Expanding Sentences • A clause is a group of words that forms a part of a sentence and that contains a subject and a predicate.Kinds of clauses:1. Independent clause- also known as principal of main clause and can stand alone.2. Dependent clause- also called a subordinate clause and cannot stand alone. • A phrase is a unit of words with no subject and a verb. • A sentence is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.EXPANDING SENTENCES THROUGH SUBORDINATIONA. NOUN CLAUSES1. The subordinate clause as a noun used as a subject of the sentence. That the world is round is true. How he solved the problem amazed me.2. The subordinate clause as a noun used as an object of the verb. From our Science book we have learned that the world is round. He explained how he solved the problem to us.3. The subordinate clause as a noun used as an object of the preposition. All depends on how they do it. He had no sense of what is important and proper.4. The subordinate clause as a noun used as predicate nominative or subjective complement. The consensus is that they will support the movement. The thinking is that he made a huge mistake.5. The subordinate clause as a noun used as an appositive. The statement that “all men are created equal” is true. He pins his hope for acquittal on the saying that “truth shall prevail.”
Expanding Sentences Through Modification1. Adjective PhrasesIt is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun by telling what kind or which one.Examples: Allan’s paintings of flowers sell easily. (What kind of paintings?) Ivana has a fear of worms. (What kind of fear?)2. Adjective ClauseIt is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun by telling what kind or which one. Theadjective clause usually begins with one of the relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, or whoserelative adverbs such as when, where, why.Examples: Renz selected students who were best qualified for the job. The city where I would like to live is Makati city.3. Adverb PhraseIt is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb by pointing out whee, when, inwhat manner, or to what extent.Examples:Modifying a verb: You can ride a calesa in Intramuros. (can ride where?) The tornadoes hit the village in the early morning hours. (hit when?)Modifying an adjective: Her mother is patient with her.Modifying an adverb: The heavy rains penetrated deep into the parched land. In the early evening, the fragrance of the dama de noche drifted into my bedroom. (drifterwhere and when?)4. Adverbial ClauseIt is a subordinate clause that modify verbs, adverbs, adjectives by telling where, when, in what manner,how, to what extent, under what condition, or why.Examples: They decided to stay after the meeting ended. The storm struck sooner than the forecasters expected.
Adverbial clauses start with subordinating conjunctions such as where, wherever, while, when,whenever, until, unless, than, though, so that, since, in order that, if, even though, before, because, aslong as, as if, although, after, etc.
Exercises in the use of the modifiersI. Underline the modifier in the sentence and indicate its form as an infinitive phrase or participialphrase on the space before each item. Encircle the word it modifies.1. The director of the camp is the person to notify at the earliest time.2. Sailing leisurely, we didn’t notice the banca approached.3. Migs worked hard to improve his performance.4. the lifeguard, using his megaphone, told us not to panic.5. The boy wearing the blue sweater is Reggie.II. Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence and indicate its function as adjective or adverb.Encircle the word it modifies.1. The man walked slowly downstairs and out into the garden.2. He walked towards the door.3. It has a golden horn in the middle of its forehead.4. The man sat down among the roses and went to sleep.5. She was very excited and there was a gloat in her eye.III. Underline the adverbial clause and encircle the word it modifies.1. Randolph takes his dog wherever he goes.2. Have you heard from Krystal since I last saw Lawrence?3. Vince stayed there until the report was finished.IV. Underline the adjective clause and encircle the word it modifies.1. Sampaguitas are usually the first flowers that bloom.2. Ianne works in the town where the movie was filmed.3. The boys who played handball with me go to Ateneo.