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  1. 1. Stanza
  2. 2. What is a stanza? <ul><li>a unit within a larger poem </li></ul><ul><li>can be identified and grouped together </li></ul><ul><li>share a rhyme scheme or a fixed number of lines </li></ul><ul><li>types: distich/couplet, tercet, quatrain, cinquain/quintain, sestet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Distich/ Couplet <ul><li>Also known as ditich in classical prosody </li></ul><ul><li>Two successive lines of verse marked usually by rhythmic correspondence, rhyme, or the inclusion of a self-contained utterance. </li></ul><ul><li>Most frequently used as units of composition in long poems </li></ul><ul><li>Often composed as independent poems or function as parts of other verse forms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of a couplet <ul><li>Think what you will, we seize into our hands </li></ul><ul><li>His plate, his goods, his money, and his lands. </li></ul><ul><li>- From Richard II , by William Shakespeare </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of a Couplet <ul><li>True wit is nature to advantage dressed, </li></ul><ul><li>What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>- Alexander Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not we find what we are seeking </li></ul><ul><li>is idle, biologically speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Edna St. Vincent Millay </li></ul>
  6. 6. Heroic Couplet <ul><li>A couple of rhyming iambic pentameters often forming a distinct rhetorical as well as metrical unit; the rhyme is always masculine </li></ul><ul><li>commonly used for epic and narrative poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14 th century was the first to make extensive use of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-17 th century: became the principal meter used in drama </li></ul><ul><li>Late 17 th – early 18 th centuries: Perfected by John Dryden and Alexander Pope </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of a Heroic Couplet <ul><li>Then share thy pain, allow that sad relief; </li></ul><ul><li>Ah, more than share it, give me all thy grief. </li></ul><ul><li>- From Eloisa to Abelard , by Alexander Pope </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream </li></ul><ul><li>My great example, as it is my theme! </li></ul><ul><li>Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull, </li></ul><ul><li>Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cooper's Hill by John Denham </li></ul>Examples of a Heroic Couplet
  9. 9. Tercet <ul><li>three lines of poetry forming a stanza or complete poem; usually contains rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>Haiku is an example of an unrhymed tercet poem </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of a Tercet <ul><li>Death is now the phoenix’ nest; </li></ul><ul><li>And the turtle’s loyal breast </li></ul><ul><li>To eternity doth rest,… </li></ul><ul><li>From The Phoenix and the Turtle , </li></ul><ul><li>by William Shakespeare </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quatrain <ul><li>poem or a stanza within a poem that consists always of four lines </li></ul><ul><li>common of all stanza forms in European poetry </li></ul><ul><li>rhyming patterns include aabb, abab, abba, abcb </li></ul>
  12. 12. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>abab (from &quot;The Unquiet Grave&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The wind doth blow today, my love </li></ul><ul><li>And a few small drops of rain; </li></ul><ul><li>I never had but one true-love </li></ul><ul><li>In cold grave she was lain. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>abcb (from &quot;The Wife of Usher's Well&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>There lived a wife at Usher's Well, </li></ul><ul><li>And a wealthy wife was she; </li></ul><ul><li>She had three stout and stalwart sons, </li></ul><ul><li>And sent them over the sea. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>aabb (from William Blake, &quot;The Tyger&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Tyger! Tyger! burning bright </li></ul><ul><li>In the forests of the night, </li></ul><ul><li>What immortal hand or eye </li></ul><ul><li>Could frame thy fearful symmetry? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>abba, also called the envelope stanza or introverted quatrain (from Tennyson In Memoriam ) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Son of God, immortal Love, </li></ul><ul><li>Whom we, that have not seen thy face, </li></ul><ul><li>By faith, and faith alone, embrace, </li></ul><ul><li>Believing where we cannot prove </li></ul>
  16. 16. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>aaba, or the Omar Khayyám stanza (also known as Rubaiyat) </li></ul><ul><li>Awake! for Morning in the Bowl of Night, </li></ul><ul><li>Has flung the Stone that puts the stars to flight: </li></ul><ul><li>And Lo! the Hunter of the East has caught </li></ul><ul><li>The Sultan's Turret in a Noose of light. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Basic forms of a quatrain <ul><li>The heroic stanza or elegiac stanza (iambic pentameter, rhyming ABAB; from Thomas Gray's &quot;Elegy Written in a Country Church-yard&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>The Curfew tolls the knell of parting day, </li></ul><ul><li>The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea, </li></ul><ul><li>The plowman homeward plods his weary way, </li></ul><ul><li>And leaves the world to darkness and to me. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cinquain <ul><li>5 line stanza, varied in rhyme and line, usually with the rhyme scheme ababb </li></ul>
