside in the darkness also breathed, and the huge silence of the night seemed to come inside the camper, stifling them. It was then he decided to pack up and move to a motel.<br />
  • 16. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Exposition Paragraph<br />Often times, this kind of a paragraph is used as a component of other types. It’s created in order to clarify or explain a problem or a phenomenon. Writing exposition paragraphs requires strict focus on evidence and objective language. It can contain elements of comparison and contrast or cause and effect writing - both facilitate accurate exposition of its subject-matter. <br /> The following words can help you to compare and contrast:<br />
  • 17. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />The following words can help you express cause and effect:<br />Example:<br /> This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitors suffer each year. "Several times a month," ranger Rod Torres of O'Leno State Park said, "people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night." Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn't the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on this trip through Florida. If they had known about the different kinds of parks in Florida, they might have stayed in a place thy loved.<br />
  • 18. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Definition Paragraph<br /> Definition paragraphs are used in order to explain the meaning, origin and function of things. They are used both in academic writing and in fiction. To write a definition paragraph, writers should concentrate on the role of its subject in the context of the whole essay and list comparisons as well as examples accordingly. The following words can help you to write a good definition paragraph: <br />1. "is defined as"<br />Example: A pest is defined as any animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property. <br />2. "is a kind of"<br />Example: A pest is a kind of animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property.<br />Example:<br /> "Park" is difficult to define in Florida, because there are so many kinds of parks. Basically, a park is a place to go for outdoor recreation-to swim, picnic, hike, camp, walk the dog, play tennis, paddle your canoe, and, in some places take rides in miniature trains or swish down a waterslide. Florida has a rich variety of parks, ranging from acres of RVs ringed around recreation halls, to impenetrable mangrove wilderness. To make things more complicated, not all of them are called "parks," and even the ones called "parks" come in several varieties.<br />
  • 19. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Classification Paragraph<br />Writing a classification paragraph takes a slightly varied approach. It should rely on both defining and comparing. Writers should classify the subject of the paragraph in a specific context providing comparisons to corresponding ideas. Classification can be performed on multiple levels – semantic (comparing different meanings of things), linguistic (using vocabulary to show contrast), and more. <br />The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph:<br />
  • 20. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Classification Paragraph<br />Example:<br /> Forest and river dominate O'Leno State Park. By contrast, Lloyd Beach State Recreation Area, near Fort Lauderdale, is dominated by the oily bodies of sun-worshippers who crowd into it every summer weekend. Where O'Leno gives you so much quiet you can hear the leaves whispering, Lloyd Beach is a place of boisterous activity. You can walk a few yards in O'Leno and pass beyond every sign of human civilization. When you walk at Lloyd Beach, you have to be careful to step over the picnic baskets, umbrellas, jam boxes, and browning bodies. At night, O'Leno wraps itself with the silence of crickets and owls. Lloyd Beach is busy with fishermen till well past midnight. If you want to fish near town, or dive into the busy bustle of an urban beach, Lloyd Beach is the place to go. But if you want to stand at the edge of civilization and look across time into an older natural world, O'Leno is the park to visit.<br />
  • 21. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Description Paragraph<br />Preferably, description paragraphs should concentrate on action (verbs), rather than sensations (adverbs and adjectives). Writers should assume the role of readers whose idea of the described events is, in entirety, constructed by the paragraph content. Description paragraphs should be detailed, clear, and render the represented reality chronologically. <br />The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph:<br />
  • 22. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Description Paragraph<br />Example:<br />O'Leno is a good example of a state park in Florida. Surrounded by the tall, shaded woods of a beautiful hardwood forest, the Santa Fe River disappears in a large, slowly swirling, tree-lined pool. After appearing intermittently in scattered sinkholes, the river rises three miles downstream in a big boil, then continues on to meet the Suwannee and the sea. Nearby, stands of cypress mirror themselves in the still waters, walls of dense river swamp rise before you, sudden sinkholes open in the woodlands-rich with cool ferns and mosses. Farther from the river, expanses of longleaf pinelands stretch across rolling hills. In the midst of this lovely setting, you find 65 campsites, 18 rustic cabins, and a pavilion for group meetings. A diving platform marks a good place to swim in the soft, cool waters of the Santa Fe, and canoeing up this dark river is like traveling backwards in time in the direction of original Florida.<br />
  • 23. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Process Analysis Paragraph<br /> It usually takes the form of a how-to paragraph which guides readers through a process or action to be performed. It’s very concise and uses formal, non-descriptive vocabulary. It should be written in chronological order which accounts for subsequent actions. <br /> The following words can help you to write a good process analysis paragraph.<br />
  • 24. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Process analysis paragraph<br />Example:<br /> When you find the park you are looking for, you will need to make camp. One person can set up the FamilyProof Tent, though it is easier with two, yet almost impossible with three or more. Here's how:<br /> - First, clear a 9 by 9 foot area of snags, limbs, and anything that might pierce the bottom of the tent. Unfold the tent so that the corners of the waterproof bottom form a square. Peg down the corners of the bottom.<br /> - Next, snAP Test, Together all four external tent-poles (they are held together by shock cords to ake sure you get the pieces matched up).<br /> - Place a pole near each of the pegs. Thread each pole through the two loops leading toward the top of the tent.<br /> - After you have all four poles in place, lift one of the poles. While holding the pole up, pull its guyrope tight and peg the guyrope down, so that the pole is held up by the guyrope and the pegs on opposing sides of the tent bottom.<br /> - Lift the pole on the opposite side of the tent in the same way, but this time, fit it into the upper end of the standing pole before securing its guywire.<br /> - Assemble the two remaining tent poles in a similar manner.<br /> - Finally, unroll the front flAP Test, To form an awning. Prop up the awning with the two remaining poles and secure them with guyropes.<br /> Now you are ready to move in.<br />
  • 25. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Persuasion Paragraph<br /> Persuasion paragraphs require exhortatory and dynamic language. They are aimed at persuading others into taking a particular action or adopting certain point of view. They should be devoid of descriptive content and, instead, rely on the imperative mode. The following words can help you to write a good persuasive paragraph:<br />Example:<br /> Before you go camping in Florida, plan ahead. Don't wind up in the wilds when you want to be near Disney World, and don't wind up on a concrete RV pad when you really want the forest primeval. Find out what parks are available, and what they are like. Get good information on what to expect, and what your options are. This can make all the difference in the quality of your vacation.<br />
  • 26. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />How to write a paragraph<br />Prewriting Steps<br /> 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? <br /> 2. Open your notebook. Write out your answers to the above questions. <br /> 3. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. <br /> 4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? <br /> 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. <br /> 6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. <br />
  • 27. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Writing Steps<br /> 1.Open word processor.2. Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and closing sentence.<br /> 3. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.4. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph.<br />Editing Paragraphs<br />
  • 28. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />Publishing<br /> Three Steps:<br /> 1. Make a paper copy of your paragraph.2. Show your work to your teacher, tutor, or classmates.3. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing.<br />
  • 29. Theabc’s of PARAGRAPHs<br />REFERENCES<br />Basic paragraph structure and coherence and unity<br />http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/para.html<br />http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/para.html<br />Seven types of paragraphs: different body essay kinds<br />http://academicwriting.suite101.com/article.cfm/seven_types_of_paragraphs<br />http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/tips/paragrap/index.htm<br />How to write paragraphs<br />http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/tips/paragrap/index.htm<br />

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