Latitude: Generally the closer to the Equator the warmer the temperature. This is because light at the Equator hits at less of an angle than at the poles. Northland at 36°S has an average temp of 14°C, whereas at Tongariro at 39°S has an average temp of 7°C.
Altitude: Saturated air cools at the rate of 0.6°C per 100 vertical metres.
Relief: This can cause orographic rain (Rangipo Desert) and cause wind funnelling (e.g. Cook Strait).