Introduction… the focus of research on teacher education needs to shift from examining what it is that good teachers do in particular situations to investigating how it is that good teachers think about particular situations... The nature of situations teacher knowledge is much more about how teachers interpret the complexity and the situated variability of the practical problems of the classroom, how those interpretations evolve over time and across settings, and how and when those interpretations influence decisions and actions in the classroom. (Doerr & Lesh, 2003, p. 3).
Knowledge base Traditional knowledge base = Basic skills for teaching Competency in subject matter Pedagogy (didactics) Other critical variables The classroom context Learners characteristicsTs personal experiences Ts reflective practices Ts research skills A need to envision a more complete framework of reference for professional application (Pineda, 2002).
Knowledge base Teachers knowledge base (Fenstermarcher, 1994).Formal knowledgeBased on literature, derived from research and related to effective teaching. Social, universal, and explicit.Practical knowledgeGenerated by teachers and derived from every day experimentation and reflection. Personal, situational and tacit.
Knowledge base Types of knowledge base (Kaur, Yuen & Kaur, 2011)An effective T needs two types of basic knowledge:Content knowledge: the knowledge a teacher should posses in a subject.Pedagogical knowledge: the teaching and learning of subjects and their curricula.
Knowledge base Teachers professional base (Shulman, 1987)General dimensions of teacher knowledge- Knowledge of educational ends- Knowledge of educational contexts- General pedagogical knowledge- Knowledge of learners
Knowledge base Teachers professional base (Shulman, 1987)Content-speficic dimensions of teacher knowledge- Curriculum knowledge- Subject-matter or content knowledge- Pedagogical content knowledge: a combination of content and pedagogy that helps Ts make a subject comprehensible to others.
Knowledge base of L2 teachers Knowledge base in L2 teaching (Faez, 2011) The expertise, understanding, awareness, knowledge, and skills that L2 teachers need to possess in order to be effective teachers. Lafayettes 3 domains (1993)- Language proficiency- Civilization and culture- Language analysis (L2 acquisition and processing)
Knowledge base of L2 teachers Days 4 domains (1993)- Content knowledge (subject-matter)- Pedagogic knowledge (practices of teaching: classroom management, lesson planning, etc.)- Pedagogic content knowledge (specialized teaching of an L2: grammar, speaking, etc.)- Support knowledge (different disciplines that inform teachers approaches: linguistics, psychology, etc).
Knowledge base of L2 teachers Richards 6 dimensions (1998)- Theories of teaching (theoretical bases)- Teaching skills (teachers repertoire)- Communication skills and language proficiency- Subject matter knowledge- Pedagogical reasoning and decision making (Complex cognitive and problem-solving skills)- Contextual knowledge (educational settings and linguistic policies)
Knowledge base of L2 teachers Freeman and Johnsons reconceptualization (1998)Premise: examining how language teachers come to know what they know and do what they do.Focus: the activity of learning to be a language teacher.3 interrelated domains:(a) the T as learner of language teaching,(b) schools and schooling as sociohistorical and cultural contexts for teacher learning, and(c) the Ts pedagogical thinking about language teaching.
Knowledge base of L2 teachers Tarone and Allwright (2005)A lacking element: the L2 language learner.L2 teachers knowledge needs to include a clear understanding of who learners are and why and how they learn L2.L2 language teaching is different from other teacher education disciplines, and should draw on and help develop SLA research.
From L2 base knowledge to pedagogical reasoning and action Adapted from Wilson, Shulman and Richert, 1987.
From L2 base knowledge to pedagogical reasoning and action Models Calderhead Wallace (1991) Freeman (1991) (1988) Integrative model The craft model (expert Teaching as doing and learner relationship) (skills development) Practical knowledge Academic knowledge The applied science Teaching as thinking Metacognitive model (theory and and doing (knowledge processes practice) implementation) Conceptions of learning to teach The reflective model Teaching as knowing (knowledge construction) what to do (contextual a) pre-training interpretation) b) professional education c) professional - Interteaching: from competence dependence to self- sufficiency.
