Acid Rain Tasks
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Acid Rain Tasks Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Riches or Rubble? Do Now: Discuss, Decide and Justify
  • 2. Analysing and Recommending Solutions to Local, National and International Issues A geographer’s advantage…
  • 3. Perspectives Environmental Social Economic Cultural Political Feminist Masculine Indigenous Postmodernist Postcolonial Radical Poststructuralist Scientific Humanistic Technological Colonial Religious
  • 4. So what is your advantage as a geographer? Being able to analyse something from all the relevant perspectives and recommend solutions that meet everyone’s needs. This is what we are going to do for the next 3 weeks! Assessment for 3 credits will be in Week 9: Wed-Fri (Don’t be away on the last day of school) DISCUSS
  • 5. Controlling Acid Rain A Geographic Issue…
  • 6. The Formation of Acid Rain
  • 7. Very strong acids will burn if they touch your skin and can even destroy metals. Acid rain is much, much weaker than this, never acidic enough to burn your skin. Vinegar has a pH value of 2.2 and lemon juice has a value of pH2.3. Even the strongest recorded acid rain is only about as acidic as lemon juice or vinegar and we know that these don't harm us – So why do we worry about acid rain? Watch Animation How acidic is acid rain?
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • How does this map show that Acid Rain is a transboundary issue?
    • Which country is affected the most by acid rain?
    • Why could this map be different today?
    Acid Rain Risk in Europe in 1998
  • 10.
    • How does this cartoon reflect the last 2 slide’s information?
    • Where is the acid rain being created?
    • Where is the damage being done?
    • Why could this cause conflict?
    • What is the cartoonist trying to say?
  • 11. Which states have the worst pH problem?
  • 12.
    • Where are the factories located?
    • Where is the damage being done?
    • Who is being most affected?
    • Why could this cause conflict?
    • What is the cartoonist trying to say?
  • 13. Notice how Canada shares the USA’s acid rain problem. Use an atlas to help you get your bearings.
  • 14. Notice how Canada shares the USA’s acid rain problem. Use an atlas to help you get your bearings.
  • 15.
    • What is the cartoon “taking off”?
    • What are the trees escaping?
    • What does the cartoon suggest is the cause of acid rain?
    • Who is the cartoonist suggesting is responsible for acid rain?
  • 16. Trees killed by acid rain in the Great Smoky Mountains. Acid Rain affecting our forests
    • How has the acid rain affected the trees in this photo?
    • How could this further impact the environment?
  • 17. Acid Rain affecting our forests
    • Because rain travels over long distances in clouds, acid rain is a global problem. This map shows just how much of a problem it is across Europe:
    • Which countries are affected the most in Europe?
  • 18. Acid rain can erode structures such as buildings, even if they are made out of stone. Acid Rain affecting our cultural heritage
  • 19.
    • Experiment:
    • To observe the effects of acid rain on marble and limestone - two building materials commonly used in monuments, ancient buildings, and in many modern structures - conduct the following experiment:
    • Place a piece of chalk in a bowl with white vinegar.
    • Place another piece in a bowl of tap water.
    • Leave the dishes overnight.
    • The next day, see if you can tell which piece of chalk is more worn away.
    • This experiment with chalk allows you to see the effect of acid rain on marble and limestone because chalk is made of calcium carbonate, a compound occurring in rocks, such as marble and limestone, and in animal bones, shells, and teeth.
  • 20. Controlling Acid Rain Viewpoints…
  • 21. View Points…Perspectives… Groups of people, communities, business, individuals will look at the same issue from different perspectives. Some perspectives will be similar, while others will be totally in conflict. The skill of a Geographer is to look at issues from different perspectives to see the bias that is held towards a particular issue. This enables a Geographer to see an issue from everyone else’s point of view and offer an analysis and recommendations based from a non-bias perspective. This skill is what gives Geographers their advantage! Garden feature? Environmental Hazard? Granddad's pride & joy? What do you think when you see this? Possible restored beauty? $10 bargain?
