4 11 классы

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Games for young learners and high school students

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4 11 классы

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  7. 7. -lecu,tHTb recfl>r laK, KaK 3,fofo Tpe6yeTefo Jll,lqHatl npolpaMMa npcfloAa- pa:6t,llr,t lto ypoBrlnlvt cJlor(noc.I.n. Ko:luqec.llo nx rreof-BaH|-fl?>> FIer, Iilr oAHa KoMllaHHrI Ha 3lo tle iloiiAer, TaK KaK ytII4Te- p0HH.IcIIrro, H ct-lHcot( tvto)KIIo floiloJIIIhl.b C IlOMOillbto nCt.pOcuuoilIr flpaKTr4lrecr(H cTaIryT lle3aBilcl.lMblMll or llHx H al]rolloMHat{ rlpo- rlrynruqnn 4o6auerrlrr recroB (ltnanurln <Yrlalnls rec.r)), <<I4sMe- nr4Tb rrapoJtb) r.icnoJlt,3yrotcr yqt{TeJleM; cv. pnc. 2, 3).rpaMMa He npHHecer6olltloro Aoxo/la. V:roi;i llpo6neMbl ecll oA-Ho perrlel{r4e ilpt{Aepxl4BaTbcs npHHuilna co3/{aHns npofpaMM<<For us by us> (Arrq ce6s cBoHMH pyKaMa). Bcenr u:eecrlro, r{ro yq14rerb, npuodperar onsrr pa6olbt c yqa.-lqr4M Hcrr, (iopuupyer co6clncl IHyIo npo tpaM My o6yIeHI4s, t4cnoJIE,-3yer cBol4 napa6olrr H onpaBAaBfivrc ce6s. cxeN,tbI o6yleHtla. Kov-nbrclep, 6e:yc:tost-to, pa:uoodpa:ur pa6ory yttHTenfl, rloMofaercrJoreMaru3npoBafb 3aIrfltt4ti. Ho e cyuleclBytolrlhx llporpaMMaxMHoforo He xBaraer, IIailpHMep Bo3Mo)tt[tocrn Ao6ae,leHnq FloBblx zaganwit H Teopnrz. PeuteH+te eroI rrpo6.neMbt - co3/lal{I4e oo6crsell-nofi rovnsrcreprtoia [porpaMMbt, rJlal]Hatt qenb Koropofi - noxasarb rphHLlhn paSolur cHcreMbr trorlorlreHlrtl 6asLI ltpofpaMMbl rtonb3o- BareJreM. Y rrpolpanaMbr AocrarovHo y4o5uurfi nrrrepifei,ic, tto tto-3BoJlrer pa:cl6parsct B npnHllnne ee pa6orsl ,Ila)Ke FleolblrHoMy no,.rb3oBare;tto. [Jco ero 3,teMerrrbr craHoBfllct aKT]4BHblMH tto [opqA- Ky 3anonHeuru cl-ropvsr (crv. puc. l). PHc. I Pl.rc. 3 12 13
  8. 8. ,I{ocryn r $yHrcqrz.rm godaueufir recroB H HX yAaneHr,u 3aullr- y.le6noro rtpouecca, tttfipoKoe rIpaMeHeHHe uoBr,tx o6pa:osaretrs-rrleH naponenr. flapo,rr MolKHo u3nleinru, BBeAq Hoer,rft (cu. pnc. 4). nbrx rexHoJrorn[. B cooraercr Bt4u c 3anpocaMH co BpeMeHHoro n rrdlopnraunoFtFroro o6uecrsa yqaquecr AoJt)r(ltbt rn6rco aAaflTr.rpoBarbcrr B Menrroult4x- ,l l rt,tr,,": l.a!:?t 1 12 /.4a1i t cr )KH3HeHHbrx cllTyauilrx, caMocrorneJlbHo npno6perar.b F{oBbre Di:e)r€:tvq n;:tt,t4 vvtl 11 .",1. fi, 3HaHAfl., KptlTttqecKl{, TBOpqecKn MbICJII,ITb, yMeTb Bt4lleTb Bo3FlH- i.1VF.rr:tD.4 l4+tz:1 ) t! rr*1 I I |ll:iNt E:.|$t: L! ts ;ti z;.a+l & 11- Karoillne e peal sHofi 4eilcrnure:r bHocrl4 npo6,revsr, I{axoAt4Tb I ryrt4 ux parlHoHaJl bHo to pe[JeHlrtr, HcnoJ]b3yr co BpeM e HH bre Texrlojto f r.t 14, Be-*i:,trt 1,t^ob" tM Av, +/ta rpaMorHo pa6orars c ran$opnaqnefi, 6srrs KoMMyHr4Ka6elsnrrnav, atr( KO HTaKTHLIMI4 B pa3HbIX COIIr4anbHbIX fpyn [ax, caMocTogTenbHo pa- -;t. "" "X-t.",") 6orarr HaA pa3BurNelu co6crseunofi HpaBcrBeHHocrH, IiHTeJrJrcKTa, KyflbrypHofo ypoBHs. Taxnv o6paaon, TpaAr4rlr4oHHar [apaAurMa ((yqnTerb) - <<yue6Hurc>) - <<y.leHuK)) Moxer ycrterxHo AorronHr{Tbcr arcryalluoI IIapaAHrMofi <<yueunrc)) - ((rrHQopMarlrroHHafl cpeAa) - ((yrtn- TeJrb)), fAe Bo fJraBy yfna cTaBuTcg oaMocTotTelbHafi no3r{aBaTeflb- Puc.4 Haf Ae.rrfeJlbHocTb yqaqHxcr. B ceqsN c 3Tr4M HoBar TexHolorur O6paeoeat:z.x B flo6alr,Hofi Hecor4HeHHo, Ha ypoKax nHocrpaHHofo g3brKa Helrb3g BcnoJrb- I4u$opnraqnosHofi Cerrz (TOII4C) npr,ro6peraer aKryarrbHocrb 143OBaIb KOMilbrOTep TTOCTOHHO, TaK KaK eCTb MHOX(eCTBO Apyft{X npu o6yveu hv vlocrpaHHoMy ny*.3aav, peuHTb KoTopbre Mo)KHo Jrr4rub npr4 HenocpeAcrBer{HoM 06- "r", flpaueueHne zn$opnra(r4ol-tHbrx cerefi s o6yuenva r{e AoJr)KnoLrIeHr4r4. Ho n HeAooqeHnBarb poJrb raKlrx ypoKoB TolKe Herb3t. 6srrr carrorleJrbro. Cvsrcr cocror,rr B ToM, qro6sr pecypcbr cerz cra-tr4naesHo KoMrrblorepHoe o6yqeHlre Hecer e ce6e orpovHsril MorHBa- rn a6colronro Heo6xoArzMbIMH Ang pelueFrr4t lro3HaBarellbrrbrx 3a-ur4o H Hbr fi nore Hrlr4an H coorBercrByer npr4rr LIH ilaM vH 2vtBlr Iy an v3a- laq. B ocHoBe TOfl,lC rexar [pnHur4rr AesreJrbuocrHo-qeHHocr-rlun o6yueHrzr. Horo o6yveHnl. I-{elecoo6paaHo no4o6pauuafl chcreMa :agav o6ec- neqnBaer pa3Br4Tr4e yqalrlr4xcl B orKpbrroM nH$opuaqr,roHHoM npo- crpaHcrBe, yqrzr B3ar4Mo4eficrsoearb c oKpylKatou1r4M naraporra, rfop- . H. A. AQanucbera Mr4pyer cilcreMy JrhqHocrHbrx rleHHocrefi, :uavnutrx Anq cout4yMa. rornc rbxuororu-q Blaro4apr rpr{MeHeHr4ro TOfl4C flpor4cxoAr4-r fiopvr.rpoBaHfie earKHefixlzx HaBbIKoB u yleuttit, TaKr,IX KaK BbtAereHue xrro.{esofi B OE}TqETII{I4 I{HO CTPAHHOMYI3I,IKY ra u$oplraqun e o6teraHoM TeKcre, cBeprbrBaHr4e zHdtopnraur.tH, yMe- B Hacrosulee BpeMq B ycnoBr4rx MoAepHrr3arluh poccnficxoro urae o6o6rqarb H AeJrarb BbtBoAbr , yuatgttitct pa3Br4Baer HaBblK Jra-o6pasonauuq Her436e)KHo o6Hoe,teHr4e npouecca o6y.reHur, B ToM KoHr4r{Horo BbtcKa3bIBaHAfl A, .Iro oco6en Ho cyqecrBertro, Sopnar,r-rl4cJre o6yueHul lrHocrpaHaoMy .r3brKy. floa o6HosfieHr,teM iloApa- pyeTct caM ocTo.fl Te JI b FIoe HTenn e KTyaJIb HOe Mr,r UIJIeI{He. 143yMeBaercq h3MeHeHHe MeroAoB, qenefi x pe3ynbraron o6yveHra.a,r43MeFreHVe craliAaproB n yue6uux nporpaMM, vrrrpr4B:z.4yanv3avs. Artop-pa::pa6orqnK: AoKTop ne/laroril(recKilx rrayr, npo(reccop B. B. fy:eeo t4 15
