SIR ISAAC NEWTONSir Isaac Newton PRS (4 January 1643 –31 March 1727 [OS: 25 December 1642 –20 March 1727]).He was an English physicist,mathematician, astronomer,natural philosopher, alchemist, andtheologian.
From the age of about twelve until he wasseventeen, Newton was educated atThe Kings School, Grantham(where his alleged signature can still be seen upon asil.In June 1661, he was admitted toTrinity College, Cambridge as a sizar — a sort ofwork-study role. At that time, the collegesteachings were based on those of Aristotle,
Newton preferred to read the moreadvanced ideas of modern philosophers,such as Descartes, and of astronomerssuch as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler.In 1665, he discovered the generalisedbinomial theorem and began to develop amathematical theory that would laterbecome infinitesimal calculus
MathematicsNewton has been regarded for almost300 years as the founding examplar ofmodern physical science,His achievements in experimentalinvestigation being as innovative asthose in mathematical research
Newton made contributions to all branchesof mathematics then studied .But is especially famous for his solutionsto the contemporary problems in analyticalgeometry of drawing tangents to curves(differentiation) and defining areasbounded by curves (integration).
Not only did Newton discover that theseproblems were inverse to each other, buthe discovered general methods ofresolving problems of curvature,embraced in his "method of fluxions" and"inverse method of fluxions",respectively equivalent to Leibnizs laterdifferential and integral calculus.
Fluxions were expressed algebraically, asLeibnizs differentials were, but Newton madeextensive use also (especially in the Principia) ofanalogous geometrical arguments.Newtons work on pure mathematics wasvirtually hidden from all but his correspondentsuntil 1704, when he published, with Opticks, atract on the quadrature of curves (integration)and another on the classification of the cubiccurves.
His Cambridge lectures, delivered fromabout 1673 to 1683, were published in1707.
The Calculus Priority Dispute Newton had the essence of the methods of fluxions by 1666. The first to become known, privately, to other mathematicians, in 1668, was his method of integration by infinite series. In Paris in 1675 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz independently evolved the first ideas of his differential calculus
. Newton had already described some ofhis mathematical discoveries to Leibniz,not including his method of fluxions.In 1684 Leibniz published his first paperon calculus; a small group ofmathematicians took up his ideas.
MECHANICS AND GRAVITATIONNewton demonstrates it from therevolutions of the six known planets,including the Earth, and their satellites.However, he could never quite perfect thedifficult theory of the Moons motion.
MATHEMATICIANAs mathematician, Newton inventedintegral calculus, and jointly with Leibnitz,differential calculus .He also calculated a formula for findingthe velocity of sound in a gas which waslater corrected by Laplace.
Newton published his single greatestwork, the Philosophiae Naturalis PrincipiaMathematica (Mathematical Principles ofNatural Philosophy).This showed how a universal force,gravity, applied to all objects in all parts ofthe universe.
He also worked out the fluxional calculustolerably completely: this in a manuscriptdated November 13, 1665, he usedfluxions to find the tangent and the radiusof curvature at any point on a curve.And in October 1666 he applied them toseveral problems in the theory ofequations .
In this letter Newton begins by saying thataltogether he had used three methods forexpansion in series. His first was arrived at from the study ofthe method of interpolation by whichWallis had found expressions for the areaof a circle and a hyperbola
Thus, by considering the series ofexpressions , , ,..., (1-x)02…This was the method of fluxions; butNewton gives no description of it here,though he adds some illustrations of itsuse.The first illustration is on the quadrature ofthe curve represented by the equation
he points out that the area of any curve can beeasily determined approximately by the methodof interpolation described below in discussing hisMethodus Differentialis.At the end of his letter Newton alludes to thesolution of the ``inverse problem of tangents, asubject on which Leibnitz had asked forinformation.
The Universal Arithmetic, which is on algebra,theory of equations, and miscellaneousproblems, contains the substance of Newtonslectures during the years 1673 to 1683.He extends Descartess rule of signs to givelimits to the number of imaginary roots. He usesthe principle of continuity to explain how two realand unequal roots may become imaginary inpassing through equality, and illustrates this bygeometrical considerations
Mathematics - The origin of Newtonsinterest in mathematics can be traced tohis undergraduate days at Cambridge.Here Newton became acquainted with anumber of contemporary works, includingan edition of Descartes Géométrie, JohnWallis Arithmetica infinitorum, and otherworks by prominent mathematicians.
Specifically, he discovered the binomialtheorem, new methods for expansion ofinfinite series, and his direct and inversemethod of fluxions.‘As the term implies, fluxional calculus is amethod for treating changing or flowingquantities.
Newtons creative years in mathematicsextended from 1664 to roughly the springof 1696. Although his predecessors hadanticipated various elements of thecalculus, Newton generalized andintegrated these insights while developingnew and more rigorous methods.
HE WAS DIEDNewton died in London on March 20, 1727and was buried in Westminster Abbey, thefirst scientist to be accorded this honor.review of an encyclopedia of science willreveal at least two to three times morereferences to Newton than any otherindividual scientist.
An 18th century poem written byAlexander Pope about Sir Isaac Newtonstates it best:“Nature and Natures laws lay hid in night:God said, Let Newton be! and all waslight.”