Humanism,

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Humanism,

  1. 2. “ HUMANISM”
  2. 3. Humanism <ul><li>A paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. A central assumption of humanism, is that people act with intentionality and values </li></ul>
  3. 4. Figures in Humanistic models of Learning
  4. 5. <ul><li>Abraham Maslow feels that individuals have certain needs that must be met in an hierarchical fashion, from the lowest to highest. </li></ul><ul><li>Critic of the &quot;banking&quot; model of education, in which the elite own and construct the knowledge, and the poor are excluded </li></ul>
  5. 6. Radical thinker and maths teacher, best known for How Children Fail.   Malcolm Knowles' &quot;Andragogy&quot; (supposedly the adult equivalent of &quot;pedagogy&quot;) is a leading &quot;brand&quot; in adult education theory:
  6. 7. <ul><li>Knowles' assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>The need to know — adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner self-concept —adults need to be responsible for their own decisions and to be treated as capable of self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to learn —adults are ready to learn those things they need to know in order to cope effectively with life situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to learning —adults are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive that it will help them perform tasks they confront in their life situations. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount. The major focus is to facilitate personal development. Two major theorists associated with this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
  8. 9. <ul><li>Carl Rogers feels that each person operates from a unique frame of reference in terms of building Self Regard or their self concept. Self Concept is one's own belief about themselves. These beliefs stem, in part, from the notion of Unconditional Positive Regard and Conditional Positive Regard. Unconditional positive regard occurs when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. Rogers theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest, hence, they are seen as fully functioning people. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Abraham Maslow feels that indivduals have certain needs that must be met in an hierarchical fashion, from the lowest to highest. These include basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, Self-Actualization. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, the needs must be achieved in order. For instance, one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been met. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>. The levels are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization – morality, creativity, problem solving, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem – includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Belongingness – includes love, friendship, intimacy, family, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety – includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological – includes air, food, water, sex, sleep, other factors towards homeostasis, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Humanistic theory provides an understandable mechanism for examining an individual's need for conflict in order to create peace.  This simplistic theory has become a favorite and popular topic throughout self-help literature.  Additionally, the struggle for mankind to gain greater understanding and meaning for life and existence is a timeless cornerstone conflict in entertainment and literature. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Implication in language learning <ul><li>There are many theories on learning TEFL methodology. What we can conclude is that when we learn something, some sort of change has occurred within us. Also, we know that learning occurs through life and although it often takes place in a social context, it is a highly individualized process; we all have different learning styles. Theories on language learning and teaching evolve from the fields of psychology and linguistics. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Whether one agrees with previous theories for learning TEFL methodology or not, the important implication in a course of English as a Foreign Language (E.F.L.) is that students learn -and acquire- a given language by means of eclectic (combination) approaches. Also, they learn and acquire language without even being aware of the existence of learning principles embedded in different learning theories. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>HUMANISTIC APPROACHES to language learning, like “Community Language Learning”, “Silent Way”, “Suggestopedia”, and “Total Physical Response”, have stressed the importance of the individual learner and of her social and affective dimensions. Learning has thus come to be seen as a global experience of the whole personality, and not merely as the smooth working of mental processes. </li></ul>

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