  9. 9. Ft ,{e.rrelrHocrb yrrr4Terfl B Texl{onortln TOfITIC cocrour Lr3 He- I. Terccr ycJroBnq 3aAaqu. cKoJrsKHX qacrefi: II. Tpe6onauvflsa1aqv: o ; noAforoBKa pecypcHofo o6ecneqenr.u (cnacorc ilnaHupyeMbrx . BuAelnTe KJrroqeBbre cJroBa 4nr zuSopMaqlroHHot-o rroHcKa. pe3ynbraroB, 3aAaqHhK r,r repeqeus nurfoprr,raunoFrHbrx r,rcroqHrl- o Haiirule lr co6epnre ueo6xo4r4Mylo r,rn0opnraqzro. KoB, KynbrypHue o6pasqu); o o Boguoxrure Hr{bepMlrllr.teHHrbre r.rcror{HLTKH: npoeKTr,rpoBaHHe [ocJleAoBareJrbHocrr4 flpoqeAyp H opraHa- - KHt4flt; saqraoHHoft crpyKTypbr 6,rorca ypoKoB; J ., ynpaBneHr4e- no3HaBareluHofi olleHoqHofi AegreluHocrblo - KOMnaKT-AV|CKVL; r - web-cafirsr. o6yvaeusrx r4 eKcneprhza pewenuft 3aAaq; . aHarv3 rrpouecca 14 ero pe3ynbraroB, BbrAeireHHe [O3HTHB- . O6cyArzre lr npoaHannsapyftre co6paHHylo nufropuaqraro. Horo onbrra r KoppeKrr4poBKa 6loxa ypoKoB. o CAerafire Bb[BoAbr. fnaeFrsrft 3reMeHr yue6Horo npouecca B rexHoJroruu TOfLIC - . CpasHure Banrr4 BblBoAbr c BbrBoAaMH r43BecrHbrx nroAefi. peueHne yle6Hofi 3aAaqtl (crr,r. cXerr.ly 1). III. KymrypHbre o6parqsr, Pasynreercr, 9To He o3Haqaer, qro raKI,tMH Aon)KHbI 6rtrs ece sa- Vqe6Haq 3aAaqa 4auu. PasHoo6pasne Izx Br4AoB 14 Tr4noB Mo)Ker 6trrr sectr4a 6olt- uurvl. Hanpr4Mep, BrroJrHe AorrycTr4Mbt gaplauv, Tpe6yrcrr{ue noJrHo- crbro caMocroqrerrbHoro noncKa r,rHfropnraqrar4, a noroMy He coAep- )Kaurne crabrca Bo3Mo)KHbrx r,rcroqHr4KoB . LItu pe3ynbraroru pa6oru HaA 3a1aqefi orcaxercs HoBar rzHrfoprraaqrar, He uMeroqafl KyJrbryp- Bule,reHue x,rrcqefi HbIX AHAJTOl-OB. 4,rr nudropuaquoH- [lpHee4ena flpuMepbr 3aAar{. I{OtO nOtrcKa . Byrcea ii - canraq MoroAaq B pyccKoM arQanure, osa 6naa Conocrae,reHfie floucrc rz r rt[oprnr arlurz peureHun c Kynb- BBeAeHa e 1783 roAy rto trvktilarilBe KHqfuHr.t Exarepunsl rypHbrM o6parqou [arurconofi. Kan paHr,rfe o6xoAl.r.nucs 6es erofi 6yrnu? . B sarueii KyJlbrypHofi rpa4r.lquu craJro flpnBbrqHblna o6o- <Dopvy,rrz poe aune 3AKIloTI 3Haqarb BeJrnKoAyrrrHoro Il 6lalopoguore My)KqI{Hy, orltuqa- ITCIbHbIX BI,IBONOB IOUIEIOCfl TAJIAHTHbIM U YBA}I(IITEJTI,HbIM OTHOIIIEHIEM K }I(EH- ulrrHe, cJroBoM ((pbtrtap[,)). OqenHre B rrporleHTax, crerreHb [Aea- Jrr{cTrrqHocTr{ STofo [peAcTaBJreHun (0 oh BCE pbrrlapu r{MeHHo - TaKrrMH r 6ulnl 100 o - TaKilx psrqapefi Hr{KorAa ue 6ruo u BeAyutravr KoMrroHeHTol4 s sroI crpyKType qBrrercfl uu$opma- ur.roHuafl 3aAarra - ee oco6eHHocrlz 3aAarcT xapaKTepacrnqecKue 6srru ue nrorlo). [pr43HaKH 3aAaqn B rlenoM. TnnnqHrrfi eHeruHrail Br4A3a4.arrv [ony- flpuvleueuze rexHonorua TOfl4C Ha ypoKax aHurzfiercoro q3br- qaeTcq cneAyrcIrlr4M: Ka MolnHo npeAcraBr4Tb B cnoAyrou{r4x cxeMax (crr,t. cxenrut 2, 3). l6 t7
  10. 10. Cxeua 2 CxeMa 3 o ropo,qax Mr,rrrr4MaJrbHbr t4tt4 BoBce orcyrcrByror. Thxuu o6pasou, Co4epxaune 6loxa ypoxoe coAepxaHne yue6uoft 3a4a,uv cneAyrcrqee: no B. B. I-y:ebny . co6parb nHfiopvaqrzro o AaHHbrx ropoAax; BfI BfI . onpeAeJlr4Tb creneHb nr4qHoft 3ar4HTepecoBaHHocra B nony- (slo4Hoe ronropeHue) (esognoe noeropeuue) qe HHo fi nH$op rtaaqr,rrz ; r,rrrM (o) r4HM (O) (nsyveuze HoBoto Marepr4zrJla . B 3Toft cBflsv paculrprzrb noHcK n yrny6urs 3HaHuq rro AaH- - (usyueHue HoBoro MarepuzrJla -. 1 sofi rerue. ocHosHofi o6rerr.r) ocnoaHofi o6rerr,r) A - rcolrercruBHoe peureHr4e B rca{ecree AoMailHero 3aLaHAfl yqaulnMct rrpeAnaraercfl caMo- 3 (PA3) fl 03HaBareJrbHr,rx 3aAaq (nparc- (pasn z n aro ulee gla S $epeHuH po- cro.sreJrbHo co6parb cBeAeHr,rr o ropoAax B AocryrrHbrx rlcroqHrzKax: rraxyrvr) BaHHOe :arpenlerue) KHUfaX, XypHanax, SHut4KJIOneAVflX, HA KOMIIaKT-AI4CKaX V T. A., CO- B pa:nuraroulee anQSepen- craBurb Mr4H H-coo6uleHuq K cneAyrcrqe My ypoKy. - uHpoBaH Hoe 3aKpeI]neHHe 3r a n 3. (A>> - KoJrJreKTr.{BHoe pe[reHue [o3HaBareJrbHr,rx rrHM (A) I4HM (A) 3aAaq (nparcruxyu). Ha rperbeM ypoKe no reMe flpohcxoArlr KoJl- (u:yueurae HoBoro Mareprrzrlra - (n:yueHrze HoBoro MarephaJra - reKrhBHoe pe[eHhe [o3HaBareJrbHbrx 3aAar{ (npaxruxyv) - perue- AortoJrHr{Tenr,Hur fr o6rev) AononHureJrsHrrfi o6r,en,t) Hve KoMMyHI4KarI4BHofi gaAaqr4. Y.raulnecr pa6oraror c rcaprofi Be- KOH KOH ruxo6puraHr4r4, BblrroJrHqlor cepr4ro yfipaxHeHr,rfi no yue6HHKy Ha (rcoHrporrnsre rr,re po npurrur) (rcoHrpols r-rsre naepo npH rrnl) 3aKpenneHne MarepriaJra no pafioHaM 14 ropo4arr AHuura (fipou- KOP TailbHafl, ilapHas. pa6ora), Bbrcryflaror c ycrHbrMa coo6uleHr,rqMrr no (rcoppercqux) TeMe. Aanee yqaquec.fl pac[peAeJrr]orcs Ha rpyflnbr Arq o6Naena 9 r a n 1. BsoAuoe roBTopenue. Vvauluecfl troA pyKoBoAcrBoM co6panuoii r.rHfiopnraqraefi no ropolaM. 