  • 22. Who are the stakeholders in this issue? Who cares about Acid Rain? Big Industry Governments Green Peace Residents in affected areas Tourists Coal Miner Debate over acid rain and ways of preventing it have raged between environmentalists and corporations.  Businesses such as power companies and car makers oppose controlling acid rain because they fear the effects on their profits.
  • 23. What perspective would the stakeholders have on acid rain? Big Industry Green Peace Residents in affected areas Tourists Coal Miner Categorise each of the stakeholders according to the perspective they would come from Low emitting acid rain governments High emitting acid rain governments United Nations Cultural Environmental Economic Political Social
  • 24. Why would stakeholders hold these perspectives?
    • Would your stakeholder be FOR or AGAINST controlling acid rain?
    • What is your stakeholder most concerned about? WHY?
    • How could the perspective influence your stakeholder’s point of view?
    • What are the positive consequences of holding this point of view for the stakeholder?
    • Extra for Experts:
    • What are the negative consequences of holding this point of view for the stakeholder?
    • Who would your stakeholder be most in conflict with? WHY?
    Big Industry Low emitting acid rain governments Green Peace Residents in affected areas Tourists Coal Miner High emitting acid rain governments United Nations???? Cultural Environmental Economic Political Social
  • 25. Controlling Acid Rain Evaluating the courses of action…
  • 26. When evaluating solutions to an issue, we look at the strengths and weaknesses of different solutions. To do this, we identify, describe and explain the negative and positive outcomes of each solution from the different perspectives. Often people look at solutions from their own perspective. This means that they do not think about the consequences of a solution for anyone else. The Geographers advantage is that we evaluate solutions according to each perspective. This enables us to see the consequences of a solution for all the different stakeholders and can determine the best solution that will fit the needs to most groups. Mark your CLOSE activity
    • You must remember:
    • Strengths are the positive consequences of a course of action
    • Weaknesses are the negative consequences of a course of action
  • 27. For each suggested course of action, you need to weigh up the pros and cons. To do this, think about each solution from the different perspectives. Think about how each solution would affect that particular perspective. For example: Evaluating the courses of action to controlling Acid Rain
    • A social perspective – how is the community affected?
    • A political perspective – how can political agencies benefit? (e.g. government, councils, government departments)
    • An economic perspective – how much money is it going to cost?
    • An environmental perspective – how is the environment affected?
    In each case you are looking at the what the consequences (outcomes) are. Who do the consequences affect? What are the consequences? Why are the consequences good? Why are the consequences bad? consequences consequences consequences consequences consequences consequences consequences
  • 28. COURSES OF ACTION Best Solution: __________________________________________ On your worksheet you have a grid that looks like:
    • Read through each solution. Read the solution a second time and identify the positive (strengths) and negative (weaknesses) consequences of each solution.
    • Discuss and categorise the strengths and weaknesses according to the different perspectives. For example, if the trees are going to live longer and not die, then this is good from an environmental perspective because it will help save the environment, however if money has to be spent then this is bad from an economic perspective because profit margins are decreased.
    • Write these strengths and weaknesses in the appropriate boxes. Use different colours for strengths and weaknesses (make yourself a key) You will probably need to write on the back.
    • NB. There wont be a strength or weakness from every perspective. So don’t panic if you cant think of something, just move on to the next perspective or solution.