From L2 base knowledge to pedagogical reasoning and action Models Day (1993) Manouchehri Ohata (2007) (2002)- The apprentice-expert model Attention to social From better ways to(observation, instruction, and interaction in professional train teachers topractice.) development. alternatives to teach through self-awareness - The rationalist model (learn- Entering a culture with and reflection.the-theory-and then-apply-it normative structure andmodel) social norms. Challenge and explore how or why classroom - The case studies model Guided and systematic actions are influenced(discussion and analysis of communication and by experiences andactual case histories ) collaboration are needed. beliefs. - The integrative model(pedagogic, content, andsupport-based experiences)
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaÁlvarez (2009)• Ts’ knowledge base construction = continuous process that involves:- Ts’ experiences in and out of the classroom- Ts’ beliefs at different moments of educational life- Interaction between pre-training knowledge, teacher education knowledge and teaching activity.• Colombian Ts seem to look for a balance between the technical dimension of teaching (content and methodology) and a more social and humanistic view (role awareness, student and professional settings, etc.)• Ts’ professional and personal self-perception as pedagogues plays a significant role in the construction of knowledge base.
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaCárdenas (2009)• Knowledge transmission and skills development-based models are present, but more personal and social-oriented models are observable.• Existence of behaviorist, humanist, constructivist, social constructivist and reflective perspectives = eclecticism in TE programs. Two interpretations: a lack of conceptual clarity or an awareness of the need for a multifaceted model.• Methodological programs seem to focus on: the experiences and beliefs of future teachers, reflection-based processes, real context practices, ethnography and action research and performance and process-based evaluation.• Four basic variables: (a) attitude towards the profession, (b) knowledge that transcends L2 issues to include specific contexts,(c) immediate use skills and professional development skills, and (d) awareness about what being a L2 teacher means and demands.
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaUsma (2009)Standardization, internationalization, accreditation, and recent linguistic and educational policies• undermine possibilities to acknowledge and promote awareness, autonomy, diversity and contextualization;• impose foreign discourses and practices at the expense of local knowledge; and• stratify and exclude teachers and institutions based on scores and rankings.
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaSharkey’s proposal (2009)• Infuse inquiry into all aspects of the curriculum so that Ts can generate local knowledge, theorize their practice, and interrogate the theory and research of others.• Professional and learning communities of praxis operating on collaboration and critical reflection.• A commitment to praxis to transform educational practices and policies.
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaGonzález and Quinchía (2003)Four main focuses:- knowledge of local realities- command of the language- broad experience in teaching EFL- experience in researchTEPs must be sensitive to the sociocultural milieu in which learning and teaching take place, in order to create knowledge.
EFL knowledge base in ColombiaGonzález (2007)The current teacher development model is a representation of colonial, traditional, and central discourses in ELT that must be reshaped by the new, local, and peripheral knowledge constructed by Colombian ELT scholars and teachers.Desired characteristics of EFL TEPs- application of a post method framework (particularity, practicality, possibility and macro strategies)- peripheral knowledge construction- adequate communication with local scholars and policy makers- acceptance of counter-discourses and critical theory
ReferencesÁlvarez, J. (2009). An exploration of Colombian EFL teachers’ knowledge base through teachers’ reflection. Revista Linguagem & Ensino, 12(1), 73-108.Calderhead, J. (1988). The development of knowledge structure in learning to teach. In J. Claderhead (Ed.), Teachers’ professional learning (pp. 51-64). London: The Falmer Press.Cárdenas, R. (2009). Tendencia globales y locales en la formación de docentes de lenguas extranjeras. ÍKALA, revista de lenguaje y cultura, 14(22), 71-106.Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. Working papers in second language studies, 11(2), 1-13. Retrieved from http://hawaii.edu/sls/uhwpesl/11(2)/Day.pdfDoerr, H., & Lesh, R. (2003). Designing research on teachers’ knowledge development (online). Retrieved from http://www.merga.net.au/documents/RR_doerlesh.pdfFaez, F. (2011). Points of departure: Developing the knowledge base of ESL and FSL teachers for K-12 programs in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 29-49.Fenstermacher, G. D. (1994). The knower and the known: The nature of knowledge in Research on Teaching. Review of Educational Research, 20, 3-56.Freeman, D. (1991). Three views to teachers knowledge. IATEFL Teacher Development Newsletter, December, 1-4.Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32(3), 397-418.González, A. (2007). Professional Development of EFL Teachers in Colombia: Between Colonial and Local Practices. ÍKALA, Revista de lenguaje y cultura, 12(18), pp. 309-332.
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