3arlroqureJrbHbrM sianolryq[Tenq BbrrroJrHsror cepnrc y[pa)KHeHhfi Ha saxperrJleHhe paHee 3Toro ypoKa rBrrercq cpesoeuft KoHTponb B Br4Ae recra - MoHr{To-npoil4eHnoro MarepuaJra no reMe "Great Bdtain" no yve6Huxy pr{Hr ycfleuHocrn grana 3.O. B. A$aHacsesofi nV.B. Mnxeenofi (VI). Match thefollowihg: KpafiHe BaxHbrM MoMeHToM Ha HaqalibHoM 3Ta[e pa6orsr lur- l. It is a city in South West England, 1 15 rniles (185 km) westerc.fl orKpbrrocrb rrnaHupyeMbrx pe3ynbraron o6yuennq. Ocuoenofi of London and between the cities of Bath, Gloucester ande gna uqefi o6pa:o nareJr b Ho ro npo qecca rexH o Jlo rnh TOf I,IC ssr.q- Newport. The town of Brycgstow (OId English, "the place at theercq He ypoK, a 6nox yporcoe. 3ToMy rlerra craB.Rrc.q uaeecb 6rorc bridge") was in existence by the beginning of the 1lth century. Then no o6qsareJrbHbrM rpe6oaauurM rocyAapcrBeHHoro craHAapra. River Avon is in the city centre.I-eln u rcoHe.{Frsril pe3ynbrar - co3AaHrze co6crBeHHoto rpoeKTa - 2. It has a long history that dates back to the days when it wasAonxHbr 6srrs c caMoro HartaJra r43BecrHbr yqeHr,rKy. Capital of a British province,under the Rornans. Today, the city re- mains (ocraercr) the most important city in the north of England 9 r a n 2. Vlsyuenne HoBoro MarepnaJra - ocHoBHofi o6rdu. with reminders everywhere of a great historic and cultural past.flpra pa6ore c retrofi "Great Britain" yve6Har 3aAaqa 6srna onpege-JreHa B xoge pa6orbr c reKctol,r "Discover England". B rercre 3. In the late 19th century, it was the "second Port of the Empire" outside London. It has always been at the forefront of pop culture. TheBcrpeqalorcs, HazBaHAq 15 alrrraficrnx topoAoB: B TeKcre cBeAeHr4t t8 t9
  11. 11. citys artists and bands have earned it a place in the Guinness Book 12. It is a suburban (nparopo4) town and tourist destinationof Rbcords, with more number one hit singles than ariy other city in (necro HasHaqeHr4r) situated very close to the British capital. Thethe lJK. Many of these charl-toppers were written by Lennon and town is situated 21 miles (3a km) west of Charing Cross (famousMcCartney, the worlds most successful songwriting duo ever railway station in London). It is immediately south of the River fhames. 4. It is Englands busiest por1. Ferries (naporvrsl) carry passen-gers and freight to and from the continent of Europe. The tenninus 13. It is home to one of Britains oldest universities in the Mid- lands.for the Channel Tunnel was opened in 1994 and links Englidt L Inndon. 2. Oxford. 3. Dover. 4, Manchester, 5. Bath. 6. Cambridge.mainland with the rest of Europe. 7.Brighton.8. Stra{brd.9. Birmingham. 10. Bristol. ll. York 12. I4rindsor. 5. It is located on the south coast of England. It is one of the 13. Liverpoolargest and most famous seaside resorts in the United Kingdom. 6. The city is founded around the only naturally-occurring hot 3 r a n 3. (B)) : pa3BnBarcrqee gnQQepenrlrrpoBaHHoe 3a-springs in the United Kingdom. It was first documented as a Roman KpenJreHrre. Ha crte4yroueM ypoKe rro reMe rrpoxoAr,rr rrpaKTr4qe-spa, although tradition suggests that it was founded earlier. It is crcar pa6ora no floricKy zn$oprraaLrvr B cern (P[3). flepe4 yriaulr4-situated 159 km (99 miles) west of central London and 21 km Mr.rcs 3apaHee rrocraBJreua o6ulaq no3HaBareJrbHar 3aAaqa. flpons- (i3 rniles) southeast of Bristol. BOJTbHOe AeneHHe yqaulzxcs Ha fpynnbr noApa3yMeBaeT ecTecTBeH- 7. It is a major city in North West England. It is historically Hufi 4n$rfepeHrlr4poBaHHufi npoqetcc noHcKa. Yqaulnnrcs ilpeAnara-notable (nsuecreH) for being the worlds first industrialized city, ercs npzvepHsrfi crn4coK KJuor{eBbrx croB (HasraHrr ropo4oa) and the central role it played during the Industrial Revolution. n npu6 nnzwreJlbHble napaMerpbr nor"nu*, It was the dominant international centre of textile manufacture and o o bo cotton spinning. o E I o d s o C) .o o € L .o 8. It is situated in the south-east of England and spans both J o o b0 o co tr c0 J c x o 6 banks of the river Thames. It is the city with a rich history and home z (-) to the British monarch. Ceo- graphical 9. The birthplace of the most outstanding playwright and poet position in sver lived in the history of GB. The city is situated on the river EnglandAvon. Farnous 10. The city is an old English university town. It lies city sights (photos)approximately 50 miles (80 knl) norlh-northeast of London and is Principalsurrounded by a number of smaller towns and villages. It is also at branches of industrvthe heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen. Well- 1 1. It is a city in the West Midlands, England, the largest of known asEnglands core (rnauuux) cities, and is generally considered Glirnpses(cunraercr) to be the United Kingdoms second city. It is known as of history"the workshop of the world" or the "city of a thousand trades". llpeanoLraraercr yxa3aHile yrlarul4Mucq ucroqHrKoB noucKa Ha ncpeceleHuh s ra6rltu,e. 2t
