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Cell organelles
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Cell organelles

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Cell organelles Cell organelles Presentation Transcript

  • Cell Structures, Functions and Transport
  • Recall
    What makes up living things?
    How do we study cells and what tool do we use?
  • Familiar?
  • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
  • Prokaryotic Cells
    Came from the Greek word pro : before and karyon : kernel or nucleus
    Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bounded nucleus.
  • Diagram
    DNA
  • Eukaryotic Cells
    Came from the Greek words meaning true nucleus.
    Thus, eukaryotic cells have nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
  • Diagram: Cheek cells
    Plasma Membrane
    Nucleus
  • THE LIVING CELL
  • How do animal cells specialize?
    In animals, the first type of cells in the developing embryo are stem cells. These are unspecialized cells that go on to form all the different cell types in the adult.
    stem cell
    red blood cell
    sperm cell
    muscle cell
    nerve cell
  • ORGANELLES
    structures in a cell that act like “little organs.”
    They perform SPECIFIC function inside a cell.
    Found only in EUKARYOTIC cells.
  • Cytoplasm
    Nucleolus
    Nucleus
    Animal Cell
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Nucleus
    Nickname: “The Control Center”
    Function: holds the DNA
    Parts:
    Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes
  • The Nucleus
    Nucleolus
    Chromatin
    Nuclear Envelope
    www.nerdscience.com
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Ribosomes
    Function: makes proteins
    Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
  • Ribosomes
    Ribosome
    www.nerdscience.com
    7-2
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    Nickname: “Roads”
    Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    2 Types:
    Rough ER:
    Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
    Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes
    Smooth ER:
    NO ribosomes
    Function: makes fats or lipids
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    Rough ER
    Smooth ER
    www.nerdscience.com
    7-2
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Golgi Complex
    Nickname: The shippers
    Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell
    Appearance: stack of pancakes
  • Golgi Apparatus
    Golgi Apparatus
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes)
    Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”
    Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Mitochondria
    Nickname: “The Powerhouse”
    Function: Energy formation
    Breaks down food to make ATP
    ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
  • Mitochondria
    Mitochondria
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Centrioles
    Considered to important in animal cells for the production of spindle fibers used in their cell division. NOT FOUND IN PLANTS.
    Cytoskeleton
    Network of protein filaments
    Structural support
  • Animal Cell
  • Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!
  • How do plant cells specialize?
    Unlike animals, many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate and specialize throughout their life. These cells are found in tissues called meristems.
    meristem cell
    leaf cell
    root cell
    sieve cell
  • Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant Cell
    Section 7-2
    Large Vacuole
    Chloroplasts
    Cell wall
    Go to Section:
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
    Large Central Vacuoles
    Function: stores water
    This is what makes lettuce crisp
    When there is no water, the plant wilts
  • Chloroplasts
    Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell
    Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment
    Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
  • What are chloroplasts?
    thylakoids
    Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.
    A green pigment in chloroplasts called chlorophyll absorbs the energy in sunlight.
    This energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
    Chlorophyll is embedded in disk-like structures called thylakoids, which are arranged into stacks.
  • Chloroplast
    membrane
    thylakoid
    stroma
  • Cell Wall
    Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane
    Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells
    Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
  • Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
    Plant Cell
    Section 7-2
    Large Vacuole
    Chloroplasts
    Cell wall
    Go to Section:
  • Which organelle?
  • Plant Cells
  • Evaluation: Comparing Plant and Animal Cells