    How do I evaluate solutions? 5. Do Nothing 4. Restore damaged environments 3. Charge emission taxes 2. Use alternative fuel sources 1. Use New Technology Cultural e N vironmental Economic Political Social Solution:
  • 29. W = Weaknesses – the negative consequences for this perspective S = Strengths – the positive consequences for this perspective W W S W : The governments will look bad! W S 5. Do Nothing W S W : This will cost a lot of $$ and poor countries may not be able to afford this W : $$ spent doing this should be spent on education S 4. Restore damaged environments W : This will cost a lot of $$ and poor countries may not be able to afford this W W S W : This may not help reduce emissions and people will continue to get sick 3. Charge emission taxes S W S : companies will get a good reputation and people will want to buy off them S W S 2. Use alternative fuel sources S S W W : this will cost motorists more $$ which means that they will have less disposable income S 1. Use New Technology Cultural eNvironmental Economic Political Social Solution:
  • 30. Controlling Acid Rain Making a recommendation…
  • 31.
      • A recommendation is the selected course of action.
      • A justified recommendation is one that is supported by arguments/evidence.
      • A fully justified recommendation is one that not only states why the recommendation selected is the best, but also indicates clearly why it is better than other possibilities/options/recommendations.
    The three stages of making a recommendation…
  • 32.
      • A recommendation is the selected course of action.
      • To do this you need to work out which is the best course of action (solution). Remember the geographer’s advantage… your recommendation should be the course of action that best meets everyone’s needs.
      • Sometimes, this is about deciding which perspective is the most important in this geographic issue and then deciding which course of action best meets the needs of that perspective.
      • TASK:
      • Look back at your solution grid.
      • Which perspective do you think is the most important for this Geographic Issue?
      • Identify and circle which course of action is the best to meet the needs of this perspective.
      • If you are aiming for achieved and you have finished this slide, put your hand up for your next task.
      • If you are merit or excellence, continue to the next slide.
    Making a recommendation…
  • 33.
      • A justified recommendation is one that is supported by arguments/evidence.
      • TASK:
      • What do you think the above statement means?
      • On your solutions grid, highlight the arguments/evidence that supports your recommendation.
      • Identify and highlight in your information supporting evidence (examples, data) and brainstorm one geographic ideas that you could apply to your argument .
      • Write a paragraph to justify your recommendation using the following sentence starters:
      • __________ is the best course of action to control acid rain because………………
      • ………………………………………………………………………………
      • For example, …………………………………………………………………………………
      • .………………………………………………………………………………………………
      • This course of action will mean that…………………………
    Justifying your recommendation… Name the solution Write a generalisation for why this is the best solution – Think about who it is benefiting and how Give a couple of examples for supporting evidence for why this course of action is the best (not why the others are worse) Use the strengths on the solution grid and evidence throughout your worksheet Summarise why this is the best – think about what it will do generally and why this is good – you must go back to why this is a geographic issue and discuss why this solution is solving the issue to meet the needs to certain perspectives. Apply ONE geographic idea to your argument.
  • 34.
      • A fully justified recommendation is one that not only states why the recommendation selected is the best, but also indicates clearly why it is better than other possibilities/options/recommendations.
      • TASK:
      • What is the difference between justify and fully justify.
      • Edit your existing paragraph by….
      • Stating why chosen recommendation is better than the others by writing why the other actions are not so goo. You need to do this by discussing the negative consequences of the other actins.
      • You need to add comparative statements to your paragraph in the example and the explanation. For example you would need to say, “This is in comparison to…. If we chose this recommendation then…. (state all the negative consequences of this action)
      • Remember to apply your geographic ideas and any diagrams where you can.
    Fully justifying your recommendation…
  • 35. References: http://www.greenberg-art.com/.Toons/.Toons,%20Environ/AcidRain.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/index.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/Resources/Teaching_Packs/Key_Stage_4/Acid_Rain/pdf/Acid_Rain.pdf Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.ypte.org.uk/docs/factsheets/env_facts/acid_rain.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/Resources/Teaching_Packs/Key_Stage_4/Acid_Rain/05.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.scienceclarified.com/A-Al/Acid-Rain.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.maltaweather.info/pollution.html Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://www.brookie.org/site/pp.asp?c=liKVL3POLvF&b=1656595 Sourced: 15 th June 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6449059.stm Sourced: 15 th June 2008