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Metre

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  • 1. METER Metre
  • 2.
    • The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.
    • In the beginning God created heaven and earth.
  • 3. What is meter ?
    • The rhythm of accented and unaccented syllables which are organized into patterns (called feet ).
    • The linguistic sound patterns of a verse.
    • The recurrence of similar verse-factors.
  • 4. Accent and Stress : What’s the difference?
  • 5. Word Accent
    • The relatively greater force which is put upon one syllable over another is called word accent .
    • Syllables without primary or secondary accent are called unaccented .
    • Monosyllables may, for convenience, be regarded as single accented syllables.
    • so rrow sub lime
    • dem on stra tion cu mu la tive
  • 6. Verse stress
    • The ictus placed on certain syllables recurring at regular intervals in a verse of poetry. It determines the rhythm of the verse.
  • 7. Does the verse-stress always coincide with the word-accent?
    • - /     -     /     -  /  - /  -   /
    • Ab sent thee from fe li ci ty a while .
    • - - /     -     - /     -    -  /
    • And the light thereof hurled and the noise
    • - - /
    • thereof rolled .
  • 8. Guidelines
    • The verse-stress never falls on an unaccented syllable; nor on a secondary accent, unless the primary accent of the same word is also stressed.
    • But, the verse-stress does not necessarily fall on every accented syllable; that is, accented syllables may be unstressed in the verse.
    • Monosyllables, since they are regarded as accented syllables, may receive verse-stress.
  • 9.
    • Put simply:
    • Unaccented syllables are unstressed.
    • Accented syllables, including monosyllables, may be stressed or unstressed.
  • 10. METRICAL FOOT
  • 11. What is metrical foot ?
    • A unit of meter.
    • Any regular, single group of stressed and unstressed syllables.
    • In English, feet are named for the combination of accented and unaccented syllables.
  • 12. How many feet are there in each of the following verses?
    • - /     -     /     -  /  - /  -   /
    • Ab sent thee from fe li ci ty a while .
    • - - /     -     - /     -    -  /
    • And the light thereof hurled and the noise
    • - - /
    • thereof rolled .
  • 13. Four principal feet:
    • Iambus
    • 1 unstressed and
    • 1 stressed
    • Anapest
    • 2 unstressed and
    • 1 stressed
    • Trochee
    • 1 stressed and
    • 1 unstressed
    • Dactyl
    • 1 stressed and
    • 2 unstressed
  • 14.
    • " To be or not to be .
    • -Hamlet (William Shakespeare)
    • " Come live with me and be my l ove .”
    • -The Passionate Shepherd to His Love (Christopher Marlowe)
  • 15.
    • " By the shores of Git che Gu mee By the shin ing Big -Sea- wa ter.”
    • - The Song of Hiawatha (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)
    • " Dou ble, dou ble, toil and trou ble .”
    • - Macbeth (William Shakespeare)
  • 16.
    • "Like a child from the womb , like a ghost from the tomb I a rise and un build it a gain ."
    • - The Cloud (Percy Bysshe Shelley)
  • 17.
    • “ This is the/ for est prim-/ ev al . The / mur muring / pines and the / hem l ocks ,
    • - Evangeline
    • (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)
  • 18. What is verse ?
    • A line of poetry made up usually of several feet, but sometimes containing only one.
    • A verse consisting of one foot is called a monometer ; 2 feet, dimeter ; 3 feet, trimeter ; 4 feet, tetrameter ; 5 feet, pentameter ; 6 feet, hexameter ; 7 feet, heptameter ; 8 feet, octameter .
  • 19. What is scansion ?
    • The analysis of poetry's metrical and rhythmic patterns.
    • The analysis of a line of poetry for foot and meter .
    • To "scan" a line of poetry means to analyze it rhythmically.
  • 20. Scan the following verses:
    • 1. Fair daffodils, we weep to see
    • You haste away so soon.
    • 2. To a precipice goes,
    • Where a leap from above
    • Would soon finish his woes.
  • 21.
    • 3. Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December.
    • 4. Still it kept flowing and flowing, and other streams ran to its bosom.
  • 22. Answers:
    • 1. Fair daf fo dils , we weep to see
    • You haste a way so soon . (IAMBIC)
    • 2. To a pre cipice goes ,
    • Where a leap from a bove
    • Would soon fi nish his woes . (ANAPESTIC)
  • 23.
    • 3. Ah , dis tinc tly I re mem ber, it was in the bleak De cem ber. (TROCHAIC)
    • 4. Still it kept flow ing and flow ing, and o ther streams ran to its bo som. (DACTYLIC)
  • 24. Metrical Variations
    • English verse does not adhere rigidly to a given type (i.e. the entire line is not always made up of a regular succession of iambi or anapests or trochees or dactyls.)
    • Metrical variations are employed which help give the flexible quality of a verse.
  • 25.
    • Substitution - An anapestic foot frequently takes the place of an iambus, and vice versa. The same is true between trochees and dactyls.
    • My thoughts still cling to the moul dering past . ( shift from iambic to anapestic)
  • 26.
    • Inversion – Feet are sometimes inverted; that is, a trochee takes the place of an iambus; a dactyl of an anapest; and vice versa.
    • Through cav erns meas ure less to man ,
    • Down to a sun less sea . ( shift from iambic to trochaic)
  • 27.
    • Catalexis – The unstressed syllable (or syllables) beginning an iambic (or anapestic) verse may be omitted; similarly the unstressed syllable (or syllables) at the end of a trochaic (or dactylic) verse. The verse is said to be catalectic .
    • ^ Who would be
    • A mer man bold ,
    • ^ Sit ting a lone ,
    • ^ Sing ing a lone ,
    • ^ Un der the sea .
  • 28. Characteristic Effects of Various Feet and Metrical Variations
    • 1. Anapestic and dactylic lines, containing as they do a large proportion of unaccented syllables, have a lighter and more rapid movement than iambic and trochaic lines. Hence, they are suited to fervid emotion, quick action, flowing melody.
  • 29.
    • 2. Meters consisting of feet beginning with unstressed syllables ( iambi and anapests ) create the sense of an upward movement , and the general impression tends to be grave and conclusive .
    • Those that start with stressed syllables ( trochees and dactyls ) suggest a downward movement , and give the impression of lightness and expectancy .
  • 30.
    • 3. Perfect regularity of meter gives the character of steadiness , and suggests quiet, unobtrusive emotion , sometimes lends a formal dignity to the verse.
  • 31. Assignment =)
    • 1. Scan the poem “A Psalm of Life” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
    • 2. Research on the following feet; define and give an example of each:
    • a. spondaic
    • b. pyrrhic

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