INTRODUCTIONThe situation of language teachers wanting or having touse Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)in their classes is complex. They need to acquire andconstantly update their ICT skills, while alsoensuring that the online teaching activities they useare fully integrated into [a sound] pedagogicalframework… beneficial both for their students and forthemselves(Beaven et. al., 2010).
INITIAL REMARKSThis study emerged as an opportunity to contribute to the qualificationof in-service EFL teachers for the use of ICT in their classes.This project aimed at studying the impact of an ICT formativeprocess (WIKIS) on EFL teacher’s beliefs, attitudes, andcompetences.This research is especially significant considering that the study wasconducted in public schools where the use of new technologies canbe rather difficult. In addition, teachers’ experiences andperceptions about new ICTs can pose challenges, which in turn cancause their interest in using them to be minimal.
RESEARCH QUESTION AND OBJECTIVESResearch questionWhat is the impact that a formative process on ICT can have on thebeliefs, attitudes and competencies of a group of English teachers frompublic high schools in Bogota?Research objectiveso Identify the beliefs, attitudes and competences that a group of EFL teachers have about ICT.o Determine the impact that a formative process can have on the use of ICT in the foreign language classroom.
LITERATURE REVIEWBELIEFSBeliefs are the judgments and evaluations that people make ofthemselves, others and the world surrounding them (Dilts, 1999).Teacher’s beliefs or “personal constructs” determine how theyapproach their teaching and affect the materials and activitiesthey choose for the classroom (Hampton, 1994).Changes in teachers’ beliefs precede changes in their teachingpractices (Golombek, 1998).Jimoyianiss & Komis (2007) state that teachers’ beliefs about ICT canbe positive, neutral or negative, which impact whether they seetechnologies as effective tools for instruction and learning.
LITERATURE REVIEWATTITUDESA tendency to behave in a consistent and persistent way beforedetermined situations, objects, events, or people (Coll, 1987).Watson (1998) maintains that the development of teachers’ positiveattitudes is a key factor both for enhancing computer integrationand avoiding teachers’ resistance to computer use.Teachers’ attitudes, maintains Sancho (1994), range from technophiliato technophobia; technophilia refers to a conviction that technologiesare a source of solutions to pedagogical problems and technophobiaexpresses a rejection to technological innovation due to itsdehumanization tendency.
LITERATURE REVIEWCOMPETENCESCompetences are the continuous and autonomous performances ofindividuals, requiring cognitive, attitudinal, and proceduralknowledge to face and solve concrete situations with the availableresources and strategies (Araujo, 2007).UNESCO (2008) establishes three approaches to education:technology literacy, knowledge deepening, and knowledge creation.Each of these approaches entails a set of skills for teachers.
LITERATURE REVIEWAPPROACH TECHNOLOGY KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE LITERACY DEEPENING CREATION APPROACH APPROACH APPROACH ICT These teacher These teacher competences Teachers who show these competences include include the ability to competences will be able basic digital literacy manage information, to design ICT-based skills along with the structure problem tasks, learning resources and ability to select and use and integrate open-ended environments and use appropriate off-the-self software tools and ICT to support the educational tutorials, subject-specific development of games, drill-and- applications with student- knowledge creation and practice, and web centered teaching methods critical thinking skills of content to complement and collaborative projects students. standard curriculum to solve complex, real- objectives and world problems. assessment approaches.
LITERATURE REVIEWICTICT is an all encompassing term that includes the full range ofelectronic tools by means of which people gather, record and storeinformation, and by means of which they exchange and distributeinformation to others (Anderson, 2010).Education needs to turn to ICT in order to increase learner motivationand engagement, facilitate the acquisition of basic skills, andenhance teacher training (Tinio, 2003).Modern technologies have provided new possibilities to the teachingprofession, but at the same time have asked teachers to continuouslyretrain themselves and acquire new knowledge and skills whilemaintaining their jobs (Jung, 2005).
LITERATURE REVIEWWIKISFor turning students into producers of online content, enabling peer-to-peer learning, and creating a collaborative learning environment, wikisappear to be excellent tools for language teaching and learning(Kovacic, Bubas & Zlatovic, 2007).Wikis can be used to facilitate the dissemination ofinformation, enable the exchange of ideas and facilitate groupinteraction (Augar, Raitman and Zhou, 2004).Wikis are closely associated to project-based and problem-basedlanguage learning practices where students and teachers alikecontribute to the construction of knowledge and the sharing of findings(Gimeno and García, 2009)..
