Name: Tomanggong, Glenda L. July 5, 2013
Year and Sec.: PET 19 Prof. Jackielou E. Cansancio
The Five Components of Reading
Phonemic Awareness: The Ability to identify, think about, and manipulate the sounds in words.
Key Strategies: Talking to kids, Reading to kids
Phonics: The knowledge that letters are used to represent sound- the alphabetic principle. The
known relationship between phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (letters).
Key Strategies: Reading to kids, Reading practices.
Fluency: The ability to read quickly, accurately, and with the proper expression.
Key Strategies: Reading practice (silently or aloud), Read Aloud (modelling.)
Vocabulary: A rich and flexible understanding of words and their meanings.
Key Strategies: Word walls, Word lines, Greek and Latin roots and prefixes, the "Turn it up"
Comprehension: The ability to think about a text and gain meaning from it.
Key Strategies: Think aloud (modelling, Visualizing (modelling), Sketch-to-Stretch, Anticipation
Factors affect reading
A non-encouraging reading home environment( ambient lighting, temperature, comfort,
and complexity of the material )
A non-encouraging reading classroom environment
Lack of interest in the book
Hearing - Speech impediment, Hard of Hearing, or deafness
Lack of background knowledge
Lack of strong vocabulary base
Intelligence with the ability to 1) learn, 2) problem solve, or 3) see relationships in
Language differences/Dialect/Cultural difference
Factors That Affect Reading
Fixation - is made when the eyes stop. Good readers have fewer fixations than poor
readers. Inter fixation movements are caused by the eyes which move from one
stopping to another.
Return sweeps - refer to the quick swinging back of the eyes from the end of the line
to the beginning of the next line.
Regression - are backward or right-to-left movements made in a reverse direction.
Readers usually regress as a result of habit, although some do so to double-check a
point. Even good readers usually fewer than those made by the poor ones. Span of
recognition - or perception span is the number of words taken every time the eyes
stop. It is synonymous with the length or distance recognize within one fixation.
Duration of fixation - is the length of the time the eye pause. Most readers make
average off our eye stops per second, but poor readers require more time to pause in
order to see accurately. A person who pause in order to see accurately. A person who
makes fewer fixations has a longer duration.
Linguistic factor. To read well, the reader must understand sound symbol
relationships intonation, stress, rhythm, and pauses. Reading efficiency is defendant
on context meaning usage, and sentence structure.
Intellectual factors. The innate capacity to clear, intelligence, and mental maturity
affect reading performance. The higher the IQ, the better the reading skills.
Social factors Reading is a social process affected by attitudes, loyalties, conflicts and
prejudices .Reading ability is enhanced by social acceptance, self- reliance, and
cooperation in group.
Psychological factors. Feelings about self and others affect reading performance.
Emotional stability leads to better concentration; interesting topics and an attractive
presentational style promote the desire to read
Theoretical Modelsof Reading
It describes and explains how readers construct meaning from written text.
According to Murray’s interactive theory he postulates that reading is an
interaction involving the reader and the text being read. Meaning is not only in the
mind of person during the reading act nor is it only in the text being read. Instead the
interaction between the text read and the readers various source that determine the
amount and type of comprehension that take place.
Here enumerates the various information sources as:
1. Knowledge of language which enables the reader to recognize
1.1 syntax or the way in which words put together to form a phrase ,
clauses,sentences ,harmonious arrangement of parts of elements;
1.2 semantics or the study of meaning
1.3 pragmatics or practical use of language
2. Knowledge of the word/background. Knowledge including both encyclopaediaand
experiential knowledge which supply readers with background for understanding
ideas and filling in parts that are left implicit (assumed known) rather than stated
explicitly in the text.
3. Metacognitive knowledge which enables readers to monitor their own
comprehension to ascertain whether the information make sense and meets specific
purpose. Metacognitive knowledge about corrective strategies such as reading and
questioning the self enables the reader to remedy comprehension failures
4. Knowledge of the alphabetic-phonemic (letter sound) system involves knowing
how the spelling system represents speech, including how to transfer graphemes into
phonemes, the smallest unit of sound. Lexical knowledge refers to the reader’s
dictionary of words held in memory including words known by sight .all of these
knowledge can contribute to comprehension. Memory is important for linking the
meaning of a text to previously read text.
Additional Information about reading
Five Essential Components of Reading
Under Reading First (Title I, Part B, Subpart 1), district and school reading programs for K-3
students must include instruction, curriculum, and assessment on:
1. PHONEMIC AWARENESS—the knowledge and manipulation of sounds in spoken
2. PHONICS—the relationship between written and spoken letters and sounds.
3. READING FLUENCY, INCLUDING ORAL READING SKILLS—the ability to read
with accuracy, and with appropriate rate, expression, and phrasing.
4. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT—the knowledge of words, their definitions, and
5. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES—the understanding of meaning in text.