  19. 19. Example of a Cinquain <ul><li>Murmuring how she loved me -- she was Too weak, for all her heart and love To set its struggling passion free From pride, and vainer ties dissever, And give herself to me for ever </li></ul><ul><li>From Porphyria's Lover , </li></ul><ul><li>by Robert BRowning </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sestet <ul><li>A stanze or poem or six lines </li></ul><ul><li>The last lines of a Petrarchan sonnet </li></ul><ul><li>The first documented user of this poetical form was the Italian poet, Petrarch </li></ul>
  21. 21. Example of a Cinquain <ul><li>So answerest thou; but why not rather say: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Hath man no second life? - Pitch this one high! </li></ul><ul><li>Sits there no judge in Heaven, our sin to see? - </li></ul><ul><li>More strictly, then, the inward judge obey! </li></ul><ul><li>Was Christ a man like us? Ah! let us try </li></ul><ul><li>If we then, too, can be such men as he!“ </li></ul><ul><li>- From The Better Part , by Matthew Arnold </li></ul>
  22. 22. Octave <ul><li>A stanza of eight lines </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Ottava Rima </li></ul><ul><li>Octet </li></ul><ul><li>A stanza or group of eight verse lines the first two quatrains r eight lines of an Italian sonnet </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sonnet <ul><li>A fixed verse form of Italian origin </li></ul><ul><li>Has 14 lines that are typically five-foot iambics rhyming according to a prescribed scheme </li></ul><ul><li>expressing different aspects of a single thought, mood, or feeling, resolved or summed up in the last lines of the poem </li></ul><ul><li>It retained its appeal for major poets for five centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms: Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet, Elizabethan (English) sonnet </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Petrarchan Sonnet <ul><li>consists of an octave, or eight-line stanza, and a sestet, or six-line stanza. </li></ul><ul><li>Octave: two quatrains, rhyming a b b a, a b b a; the first quatrain presents the theme or problem, the second develops it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sestet: built on two or three different rhymes, arranged either c d e c d e, or c d c d c d, or c d e d c e; the first three lines exemplify or reflect on the theme or a change in thought, and the last three lines bring the whole poem to a unified close. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sir Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (1591 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Example of a Petrarchan Sonnet <ul><li>The world is too much with us; late and soon, </li></ul><ul><li>Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers; </li></ul><ul><li>Little we see in Nature that is ours; </li></ul><ul><li>We have given our hearts away, a sordid boom! </li></ul><ul><li>This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon, </li></ul><ul><li>The winds that will be howling at all hours, </li></ul><ul><li>And are up—gathered now like sleeping flowers, </li></ul><ul><li>For this, for everything, we are out of tune; </li></ul><ul><li>It moves us not.—Great God! I’d rather be </li></ul><ul><li>A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn; </li></ul><ul><li>So might I, standing on this pleasant lea, </li></ul><ul><li>Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn; </li></ul><ul><li>Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea; </li></ul><ul><li>Or hear old Triton blow his wreath é d horn. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Elizabethan Sonnet <ul><li>exemplified by the work of Shakespeare or Edmund Spenser's Amoretti (1595) </li></ul><ul><li>developed as an adaptation to a language less rich in rhymes than Italian </li></ul><ul><li>differs from the Petrarchan in being divided into three quatrains, each rhymed differently, with a final, independently rhymed couplet that makes an effective, unifying climax to the whole. The rhyme scheme is a b a b, c d c d, e f e f, g g. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Example of a Shakespearean Sonnet <ul><li>Let me not to the marriage of true minds </li></ul><ul><li>Admit impediments. Love is not love </li></ul><ul><li>Which alters when it alteration finds, </li></ul><ul><li>Or bends with the remover to remove: </li></ul><ul><li>Oh, no! it is an ever-fix é d mark, </li></ul><ul><li>That looks on tempests and is never shaken; </li></ul><ul><li>It is the star to every wandering bark, </li></ul><ul><li>Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken </li></ul><ul><li>Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks </li></ul><ul><li>Within his bending sickle’s compass come; </li></ul><ul><li>Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, </li></ul><ul><li>But bears it out even to the edge of doom. </li></ul><ul><li>If this be error and upon me proved, </li></ul><ul><li>I never writ, nor no man ever loved. </li></ul><ul><li>Sonnet 116 , </li></ul><ul><li>by William Shakespeare </li></ul>