METHODOLODYAction research (AR) guided this study. It seeks the description andcomprehension of the situation and the involvement of theparticipants (McKernan, 1999; Sandín, 2003).The process of AR is regarded as a set of reflexive cycles, whichbegins with a plan, continues with action, includes observation on theaction, and demands reflection. PLAN PLAN Report REFLECT ACT REFLECT ACT OBSERVE OBSERVE
METHODOLODYThe study was conducted with EFL teachers from public high schools inBogotá. The schools were located in Kennedy and Fontibón.For this study, variables such as age, sex, academic formation, orprofessional experience were not considered. Because of time andspace constraints, the study followed a convenience sample: theselection of the most accessible subjects (Marshall, 1996). SCHOOL Alfonso López Costa Rica Saludcoop Sur Manuela Ayala Pumarejo NUMBER OF Six Six Two Six PARTICIPANTS DISTRICT Kennedy Fontibón Kennedy Fontibón EQUIPMENT It has a computers It has a computers Although the school The school has a room with 20 room with 20 has a computers room, computers room computers. They have computers and a video the access is restricted without Internet and a basic programs and beam. so a lot of the work is limited access to slow access to the done with the teachers. Internet. researcher’s laptop.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTSFirst cycleIt consisted of a series of about seven sessions, in which researchersand teachers initially discussed ICT, ICT in education, technophobesand technophilias, and ICT challenges for education in the 21st century.These sessions were designed following what Gayetzky (2005) calls“total workshops”. These workshops consist of group meetings, inwhich people carry out a project and study a specific topic.Later, there was a rather instrumental stage, in which teachers weremore concerned with understanding the mechanics of wikis thanreflecting about their pedagogical use in the classroom.However, remarks were constantly made about their impact in thelanguage classroom.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTSFirst cycleSurveys: Based on principles established by Cea D Ancona (1998)and Burns (1999), the survey was designed with three sections: the firstsection sought information to identify the participants, the secondsection got the participants’ perceptions and dispositions on the use ofnew technologies in education and the last section sought to determinethe level of expertise with ICT through multiple choice questions.Diaries: The use of field journals (Burns, 1999) was suggested forteachers and researchers to “describe” their experiences during theirencounters with the groups of teachers in the high schools. Throughthis instrument, anecdotes, experiences, and reflections were collectedas soon as the sessions were over.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTSSecond cycleThe second cycle consisted of about seven sessions, in whichresearchers and teachers moved from practicing with the creationand use of wikis to reflecting about the pedagogicalimplementation of wikis in the foreign language classroom.Some of the sessions were devoted to studying socialconstructivism, project-based learning and cooperative languagelearning. Most authors agree these approaches are useful in designingand implementing ICT-based learning environments (Escontrela yStojanovic, 2004; Martínez, 2008; Schwartz, 2003 and Torres, 2008). Adidactic proposal was created based on these approaches.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTSSecond cycleQuestionnaires: They, states Burns (2010), allow to collect three typesof information: factual (background, experiences, etc.), behavioral(actions, routines, etc.) and attitudinal (opinions, interests, values, etc.).In this regard, Wallace (1998) maintains that as introspectivetechniques questionnaires let participants report their ownperceptions, experiences and values.Interviews: Interviews can be understood as a conversation with apurpose. (Burgess, 1984). To Wolcott (1988), interviews are anyactivities that a field researcher does in order to intrude a naturalcontext with the intention of obtaining information directly from theparticipants.
DATA ANALYSISMiles and Huberman (1994) define data analysis as consisting of threeconcurrent flows of activity: data reduction, data display and conclusiondrawing/verification.
DATA ANALYSISThe process of data analysis for this study consisted of a mixture ofdifferent techniques and coding procedures.On the one hand, the researchers used what several authors calleddescriptive research or statistics, which consists of collecting data thatdescribe events to then organize, tabulate, represent and describe themthrough graphs and tables to facilitate the comprehension of information(Glass & Hopkins, 1984).On the other hand, the researchers used content analysis. This methodconsists of examining social communication artifacts: written documents ortranscriptions of recordings. This analysis seeks to make inferences whenidentifying systematically and objectively the special features of messages(Norton, 2009).This mixture of different qualitative techniques and coding proceduressought to increase the methodological triangulation of the study.
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONSThe impact of new technologies on EFL learning and teaching doesnot consist of a promise of more efficiency but above all anextension of the relations between teachers and studentsbeyond the two-dimensional models of instruction tomultidimensional networks (Kennell, McBride & Kelly, 2009).The use of ICT requires change in the way teachers think aboutteaching and their teaching practices (Motallebzadeh, 2005).Such a change is not simply a transition from traditional teaching toteaching with technology. Instead, this change involves what theycall a shift in teaching paradigms: a shift in the way of thinkingabout teaching (Van de Ven and Poole, 1995).
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONSEFL teachers should not just receive technologicalinstruction, but be given technological education. The formersimply regards teachers as technicians in need of standardoperating procedures whereas the latter considers them asinterpreters capable of making decisions in their English classroom(Widdowson, 1990).Based on the work done in this study, it is possible to suggest thatthe Constructivist, Self-regulating, Interactive andTechnological (CSIT) teaching model (CAIT as it called inSpanish) may be a concrete way to strengthen educationalplanning, implementation and evaluation through new technologies(Beltrán and Pérez, 2003).
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Fernández, Real & Tortajada (2005)
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