  12. 12. Yqprrelr o6ecne.{zsaer yqaqhxcs Heo6xoAHMbrMr4 pecypcaMn O. B.3axapuunaAnr ycnelllHoro rror4cKa: npeAnataeT cnr,rcoK noucKoBbrx cTpaHHq n[oJre3Hblx a.(pecoB n I,IurepHere. Ha AaHHoM gTarre yqaulr4ecq pa6o- (D OPMI,IP OBAIII,IE I,I PA3B I{TI,IETaloT TOJIbKO C aHtJIOfl3bIqHbIMI4 HCTOrIHI4KaMr4, HeAOCTyIIHbIMT,I pa- IIHT E JI JIB K TYAJIb HbIX YME H ll.trI I/^PII O E YqE HI4ITuee. [oua yqaulr,rMcr [peAcrouT pa6ora co cnoBap.flMu, rrpoAonxe- IITEHI.{IO HA YPOKAX IIHOCTPAHHOTO q3bIKAHrre Haqarofi ua yporce pa6oru no clrcreMarw3atur4 vr aHanvay lo- (macrep-rclacc Arq flpefloAaBare.nefilyreHuofi rauSopvraqr.ru. 1 aurluficrcoro nssrrca) Ha oron,t xe orarre nponcxoAr4r KoppeKuuoHHafl pa6ora: yqurenb Terccr rBrflercrr ocHosHofi yue6Ho-naero4uuecxofi e4nuuqefiaHuufic rcoro r3btKa 14 yrll4Terb r,rHf oprr,rarrzKu KpHcyJtbrt4pyror yr{a- o6yueantt, TaK KaK Ha ocHoBe reKcra Bo3Molr(Ho o6y.reHne BceM Blr-IIIHXC, OKa3bIBarOT IIOMOUIb, HaIrpaBItIOT IIOnCK B HyXHOM HanpaB-reHnvr. Yuarquecr co6uparor nonyr{eHHyro r,rH Sopvrauu}o B Jlr4sHbre AaM peqeBofi perrensHoctn. 3agauyrs. Ha noHlrMaHne reKcra Bcrpe- qarorcq Bo Bcex rfirrax 3K3aMeHoB: TpaAnquoHuona, Ef3, FCE,narrKr4, co3AaHHbre paHee Ha ypoKax uu$opuarurcu. BnocleAcrBralrOHH IIEPEHOCflT COAEP)KI4MOC NANKU HA AHCKETbI IIJ]14 KOMTIAKT-AhCKH BCTynr.rTeJrbHbrx SK3aMeHax B By3.Anr Bo3MoxrHocrt4 pa6orarr AoMa. Hau6olee BDr(Hyro polr pa6ora c reKcroM rztpaer npz o6yue- Ha 4anHovr DTane yqaulnecr pa6orarcr B rpyrrnax to 2-3 qeno- Hr4r4 qreHhro. B saeucr4Mocrr,r or qelenofi ycraHoBKr4 pa3rnqarorBeKa uilkr vH4vtBn1yalsuo. Pe:ylbrarbl rror4cKa pa3JlplriHbr A 3aBvrcflT cneAyroqHe BHAbI qTeHnr:or ypoBHr KoMrrbrorepHofi rpalrorHocrr4 yrteHvKoB, a raK)Ke or rex- . npocMoTpoBoe;HuqecKr4x ycroeufi pa6oru. Orpouurrv nper4MyrqecrBoM AaHHoto . 03HaKOMI4TenbHOe;orafla pa6orsr flBrflercs. Bo3Mo)KHocrr 6ncrporo o6treHa co6paHHoil . r,r3yqarcqee;raH$oprtaaqneil, uro o6ecne.rusaer ycneulHocrt pa6orbr npaKTuqe- . IIOI4CKOBOe.cKu KalKAofo yqeHHKa. [pocrraorpoBoe npeAilorataer nonyr{eHr4e o6ulero npeAcraBne- ? r a n 4. Wzyuenme HoBoro MareprfaJra - AofloJrunre.lsuurii Hr4qo qr.rraeMoM Marepr,rane. Ero qenrrc {BJuercr nonyqeHr4e caMo-o6r€nr. OArzu r.r3 ypoKoB no reMe "Discover Cities of England" pe- ro o6rqero npeAcraBneHr4r o reMe H Kpyre BonpocoB, paccMarpr4-KoMeHAyeM npoBecrra KaK Br,rAeoloKa3 ropoloe Cambridge rz Win- BaeMbrx B TeKcre. Yqe6usle 3aAaHVfl AoJrxHbr 6srrr HanpaBJreHbt Hadsor, erclrovne pa6ory c lerccnrcoft pr MHKporeKcraMH H3 BuAeooro- SopunpoeaHr4e HaBbrKoB H yMeHufi opueHrnpoBarr,cq B rorr,rKo-xeToB. cvsrcroeofi crpyKType reKcra, yueurafi r43BJreKarb u l,lcrroJrb3oBarb Sran 5. Kourpolbnbre Mepofipnqrus.Ha nocneAHeM ypoKe MaTepr,{an TeKcTa B cooTBeTcTBt4yt c KoHKpeTHbrM KOMMyHr,lKaTr,rB-no reMe yqauluecr c noMoulblo Mynbrr4MeAuituoit rexHr4Kr{ npeA- HbrM 3aAaHuev (cu. Ifpmorceuue I).craBJrrlor rroAroroBJreHHbre flpoeKrsr. ((Dopva [poeKTa voxer 6srrt OsHaxot{zteJrbHoe - qreHue, npr4 KoropoM [peAMeroM BHHMa-KaK HHAr,rBHAyalrHofr, TaK r,t rpyrrflonoil, ucxoAr r43 KoMMyHr4KarHB- HHr qnraroulero craHoBr4Tcf, Bce peqeBoe npor43BeAeHue (rcHura,Hoft qern.) llocle 3Toro rrpoBoAnrcfl HroroeHfi KoHTpoJrbHbrfi cpes, crarbfl, paccxa:) 6e: npegeapnrelsHgfi cneqr4anbHofi ycrauoeru Ha3aBepurarcquft nounropnHr ycrletrrHocra. KoHKperHoe Hc[oJrb3oBaHlre vru Bocnpor43BeAeHr4e noly.reHHofi nHQopnaaqrzu. OcHoeuafl 3a4aqa - r,r3BJreqb r43 TeKcra ocHoBHyro 22 23
  13. 13. nH0opMar,(I4lo, To ecrl Bbt.flcHHTb, KaKHe Boflpocbl H KaKIzM o6pa3oM Ju4LrnbrMt4 rIpI4eMaMH pa6orrt c reKcroM, TaK KaK Mo)I(FIo Lt Hy)rHoPEIIIATOTCfl B TEKCTE, LIIO I4MEHHO |OBOPITTC{ B HCM rIO AAHHbIM BO- r4cfloJr b3oBaTr, pa3Hbre cTpaTelnv [p]I BbIIIonHeHr4r4 pa3HbIX 3aAa-npocaM. unft to reKcry. I4syvaroulee qreFlhe npeAilorataer MaKcHMaJILHo rloJltloe I4 flocnererccronsr ii aran.TosHoe rroHnMaHue ecefi cogepxarqeilcl B TeKcre uHSopnraqnn lt Ha erov orarre ocyqecrBnrrercr{ KoHTponb noHHMaHn.R coAep-Kpr4Tr4qecKoe ee ocMbIcJIeHLIe. 3ro e4ymuuBoe v HecnerrtHoe qre- <aHL7A V nAeTCfl efo r4HTepnpeTaqHr.Hr4e, rrpeArronararcu{ee qene HanpasleuHslil aHaJrrr3 coAep}KaHlzfl B cpe4Hux n oco6esuo crapmnx KJraccax ocHoBHafl 3a1a*a yqu-q[TaeMofo c onopoil Ha t3bIKoBbIe Iz JIeKCL1tlecKue cBT3vr TeKcra. reJrr - Boopyxr4Tb yqalrll4xcq upueMaMn pa6oru npr4 qreHuu flpo flotzcxoeoe qreHae gro qreHtIe ra3er v nvreparypbl flo c[eul4- - ce6l, rarc KaK oHo Aaer Bo3MoxHocrb yr{auluMcq cocpeAoror{ktrr,cflaJrbHocrll. I-{err - 6rtcrpoe HaxoxAeHfie B reKcre (rexcrax) BTIoJIHe Ha cMbrcJroBofi cropoHe reKcra.o[peAeneHHbrx AaHHbrx. tr4cnorusoeaHne orr4x nprreMoB rro3Borfler, c o4Hofi cropoHbr, OaHofi qerefi pa6orrt c reKcroM qBrqerct tfopnrnpoeaHrze t.rs cfoprr,rnpoearb s3blKoByro