Must be based on scientifically based research.
Must include classroom-based screening, and instructional and diagnostic
Should provide on-going, high-quality professional development focused on essential
elements of reading.
Under Reading First, school and district reading programs for K-3 students also can focus on:
Building students’ motivation to read.
Integrating technology into students’ opportunities to learn to read.
The Five Essential Components of Reading
Reading with children and helping them practice specific reading components can dramatically
improve their ability to read. Scientific research shows that there are five essential components
of reading that children must be taught in order to learn to read. Adults can help children learn to
be good readers by systematically practicing these components:
1. Recognizing and using individual sounds to create words, or phonemic awareness. Children
need to be taught to hear sounds in words and those words are made up of the smallest parts of
sound, or phonemes.
2. Understanding the relationships between written letters and spoken sounds, or phonics.
Children need to be taught the sounds individual printed letters and groups of letters make.
Knowing the relationships between letters and sounds helps children to recognize familiar words
accurately and automatically, and "decode" new words.
3. Developing the ability to read a text accurately and quickly, or reading fluency. Children must
learn to read words rapidly and accurately in order to understand what is read. When fluent
readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. When fluent readers read aloud, they
read effortlessly and with expression. Readers who are weak in fluency read slowly, word by
word, focusing on decoding words instead of comprehending meaning.
4. Learning the meaning and pronunciation of words, or vocabulary development. Children need
to actively build and expand their knowledge of written and spoken words, what they mean, and
how they are used.
5. Acquiring strategies to understand, remember, and communicate what is read, or reading
comprehension strategies. Children need to be taught comprehension strategies, or the steps good
readers use to make sure they understand text. Students who are in control of their own reading
comprehension become purposeful, active readers.
Anderson and Pearson Schema- theoretic view 1984-Focuses on the role of schemata,
knowledge stored in memory, in text comprehension. Believes that comprehension is the
interaction between old and new information.
Pearson and Tierney Model-There is an identified compromise of meaning between
writer and reader who both create meaning through text as the vehicle. Views readers as
composers. States that reader read with the expectation that the writer has provided
sufficient clues and meaning.
Mathewon’s Model of Attitude-Addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in
reading. States that attitude has tri-componential construct: cognitive, affective, conative.
Provides feedback on how motivation may change and how important it is to address
affective issues in teaching reading.
Developmental Reading Stages
1. Stage 0 (Birth-Age 6) Learning to recognize the alphabet,Reading Readiness/ Pre
imitation reading, experimentation Reading with letters and learning sounds
Understanding the world around them.
2. Stage 1 (Age 6-7, Grade 1-2)Initial Reading or Decoding Sounding out words from print
Utilize consonants and vowels to blend together simple words
3. Stage 2(Age 7-8, Grades 2-3) Considered to be on the ‘real’Fluency reading stage. They
are fairly good at reading and spelling and are ready to read without sounding everything
out. Re-reading allows them to concentrate on meaning and builds fluency sounding out
4. Stage 3 (Age 9-13, Grades 4 read with fluency to 2 Year) Reading for Learning the New
Readers need to bring prior Stage knowledge to their reading Acquisition of facts.
5. Stage 4 (High School; Ages 14- Readers are instructed in reading and study 18)
skillsMultiple Viewpoints Stage Learn to analyse what they read and react critically Share
multiple views and concepts Reads materials useful to them and apply.
6. Stage 5 (College; Ages 18 and up) those skillsConstruction and Reconstruction Readers
know what not to read, as well as Stage what to read They have the ability to synthesize
critically the works of others and able to defend their stand on specific issues
Reading Comprehension Strategies
1. Skimming –quickly identifying main ideas, speed 3x faster than normal reading
2. Scanning- finding a particular piece of info, running your eyes over the text looking for specific
3. Extensive Reading- used to obtain general understanding of a subject and includes reading
longer text for pleasure, also business books
4. Intensive reading-used on shorter text in order to obtain specific information.
5. Visualizing- used to be able to create sensory images in the readers’ minds so they will be more
engaged with the content of the text.
6. Synthesizing- involves evaluating, sorting and sifting through information that is new and
reorganizing it into larger concept.
7. Inferring- drawing upon reader’s background knowledge and connecting this with new
8. Questioning- ability to generate questions that demonstrate that’s students are synthesizing,
evaluating, and attempting to clarify what they read .
• Structural Analysis
• Synonyms and Antonyms – Affixes
• Figures of Speech - Root words - Compound Words
• Noting Details - Context Clues
• Getting the Main Idea
a. Semantic Clues
• Inferring - definition clue- defining - appositive clue- synonymous
• Making Generalizations - comparison/ contrast
• Predicting Outcomes – explanation
b. Syntactic Clues- contained in the grammar of the language. Helps us identify what part of
speech they belong