Interdisciplinary seminarvii traditionsinqualitativeresearch


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A video about the main traditions in qualitative research. Some information about their basic characteristics and/or procedures are included.

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Interdisciplinary seminarvii traditionsinqualitativeresearch

  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>PERSPECTIVES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (PATTON, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristics Human psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic interactionism Social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological psychology Interdisciplinary psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Systems theory Theoretical physics </li></ul><ul><li>Hermeneutics Ideologies </li></ul>
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>METHODS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (Morse, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Method Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded theory Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology Semiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative ethology Anthropology/Zoology </li></ul>
  4. 4. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>NARRATIVE BIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>Life histories and biographies : profound revision of our social knowledge and interest in individual, group and collective memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings as story-telling organisms who live narrated lives. </li></ul><ul><li>A study of how human beings experience the world and how education construct and re-construct personal and social histories. </li></ul>
  5. 5. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD (PUJADAS, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal documents </li></ul><ul><li>-Autobiographies - Personal diaries </li></ul><ul><li>- Letters - Photographs, films, videos </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal objects </li></ul><ul><li>B iographical records </li></ul><ul><li>Life histories: studies of the lives of individuals, often based on both self-reporting and documents – unique, crossed, and parallel accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>- Life stories: an account of the series of events making up a person's life – biograms combine autobiographical material with hetero-biographical material. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>A description of the meaning of the experiences lived by a person or a group of people about a “concept” or “phenomenon”. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not interested in the explanation. The formulated question is not “What causes X?”, but “What is X?”. It focuses on the essential aspects of an experience or conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>It aims to discover what underlies the forms through which people conventionally describe their experience from the structures that conform it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>Main procedures in phenomenology (Creswell, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>- Understand the philosophical perspectives of how people experience ea phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>- Get a description of the meaning of a phenomenon from the everyday experiences of people. </li></ul><ul><li>- Identify dimensions, generate meaning clusters, and give a textural and structural description. </li></ul><ul><li>- Understand in-depth the essential or invariable structure of the phenomenon. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>GROUNDED THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>A general methodology to develop a theory constructed on the collection and analysis of systematic data. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than beginning by researching & developing a hypothesis, a variety of data collection methods are the first step. From the data collected from this first step, the key points are marked with a series of codes , which are extracted from the text. The codes are grouped into similar concepts , in order to make them more workable. From these concepts categories are formed, which are the basis for the creation of a theory , or a reverse engineered hypothesis. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography involves the intensive study of features in a given culture and patterns found in those features. </li></ul><ul><li>5 major characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>1. Holistic character: global description. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Naturalistic condition: observation and description in context. 3. Focus on discovering cultural patterns in human behavior. 4. Focus on emic perspective: how the culture itself defines reality. 5. Focus on studying the natural settings in which the culture is manifested. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps involved in ethnographic study </li></ul><ul><li>1. Formulating a research problem and selecting a case. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gaining entry – informant selection, collection and storage techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fieldwork and data collection. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Analyzing and interpreting data. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ability to examine the complex phenomenon known as culture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Holistic orientation and ability to identify diverse elements of a culture and develop patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Use of emic perspective does not provide for discovering the laws of social life </li></ul><ul><li>2. Still another issue concerns the validity of reports of ethnographic findings. </li></ul><ul><li>6. It requires a lengthy apprenticeship to learn how to do ethnography well; furthermore, the data-collection process for an ethnographic study can take many months, a year, or even longer. </li></ul>
  11. 11. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>ACTION RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal of research is not the accumulation of knowledge about teaching or the comprehension of the educational reality, but the contribution of information that guides decision-making and change processes in education. </li></ul><ul><li>Action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and social change. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>Features/Attributes of Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>- It involves the transformation and improvement of an educational and/or social reality. </li></ul><ul><li>- It starts off from practical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>- It’s research that entails the collaboration of others. </li></ul><ul><li>- It implies a systematic reflection of action. </li></ul><ul><li>- It integrates knowledge and action. </li></ul><ul><li>- It’s carried out by the people involved in the practice being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>- Formation is an essential and fundamental element in the research process. </li></ul><ul><li>- The action research process is characterized as a change spiral. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>The action research process </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of a thematic concern and problem formation: Reflexive inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration of an action plan: organized action with general idea, factors, necessary negotiations, and needed resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan development and data collection about its application </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection, outcome interpretation and replanning. </li></ul>
  15. 15. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>CASE STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>They involve an inquiry process characterized by a detailed, comprehensive, systematic and deep examination of the object of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of case studies </li></ul><ul><li>- Particularistic: They center on a specific situation, event, program or phenomenon. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>- Descriptive: A rich and dense description of the object of study. </li></ul><ul><li>- Heuristic: They enlighten the reader. They can make the reader discover new meanings, expand his/her experiences or confirm what he/she already knows. </li></ul><ul><li>- Inductive: Generalizations, concepts and hypotheses emerge from an examination of the data founded in the context itself. </li></ul>
  17. 17. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>EVALUATIVE RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>It’s decisive for decision making and it’s oriented towards determining the efficacy of educational organizations and programs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the systematic application of pedagogical research procedures to assess the conceptualization and design, the execution and success of a program according to some criteria in order to take decision to optimize the situation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>Perspectives and methods </li></ul>Positivist: It aims at testing effectiveness and efficacy. Experiments and quasi-experiments, system analysis, cause-effect models, etc Pragmatic: It’s oriented towards decision taking and program administration. Surveys, questionnaires, interviews, observations. Interpretative: It tries to promote the contextualized understanding of the program from the participants’ perspective. Case studies, interviews, observations, and document analysis. Critical: It aims at encouraging and promoting social and political change towards greater justice, equality and democracy. Collaborative and participatory research, historical analysis, social critique.
  19. 19. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>OTHER APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenography is a qualitative research methodology, within the interpretivist paradigm, that investigates the qualitatively different ways in which people experience something or think about something. </li></ul><ul><li>A phenomenographic analysis seeks a description, analysis, and understanding of experiences. The focus is on variation: variation in both the perceptions of the phenomenon as experienced by the actor, and in the &quot;ways of seeing something&quot; as experienced and described by the researcher . </li></ul>
  20. 20. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>OTHER APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology is a sociological discipline which studies the ways in which people make sense of their world, display this understanding to others, and produce the mutually shared social order in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethno refers to a particular socio-cultural group [think a particular, localized community of surfers]; method refers to the methods and practices this particular group employs in its everyday activities [related to surfing]; and ology refers to the systematic description of these methods and practices. </li></ul>
  21. 21. MAIN TRADITIONS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH <ul><li>REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sandín Esteban, M. Paz (2003) Investigación cualitativa en educación: Fundamentos y tradiciones. McGraw Hill Interamericana. Capítulo7. Tradiciones en la investigación cualitativa. </li></ul>