KoMrrereHrllto yqaultzxc.s, a c gpyroft -y o6yvaevbrx HaBbIKoe u yuteunft noJrHoto rtoHhMaHI4q coAepxa- c noco6creyer ux trHTenne KryanbHoMy pa3Br,rraro. flpz erorra pa3Blr-Hur. Oua4eHue rexHolorneft rtreHut ocytqecrBnqercl B pe3ynb- BaeTcr:TaTe BbIIIOJI HeHUq n peATeKCTOBbIX Te KCTO BLIX 14 tl OCJIeTeKCTOBbIX r JIorn.lecKoe MbnlJleune (aHalr.r3 crpyKTypbr reKcla, cpeAcrBzaar:uit. cersn). Ilpe4rexcrosbtfi aran. Btrcoxafl KoHqeHTpatryfl BHlzMaHHT,. t{ro6sr cHsrb rpyAHocrl4 B rIoHI,IMaHIdt4 coAep}(aHwfl TeKcra, . Cnoco6Hocrb K nporHo3upoBaHr4ro. (Burovaer s ce6.fl eoo6-rrpenoAaBarels coo6ulaer cBeAeHvtn o6 aBTope hnv rrpoLr3leAeHnn. palKeHl.re, r4HTyHqHro, cnoco6Hocrs rc rry6oxonry aHanusy.),{,n.n cHrrur q3brKoBbrx rpyAHocreft vox<Ho [peAJIo)I(I4Tb ynpa)KHe- . Cnoco6Hocrb K orIeHKe. (3ro npon:BoAHaq or Kpr4Tt4lrecKotoHHq, B Koropbrx $opvnpyerct{ t3brKoBat AoraAKa, HaBbtKI4 croeoo6- MbrruJleHur. OqeHxa rcarc co6crneHHbrx 1eficrvuit, rax n geilcteufi upa3oBaHr4x. flpe4rexcroBble Bo[pocbr crl4Mynhpytor I4HTepec yqa- usrclefi Apyrr4x rrc4e17.)trlr4xcg. flpo4yrcrnnHocrb - cnoco6Hocrs reHepr4poBars 6olsuroe rcolr.luecrso n4efi. Texcroestfi eran. . fn6xocrb MbnrrJleHal. (Cnoco6Hocrb 6srcrpo 14 JlerKo Ftaxo- Ha erort 3Tane 3aLaHAfl AolxHbt Halrenl4Barb yqauluxcq HeToJtbKo ua o6rqee noHl4MaHl.te TeKcra, Ho 14 Ha efo L{HTepnperallu}o, Ar,ITb HOBbre CTpaTefuH peueHLtg, ycTaHaBJrr4BaTb accoqnaThBHbre cBq3H H nepexoAuTb or xsreuuir oAHofo KJracca K ApytLtM, qacroB 3aBHCHMOCTI4 OT 3aAar{U. Taruu o6pason, o6yuaentste Bbrflonrlrtor ynpa]I(HeHAr) Ha- AaneKr,rM no coAepxaHnrc). (I4HeprHocrb - nporr4BorroJrolKHoe Ka-npaBneHHEre Ha I43BJIeqeHHe OCHOeHOfi t,l BlOpOCTeneguoil uu- vecrao.) ln6xocrs cBrr3aFra c 6orarcreoM H pa3Hoo6pasnev ilpottrnoroSopvaqrza H3 TeKcra rlocpeAcrBoM Haxox(AeHl4fl cMbtcJla reKcra, onbrra pe6eurca (o6t,ena 3HaHnfi, yrr,reurafi n uaesrrcoe), Ho traBHoe HeJIeKcL{Ko-ceMaHTHqecKofi ocHoert o6se4nHeHI,Iq cMbtcJIoBbIX or-pe3KoB B eAnHoe uenoe. Heo6xo.qnvo BoopylKhrF, yqaulnxcfl pa3- caM o[bIT, a MeToAbl efo ocBoeHaq. 24 25
  14. 14. flponepxa [oHr4MaFrr4r reKcra Mo](er ocyqecrBnrrbce c rro- 6. Delete headings used.Molqbro recroB. Hyxno [o3HaKoMr{Tr, ylrauluxcr c $opuraroM Ta- 7. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Corne backKHX TecroB H Boopy)rr4rs s$$exruBtrbrMr4 crpalerusMvt vtx Bbt- and check it later.fIOTHEH}I. 2. Multiple choice. PaccvorpnM ocuoBubre BhAbr .raKHX .recr.oB r.l cnoco6u aKTr,r-BL,ii:aLAA no3HaBarertHofi 4erreJrbHocru yqaug4xct npa vx BbI- 3ro sagauue Ha rro;rHoe loFruMaHne reKcra. Hy>trHo BHr4Marerb- rro npoqararb reKcr v 3ap.aHnfl K HeMy, ,]ro6sr cyMerb orrt4r{r,rrbTIOJTHEHI,,IU. Kaxylqvecr [oxo)KHMH orBerbl, npuqnHy lr cJreAcrBr4e. (Pa:earrae 1. Multiple Matching: Headings. I(oHI-teHTpaqH H BHnM aH hfr , Itolv.vecKo fo fioco6Hocrn rc ML,r txJteHnq, c flpoeeprercq cnoco6Hocrb BbrAenrrb rJTaBHoe B TeKcre (:aro- oqenxe.) Fleo6xo4ratro Hayqurb yqauluxcs corrocraBrrrb orBerbr ocHoBHax ugen) Ha ypoBHe naparpa$a. Pa:erzeaercr cno-JToBKH LrJrr4 c reKcroM, u:6erarr word-spotting, HcnoJlbsyr napafipas. fraeHoe -co6nocrs K rrporHo3HpoBaHHlo, npoAyKTHBHocrb MbrruJreHHr. :JHAqEHVE! Moxer 6trrs npe4lo)r{eHo ABa rr4na zagaamfi: Bonpocsr Aalorcs B ToM xe noprrAKe, qro pr uHf,oprvlarlus B TeK- o ConocraBr4rr, 3aronoBKh c naparpa$aMH TeKcra. cre. Moryr 6rrrs eagaHvq Ha 3HaqeHfie orAeJrbHbrx cJroB unu fpas a . ConocraBfiTb npeAnolKelrl4g, BElpalKaroulue fJIaBHylo MbrcJlb, TeKCTe, BOnpOCbI Ha OrlpeAeneHHe TeMbI Bcefo TeKcTa, Ha o[peAeJIe-c naparpa$aMu reKcra. Frle oTlrolleHllR I1J|4 MHeHI,Irr aBTOpa. 3arorosrcu hn14 npeAnolKeHuq IIaflerJa.ranbl Ao ocr]oBHoto reKcra YacrHrlrcu ceM14 Hapa B napax BbtnoJrHflror recr no rencry Liv-A,rr roro, qro6rr yvaqaecr flonyLrnnu o6u1ee npeAcraBneHne o ing by the Sword (cm. Ilpuno)rceHue 3), nolu:yncb r4HcrpyKqneft:l;raBHblx A4eflx, [pe)KAe qeM Haqarb qhrarb reKc-r. Hercoroptrv 1. Read the questions first. What kind of text is it?y4o6uee cHaqara [pocMorperb reKcr, a noroM nporrHTarb npeAno- 2. Skirn-read the text.)KeHHr. HyrxHo npeAno)Ktzrb yqaqrrMcl nonpo6onart o6a noAXoAa 3. Read over the questions and then scan the text to find wheren nsr6paru naz6olee erf$ercrzuHstit gtn nrax. He Hy)KHo 3aqhKnh- the answers can be found. (E.g. What infonnation in the text explainsBarbcq Ha nepBoM cAeraHHoM esr6ope, TaK KaK Moryl Bo3Hr,rKHyrb the parents attitude? Which of the four choices offers infonnationTpyAnocrh c 4alsuefiurvMn ,vacrflMta, Jryrtute BepHyrbcs 14 nepe- not mentioned in the text?)cMorperb, npaBr4nrrHo tn6st cAenaH nsr6op. 4. While reading the text, underline the parls which justify your Y.racrHrarch ceMr4Hapa B napax BblrroJrHrtor r.ecr rro rerccry Do answers.Men Have a Future? (cu llpund)rceHue 2),nonszyncs aHcrpyrcquefi: 5. Answer the questions. l. Read the text. 6. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Come back 2. Read the headings. and check it later. 3. Cross out the exarnple heading. 3. Gapped text. 4. Look for the key words or phrases in the text which are rele- 9ru zayanna HanpaBneHbr Ha rpoBepKy rroHr4MaHrzq crpyKTypbrvant to the headings. Underline therr. TeKcra 14 ilorlrK:r pa3BlaTrn co6srnit. V.raquec.fl Aon)KHbl BcraBHTr, 5. Decide on extra heading. 26 2/
