05 measurement

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05 measurement

  1. 1. What is measurement? • The process of comparing the quantity of an observable relative to a standard. Example: – Measuring the length of pencil using a ruler – Determining how heavy you are using a weighing scale
  2. 2. How should measurements be reported? • All measurements must be given with the correct units. • All measurements must be given with the correct number of significant figures (sf’s).
  3. 3. English System of Measurement • This system grew out of the creative ways that people measured for themselves. Familiar objects and parts of the body were used as measuring devices.
  4. 4. English System of Measurement • This system grew out of the creative ways that people measured for themselves. Familiar objects and parts of the body were used as measuring devices.
  5. 5. English System of Measurement • Unfortunately, these creative measuring devices allowed for different measurements to be obtained when different people measured the same items. • Eventually, a standard was set so that all measurements represented the same amount for everyone.
  6. 6. Conversion within the English System Length: 12 inches (in) = 1 foot (ft) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 5280 feet = 1 mile (mi) Weight: 16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (lb) 2000 lb = 1 ton
  7. 7. Conversion within the English System Capacity: 3 teaspoons (tsp) = 1 tablespoon (tbsp) 16 tbsp = 1 cup (c) 8 ounces (oz) = 1 c 2 c = 1 pint (pt) 2 pt = 1 quart (qt) 4 qt = 1 gallon (gal)
  8. 8. International System of Units Systeme International des Unites • This is the modern form of the metric system and is generally a system of units of measurement devised around seven base units and the convenience of the number ten. • It is the world's most widely used system of measurement, both in everyday commerce and in science.
  9. 9. Advantages of SI over the English System • More consistent measuring tools • Extensively used in science and other related fields • Easier to convert units within the system
  10. 10. SI Fundamental Quantities Quantity Unit (Symbol) Mass (m) kilogram (kg) Time (T) seconds (s) Length (l) meter (m) Temperature (T) kelvin (K) Amount of Substance (n) mole (mol) Luminous Intensity (I) candela (cd) Current (I) ampere (A)
  11. 11. Conversion within the SI What makes conversion between SI units is its extensive use of prefixes instead of arbitrary
  12. 12. SI Prefixes and Equivalents SI Prefixes and Equivalents Power of Ten Prefix Symbol Power of Ten Prefix Symbol 1024 yotta zetta exa Y Z E 10-1 deci centi milli d c m peta tera giga P T G micro nano pico μ n p mega kilo hecto deca M k h da femto atto zepto f a z yocto y 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24
  13. 13. Conversion within the SI Time: 1 hour (hr) = 60 minutes (min) 1 minute = 60 seconds (s) time intervals shorter than a second uses the metric prefixes (e.g. ms, μs, ps)
  14. 14. Conversion within the SI Temperature: K = °C + 273.15 °C = K – 273.15
  15. 15. Conversion between English and SI 1 inch = 2.54 cm 2.2 lbs = 1 kg °F = 9/5 °C + 32 °C = 5/9 (°F – 32) Metric units: 1 liter (L) = 1 000 milliliter (mL) 1 mL = 1cm3 1000 L = 1 m3
  16. 16. fin
  17. 17. Convert the following observing proper units and correct number of significant figures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 125 m  ? Km 20.0 cm  ? In 160 mi  ? Km 25 kg  ? Lbs 1560 mg  ? kg
  18. 18. TEMPERATURE • The degree of the hotness or the coldness of a body (layman). • The measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a body.
  19. 19. The Temperature Scales • The Fahrenheit Scale - based on 32 for the freezing point of water and 212 for the boiling point of water • The scale is divided into 180 equal intervals • Dwveloped in the 18th-century by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
  20. 20. The Temperature Scales • The Celsius Scale – also called the centigrade scale • Based on 0 for the freezing point of water and 100 for the boiling point of water • Invented in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius
  21. 21. The Temperature Scales • The Kelvin Scale - the base unit of thermodynamic temperature measurement in the International System (SI) of measurement • An absolute temperature scale named for the British physicist William Thomson Baron Kelvin • Its zero point is in absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which the molecules of a substance have the lowest energy
  22. 22. Conversion (oF and oC) • F = 9/5C + 32 • C = 5/9(F - 32)
  23. 23. Conversion (oF and K) • C = K - 273 • K= C + 273
  24. 24. Seatwork: ½ Pad Paper 1. 56.0 oC  oF  K 2. 89 oF  oC  K 3. Find the temperature at which the reading in both the oF Scale and the oC Scale is the same? Show your solution. 4. Explain or discuss the 2004 definition of MEASUREMENT in not more than 5 sentences.

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