Fundamentals of CLIL


Published on

A comprehensive introduction to Content Language Integrated Learning - CLIL created to help pre and in-service EFL teachers understand the basics of this approach.

Published in: Education, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fundamentals of CLIL

  2. 2. introduction<br />People do notlearnlanguages and then use them, butlearnlanguagesbyusingthem (Halliday, 1975)<br /> Just as an infant can have extraordinary powers of communication with only a few words, so our ability to communicate in a language can be reasonably successful, even if our grammar is faulty, knowledge of words is weak, or pronunciation poor. We should all challenge the idea of waiting until I think I am good enough in the language to use the language. Rather we should use the language as a tool for communication and learning from as early a point as possible (Marsh, 2000)<br />2<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  3. 3. TRADITIONAL EFL TEACHING<br />Traditionally, language teaching has been conceptualised through one major learning route:<br /><ul><li>grammatical progression
  4. 4. with secondary consideration given to conceptual/cognitive/cultural progression
  5. 5. and only lip service to content progression.</li></ul>3<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  6. 6. RECENT EFL TEACHING<br />More recently, communicative approaches combine grammatical progression with some attention given to cultural, thematic and task-based learningBUT in the school sector, there is still a tendency to have little authentic classroom interaction. <br /> Grammar and exams still tend to determine teaching approaches.<br />4<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  7. 7. Efl teaching PARADOX<br />Language is a system which relates what is being talked about (content) and the means used to talk about it (expression). Linguistic content is inseparable from linguistic expression. <br />In subject matter learning we overlook the role of language as a medium of learning and in language learning we overlook the importance of content as a basis for communication.<br />5<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  8. 8. Efl Teaching NEEDS<br /> Teaching through and in the FL requires:<br /><ul><li>learners to learn comprehensible and authentic content
  9. 9. learners to learn language through which to interact - especially talk;
  10. 10. attention to oracy & literacy
  11. 11. contextualization to promote natural language acquisition
  12. 12. negotiation of meaning
  13. 13. the development and integration of both basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
  14. 14. the incorporation of thinking skills and learning strategies that lead to rich language development</li></ul>6<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  15. 15. CONTENT LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL) - DEFINITION<br />A meaning-focused learning method… the aim is learning subject matter together with learning a language (Van de Craen, 2006).<br /> It is an approach or method which integrates the teaching of content from the curriculum with the teaching of a non-native language (TKT: CLIL handbook).<br />CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focussed aims, namely the learning of content and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language. (Marsh, 2002) <br />7<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  16. 16. Clilmodels<br />Some schools teach topics from the curriculum as part of a language course. This is called soft CLIL. Other schools teach partial immersion programmes where almost half the curriculum is taught in the target language. This is called hard CLIL. Mid-way between these models, some schools teach a modular CLIL programme where a subject such as science or art is taught for a certain number of hours in the target language (The TKT course CLIL module).<br />8<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  17. 17. Clil: advantages<br />9<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  18. 18. Clil: potential<br /><ul><li>Revisits effective teaching and learning and provides new challenges.
  19. 19. Offers opportunities for connecting elements of the curriculum in an explicit way- making connections, building on strengths.
  20. 20. Provides excellent opportunities for challenging all learners-thinking skills.
  21. 21. Puts literacy at the forefront as well as communication skills (interaction, talking rather than speaking).
  22. 22. Redefines appropriacy of skills such as reading texts, using writing frames, key messages.
  23. 23. Adds meaning to citizenship and global issues.</li></ul>10<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  24. 24. Clil: the four cs<br />Coyle (2005)<br />11<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  25. 25. Clil: THE 4Cs and skills<br />12<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  26. 26. Clil: THE 4Cs and skills<br />13<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  27. 27. Clil: reconceptualizING COMMUNICATION AND language<br />A 4Cs teaching framework requires a re-conceptualisation of language from language learning per se towards an integrated model which actively involves the learner in using and developing.<br /> Language: functions, tasks, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, skills.<br /> Language of Learning<br /> Language for Learning<br /> Language through Learning<br />14<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  28. 28. Clil: reconceptualization<br />15<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  29. 29. Clil: reconceptualization<br />Coyle, 2007 <br />16<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  30. 30. Clil: reconceptualization of language<br />Language reconceptualization demands teachers systematically plan for, teach, monitor and evaluate:<br /><ul><li>Language of Learning (the what - content): it is linked to an analysis of content, thematic, syllabus demands - grammar, vocabulary, structures, functions
  31. 31. Language for Learning – (the how to – metacognition): it builds up learner repertoire linked to meta-cognitive skills & talk for learning in contexts real for the learners