  15. 15. u3Brer{eHHbre t{3 TeKcra npeAJIoxeHVg. vlu4 a63al-(bl. BosN.{oxeu Baxruo npoaHanh3upoBarb, floqeMy orrpeAeneHuafl qacrb reKcraToJrbKo oArzH [paBulrsslft orBer. (Pa:enrne noruqecKoto MbrIIrJIe- rroAXoAr4T UMeHHO K STOMy OTpbrBKy.Hrrfl , cIoco6Hocrn K npo rHo3l4posaHraro.) Vqacrsurcz ceMr4rrapa B napax Bbl[oJrHrror recr no rexcry What HyxHo cHarraJra flpoqr{Tarb Becb reKcr c upofiycKaMn, uto6u Job Would You Apply For...? (cu. IlpunoJrceHue 5), notszyncb HH-floHflTb, o qeM oH, fIoHtTb cTpyKTypy TeKcTa 14 KaK pa3BrBaeTcfl, crpyrcqnefi:4eftcrnue. Baxso o6parurs BHfiMaHHe Ha rzH$opnreql4ro KaK 1. Skim-read the questions. What are they about?flpofiycKa. TaK n nocne Helo, a raK ]Ke Ha I4x cooTBeTcrBue Jlofl: 2. Skim-read the text.Ke Bcer-o reKcra. Csaqara Hy)KHo I43yt{HT6 npnMep, .{ro6sl noHtrb 3. Scan the text. In each paragraph A-F underline the answers tonpr,rHur4n. the following questionp: a) Representatives of what profesgions is the y.taqlrecq AonxHbI 3Harb crr,IJrr,rcrnr{ecKne cpeAcrBa, Koropble company looking for? b) What qualities are required?noKa3brBalor, KaK Moryr 6rlrr cggsaHbl orAenbHble qacrl4 TeKcra: 4. Underline the part of the text that is referred to each question.rIoKa3aTeJrI4 BpeMeHH, npI4rIHHbt 14 cIeAcTBI4.fl, KOHTpaCTa, TIOBTOpa; 5. Answer all the questions even if you think you are guessing.yMerb npaBrznbHo ynorpe6rrrb MecrouMeHLIfl, BpeMeua aHIluftcxo- Pa6ora c reKcroM oqeHb BalKHa raoxe npra o6yueur4n neKcvtKo-ro rJrarona. Baxuo ns6enars word-spotting. rpaMMarr4qecxofi cropoHe pevra (Use of English). Y.{acrur4xrz ceMnHapa B flapax BbITIoJIHfl[or recr IIo rercry The flpoeepra rroHr4MaHur ocyulecrBnflercs c noMorrlbro cneAyro-Bodyguard business (cu. IIpunoJrceHue 4), nonrcyr.cb IrHcrpyKqueft: lqI,IX TeCTOB: 1. Skim-read the text. Multiple Choice Cloze (cn. ITpunouceuue 6). 2. Decide on the structure. (Is it chronological, cause and effect Open Cloze (cu. Ilpuuotreuue 7). etc.?) Error Correction (9u. Ilptr,tocrceuue 8). 3. Read the example paragraph and the conesponding sentence, Word Formation (cu. Ilpuaouceuue 9). . cross it out. . VqacmuuKu ceMuHapa Bwnormntom sadauun no qenoqKe. . 4. List the part of the text just beforb and after the first gap. What Tecrr,r Moxer cocraBr.flTs I,r caM y.qHTenb.-"kind V,iacrHlrraM ceMr4Hapa rpeAnamerc.n cocraBr4Tb recr Multiple of infonnation is missing? 5. Continue like this. Which sentence best fills the gap, refers to Choice Ha ocHoBe reKcra Jobs For Life, Jobs For Loye. Tax xarc the same period bf the time, events, etc.? reKcr ue6olsruoft, Mo)nHo n3l"flTb He 6olee 5 npeg,roxeHufi (vacrefi 6. Underline in the text words that relate to each other (e.g. both rrpeAno)Ke H nit). flpu oroM oqeHb Ba]KHo, .{ro6H qerKo rrpocne)Kr4Ba- ... and...). racb vx cBfl3b c [peAbrAyrrlr{MH rd rrocJreAyrculrdM14 rrpeAnoN(eH[flMvt. 7. Make sure you mark each answer in the correct box. 3arena Ao6aerqercr oAHo JrurrrHee flpeAno]KeHr{e. Vqacmuuxu ceMuHapa pa6omanm 6 epynnax. O6pase4 cocma6- 4. Multiple Matching. reHHozo mecma cu. e Ifpwtocrceuuu 10. Taxue 3aAaHAfl npoBeprror cnoco6socrr, BbrAeJrr4Tb cilerluanb- [ll roro .]ro6sr rroAroroBr,rrb yqaqnxcr K BbrnoJrHeH]to raKoto uyro nHrfopMarlnro B pflAe reKcroB (pa:onaaror rn6rcocrs MbItrJIe- BVAa TeCTOB, MOXTHO npeAnOIOrTb CneAyrcrq[e 3A!aHt.dfl.. uua). B HeKoropbrx 3aAaHHsx MoxHo AeJIarb HecKoJIbKo nst6opoe. 28 29
  16. 16. o Oreerr,re Ha Bonpocbr (6es napraaHroe orrera). r Pas6efire reKcr Ha naparpa$rr. o [JoAqeprcHI4Te r]peAnoxeHne (uacrs npeAnoxeHr,rr r4Jrh KJlro-qeBoe clono), qro6rr cflopri,rylr.rpoBarb rraBHyro uAero reKcra (na-parpaSa). o C$oprraylnpyftre rnaBH)Io uAeto reKcra B oAHoM npeAnoxeHhr4. o OnpeAernre orHoueHue aBropa (o4o6paer - ue o4o6p rcr).t o Cqnraer JrH aBTop, r{To... Haillrzre B TeKcre npeAroxeHr4q,KOTOpbre AOKa3brBarcT 3TO. o HaftAnre B TeKcre onpeAeneHHyro raHrfopnraquro, npeAcraBbreee B Br{Ae ra6rzqst, cxeMbl (cu. Ilpuaoctceuui II). LIraK, pa6ora c reKcroM crr4Mynilpyer LrHTeJrJreKTyaJrbHylo aK-rrrBHocrb yqalqHxcr. O4Harco Heo6xollrtvro no46nparb reKcrbr cyqeroM Bo3pacrHbrx HHTepecoe yvaulr,rxcq, ypoBHfl crpoprrarapo-BaHHocrr4 nx q3brKoBlrx yueHnfi rr HaBbrKoB, optdgHTr4pyqcb [pr4groM He roJrbKo Ha 3oHy aKTyanbHoro, Ho H Ha 3oHy 6lnxafirueropa3B]aThtfl. Jlqreparypa. 1. FCE. University oICambridge. UCLES. 2003. : 2. Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Practice nest t. Express Pub-lishing, 2000. I 3. Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Practice Test 2. Express Pub-lishing, 2000. 4.,_ Virginia Evans; Jenny Dooley. Enterprise 4. Intermediate-Coursd Book. Express Publishing, 2006. 5. Virginia Evans, Jennyr Dooley Enterprise 4. Intermediate.,Workbook. Express Publishing, 2006. 6. First Cerlificate: First! Sophie Kingsley. Examination Practi1. Express publishing, 2005. 7.,{po:4ona, T. [O., JlapuoHooa,VI.B. Anrlzficruft 4lr no4ro-roBKI4 K gK3aMeHarr,r. - ClI6. : AHrororz.fl , 2006. 30