  32. 32. Language through Learning (the why - cognition) – it is related to emergent knowledge building, skill development, and cognitive development.</li></ul>Coyle, 1999<br />17<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  33. 33. clilexample - content<br />Successful content or subject learning and the accumulation of knowledge, skills and understanding fundamental features to that discipline is placed at the centre of the learning process. <br />What are the learning outcomes of the topic?<br />Do we have to adapt, prioritize or select the content?<br />How does the content develop the global goals of the subject?<br />18<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  34. 34. Example: Habitats<br />Types of habitat<br />Animals in their habitats<br />Understand how living things interact<br />CONTENT<br />Human influences: habitat conservation<br />Organize research and present a mini-project in groups<br />Coyle, Hood & Marsh (2010)<br />19<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  35. 35. clilexample - cognition<br />Engaging learners through higher order thinking and knowledge processing. <br />Which thinking skills seem appropriate for this topic?<br />What kind of questions can I ask to go beyond the lower level skills and present Ss with challenging, problem-solving, hypothesizing, analyzing and evaluation tasks?<br />What kind of questions do I want Ss to ask?<br />20<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  36. 36. example:habitats<br />Explain different habitats to others using examples<br />Carry out an investigation into possible solutions and discuss findings with other groups.<br />Understand the relationship between cause and effect (starting point: animals are suited to their habitat<br />cognition<br />Represent relationship between cause and effect visually<br />Hypothesize how habitats might be destroyed or developed<br />21<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  37. 37. Clilexample - language of learning<br />(The what - content): It is linked to an analysis of content, thematic, syllabus demands - grammar, vocabulary, structures, functions.<br />What type of language (genre) does your topic use?<br />What is the content-obligatory language? (key words, phrases and functions etc)<br />What kind of talk to learners need to engage in? <br />22<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  38. 38. example: Habitats<br />Grammatical progression in using modal verbs to predict the future of ecosystems<br />Key vocab and phrases<br />LANGUAGE OF LEARNING<br />Language of describing, defining, explaining, hypothesizing<br />Effective use of future and conditional tenses for cause/effect, solutions, suggestions<br />23<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  39. 39. Clilexample - languageforlearning<br />(The how to – metacognition): It builds up learner repertoire linked to meta-cognitive skills & talk for learning in contexts real for the learners. <br />What are the possible language demands of typical tasks and classroom activities?<br />Which language skills will need to be developed?<br />How can learning be scaffolded? (language used to ask for help, ask for additional information etc.)<br />24<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  40. 40. Example: Habitats<br />Language to build arguments and disagreements<br />In groups: asking and answering questions using evidence<br />LANGUAGE FOR LEARNING<br />Writing a simple research report<br />Language for project work<br />25<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  41. 41. Clilexample - language THROUGH learning<br />(The why - cognition): It is linked to emergent knowledge building , skill development and cognitive development. <br />What language functions and notions are students already familiar with?<br />What strategies can they use to access new language for themselves?<br />How can we define language progression for this topic?<br />26<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  42. 42. EXAMPLE: Habitats<br />Recycling discussion skills at a higher level<br />Using feedback<br />Dictionary skills<br />LANGUAGE THROUGH LEARNING<br />Presenting evidence<br />Extending presentation skills<br />27<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  43. 43. Clilexample - culture<br />Interpreting and understanding the significance of content and language and their contribution to identity and citizenship.<br />What different types of cultural implications are there for development in this topic?<br />How can the content be adapted to make the cultural agenda more accessible?<br />How can we actively involve the learners in developig their intercultural understanding?<br />28<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  44. 44. EXAMPLE: Habitats<br />Focus: diversity of ecosystems<br />Example of deforestation<br />Use Internet to find eco-friendly companies/products<br />CULTURE<br />Discuss ecological practices and strategies.<br />Presentation on “Can we really change things?”<br />29<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  45. 45. Clilexample – habitatsunit<br />30<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />
  46. 46. references<br />Coyle, D. (2007). Content and Language Integrated Learning: towards a connected research agenda for CLIL pedagogies. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 543-562.<br /> Coyle, D. (2005). CLIL Activity in the UK. In H. Krechel (Ed.) MehrsprachigerFachunterricht in LändernEuropas (pp. 79-88). Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag.<br /> Coyle, D (1999). Theory and planning for effective classrooms: supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts. In J. Masih (Ed), Learning Through a Foreign Language: models, methods, and outcomes. London: CILT. <br /> Coyle, D., Hood, P., Marsh, D. (2010) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br /> Marsh, D. (2002). Content and Language Integrated Learning: The European Dimension - Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential. In D. Marsh (ed.), CLIL/ EMILE – The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential. Strasbourg: European Commission.<br /> Marsh. D. (2000). An introduction to CLIL for parents and young people in ten languages. In ds. D. Marsh & G. Langé, Using languages to learn and learning to use languages: an introduction to content and language integrated learning for parents and young people. Finland: University of Jyväskylä.<br /> Teaching knowledge test TKT.(2009). TKT Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). Handbook for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Van de Craen, P. (2001). Content and langauge integrated learning, culture of education and learning theories. In. M. Bas & J. Zwart (Eds.), Reflection on Language and Language Learning (pp. 209-220). Amsterdam: John Benjamisn. <br />31<br />YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO PARRA<br />