  17. 17. 2. Here are three young school.leavers speaking about t Ilpunoucenue 2selves: Read the article about men and unemployment. Chose the most A. Joan Berwick suitable heading from the list A-I for each part (l-7) of the arlicle. Im still at school but I finish next month. So Im looking for a There is one extra heading which you do not need to use , There is anjob. Ive got my own PC and I can use a word processor. I can use example at the beginning. (0)switchboard because my sister is a receptionist and she showed A University of womenwhat to do, but I havent got any experience. Im going totake a s€c- B Women will make the choiceretarialeourse. I want an office job but I dont want to work for alarge firm. c More jobs for young people B. Alan McGee D Mens,jobs disappearing I left school two rnonths agp. I havent got any work experi E New jobs - wrong skillsI havent done any examinations and I havent got any qualifications. F Schoolgirls racing aheadI dont like sitting at a desk and doing paper work. I spent my child- G The increasing importance of learninghood at my grandfathers farm and I like to be in the open air. I used H Part-timers on the increaseto help my grandfather with his work, So I know somefhing of gar-de4ing and I can operate sirnple farm machinery. I Changing pay and increasing power C. Harnish Griffiths Do Men llave A Future? Im going to leave school in two months time. Id like tosome job right off. My teacher says Im a good student and accura 0 Din my work. I can type but I dont know anything about word proces- Male full time employment in Britain reached its highest level insors. I like my schoolmates and often help them with their home- 1990. Since then the figurehas fallen by about ten per cent. Amongwork. I like to be with people and learn from them. women, on the other hand, ernployment figures have remained more or less steady. This means that merl are bearing the brunt of the 3. Now decide which job each of them can apply for and get. 1990s recespion, since traditionally "male" jobs - especially in areasExplain why. such as mining and production - have been the hardest hit. 1 I 2 J Meanwhile, the majority of new jobs created are part-time ones, which traditionally go to women in a ratio of over five to one. Al- though more men than ever before are being forced to look for part- time work, as there is no other choice, the majority of part-tirne posts still go to women. ?) 2 3rxapurrl IJ
  18. 18. F 2 2020 or 2030, when the idea of Jobs for the boys" could well change to Jobs for the girls." In Britain as in other developed countries, the workplace is changing. Jobs in production industries have fallen by more than a 7 rnillion in the last six years alone. The coal industry, the worst hit By that time, life could be getting very unpleasant for undgr- area, has seen employment fall by as much as three quarters. And for skilled, under-educated rnales. Without suitable training, they will these out-of-work miners there is not much to suit their skills in tho have little hope of finding employnent. Of course it is diffrcult to new industries: hotel and catering, retail distribution, banking a6{ predict the future, and it is always possible that men will continue to insurance, cleaning, medical and health services, education and wel- hold the top position in public life. However, if men do rnanage to fare. keep the top jobs, it could be only because women - who by then J will have most of the university degrees and jobs - decide to let them. It is clear that better-paid jobs of the future will require special- ized knowlqdge and experience, which only training and higher stan- dards of literacy and numeracy can bring about. Education is truly flpunouceuue 3 the future of the country, and here the news is not so good for men. Read the text and answer the multiple choice questions: 4 LIVING BY THE SWORI) Ten years ago the best exam results in schools were achieved by When Cristina Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to be- male pupils. Now the situation has tumed around. In all bubjects ex- come a bullfighter instead of a hairdresser, they werent too pleased. cept maths, girls are doing better than boys by the age of seven. After But when she was eighteen her parents realized that she was serious that the gap becbmes wider. and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals. Since last July, Sanchez has been the most suc- 5 cessful novice in Spain and is very popular with the crowds. After As a result, changes are taking place at the top end of the educa- brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, tional ladder. In 1984, three out of five university students were Sanchez has decided that she is ready to take the test to become a male. This year, for the first time, girls made up the majority of the matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez does not look like a mata- new students. Soon most new graduates will be female. So why do dor. She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond women still earn less and have far fewer top jobs? hair loose. She seems to rnove much more like a dancer than an ath- lete, but in the ring she is all power. 6 When she was fourteen, Sanchezs father warned her that the In Britain, womans salaries in equivalent jobs are as much as a world of bullfighting was hard enough for a rnan and even harder for fifth lower than mens, and most bosses are still men. But todays a woman. It ,seems he is right. "It really is a tough world for distribution of jobs (parlicularly top jobs) is a result of the educa- a woman", says Sanchez. "You start with the door shut in your face. tional situation of the 1950s and 1960s, when three quarters of uni- A rnan has to prove himself only once, whereas I have had to do it versity graduates were men. The situation may change by the year ten times just to get rny foot in the door." 34 35
  19. 19. In perhaps the worlds rnost masculine profession, it would seem 2. Sanch,ez thinks that...strange if Sanchez had not met problems. But even though Spanish A. living in todays world is difficult for a woman.woman won the legal right to fight bulls on equal tenns with men in B. bullfighting is a difficult career fol wornen.7974, therc arc still matadors like Jesulin de lJbrique who refuses to C. it is almost impossible to succeed as a female bullfighter.fight in the same ring as her. Sanchez lives with her family in Parla, D. women have to demonstrate their skills as rnuch as malesouth of Madlid. Her family is evelything to her and is the rnain sup- bullfighters do.port in her life. "My sisters dont like bullfighting, they dont even 3. Sanchezs mother...watch it on TV, and my mother would be the happiest person in the A. is evelything to her family.world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mums like rny best friend." B. plefers to watch her daughter on TV.When Sanchez is not hghting she has a tough fitness routine - run- C. suppofts her more than the rest of the farnily.ning, working out in the gyrn and practicing with her father in the , D. would prefer Sanchez to leave the ring.afternoon. By nine she is horne for supper, and by eleven she is inbed. She doesnt drinl<, smoke or socialize. "You have to give up a 4. What does "it" in line 32 refer to?lot," says Sanchez. "Its difficult to meet people, but it doesnt wory A. the fitness routine;rne - love does not arrive because you look for it." B. not socializing; Sanchez spends most of her year travelling: in sutnmer to Span- C. giving up;ish and French bullfights and in winter to Latin America. Her mother D. srnoking.dislikes watching Sanchez fight, but goes to the ring when she can. If 5. Sanchez doesnt socialize often because...not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to A. she doesnt likc cigarettes and alcohol.ring ttuee tirnes to say that their daughter had been injured, twice B. her work takes up most of her time.lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has C. she is worried about meeting people.been wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly D. its too difficult to look for friends.she can get back to the ring. "It damages your confidence," she says, 6. What does Sanches think about after being injuled?"but it also makes you mature. Its just unprofessional to be injured.You cannot let it happen." Sanchez is rnanaged.by Sirnon Casas, who A. her next chance to fight bulls. B. her abilities.says, "At the moment there is no lirnit to where she can go. She has a C. her developrnent.charrpions mentality, as well as courage and technique." D. her skills. 1. When Sanchez told her*parents that she wanted to be a bull-fighter they... llputtocrcenue 4 A. felt a little pleased. B. thought she was too young. You are going to read a newspaper arlicle about bodyguards. . C. thought she had a good sense of hurrrour. Seven palagraphs have been removed from the arlicle. Choose frorn D. were initially opposed to the idea. the paragraphs (A-II) the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is an example at the beginning (0). 37

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