Assessment In The 21st-Century Classroom

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Assessment In The 21st-Century Classroom

  1. 1. Assessment in the 21st-Century Classroom Konrad Glogowski http://www.teachandlearn.ca/blog Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/eskimoblood/2111672366/
  2. 2. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998)
  3. 3. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades.
  4. 4. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades. • Quality of feedback is crucial to learning.
  5. 5. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades. • Quality of feedback is crucial to learning. • Setting process goals is more effective than setting product goals.
  6. 6. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades. • Quality of feedback is crucial to learning. • Setting process goals is more effective than setting product goals. • “Assessment conversations” are effective.
  7. 7. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades. • Quality of feedback is crucial to learning. • Setting process goals is more effective than setting product goals. • “Assessment conversations” are effective. • Formative feedback is associated with more positive attitudes to learning.
  8. 8. What research tells us: (Black & Wiliam, 1998) • Comments have a strong impact on learning, stronger than comments + grades or only grades. • Quality of feedback is crucial to learning. • Setting process goals is more effective than setting product goals. • “Assessment conversations” are effective. • Formative feedback is associated with more positive attitudes to learning. • Mastery orientation in assessment is more effective than performance orientation.
  9. 9. Something to guide our discussion ... Assessment is the tail that wags the curriculum dog. If we want to see real curriculum reform, we must simultaneously achieve reform of assessment practices. (Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1992, p.29)
  10. 10. There is a close and necessary relationship between what we choose to assess and what we value most in the education of our children. - Marten Shipman (qtd. in Mary-Jane Drummond, 2008a)
  11. 11. What do I value most? As a teacher? As a human being? As an educator in 2009? Image Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/galopoulos/1831974200/
  12. 12. My research/my blogging community • 32 grade eight students (mixed ability) • English Language Arts class (Animal Farm and The Diary of a Young Girl) • All students had individual blogs aggregated into a community. • What impact does a blogging community have on the role of the teacher? • Student participation necessitated a shift in my classroom practice.
  13. 13. Glogowski, K. (2008). Tracing the emergence of a blogging/writing community: Critical transformations in a grade eight classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto.
  14. 14. Glogowski, K. (2008). Tracing the emergence of a blogging/writing community: Critical transformations in a grade eight classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto.
  15. 15. Glogowski, K. (2008). Tracing the emergence of a blogging/writing community: Critical transformations in a grade eight classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto.
  16. 16. Evidence of Learning?
  17. 17. Evidence of Learning?
  18. 18. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/3234945166/
  19. 19. My Journey Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  20. 20. Part One Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  21. 21. Metaphor of Acquisition (Sfard, 1998)
  22. 22. Metaphor of Metaphor of Acquisition Participation (Sfard, 1998)
  23. 23. Metaphor of Metaphor of Knowledge Acquisition Participation Creation (Sfard, 1998)
  24. 24. Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  25. 25. Performance under test conditions Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  26. 26. Performance under test conditions Recall of facts Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  27. 27. Performance under test conditions Recall of facts Tests are separate from learning Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  28. 28. Performance under test conditions Recall of facts Tests are separate from learning Time limits Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  29. 29. Performance under test conditions Recall of facts Tests are separate from learning Time limits Assessing Learning of No access to materials What is Taught (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  30. 30. Performance under test conditions Recall of facts Tests are separate from learning Time limits Assessing Learning of No access to materials What is Taught Correct or incorrect (Behaviourist) (James, 2008)
  31. 31. Assessing Learning as Individual Sense-Making (Cognitive Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  32. 32. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Assessing Learning as Individual Sense-Making (Cognitive Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  33. 33. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Demonstration of ability to apply skills Assessing Learning as Individual Sense-Making (Cognitive Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  34. 34. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Demonstration of ability to apply skills Tests and examinations (may be Assessing extended) Learning as Individual Sense-Making (Cognitive Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  35. 35. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Demonstration of ability to apply skills Tests and examinations (may be Assessing extended) Learning as Individual Time limits Sense-Making (Cognitive Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  36. 36. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Demonstration of ability to apply skills Tests and examinations (may be Assessing extended) Learning as Individual Time limits Sense-Making (Cognitive Some limited access to materials Constructivist) (James, 2008)
  37. 37. Focus on problem solving/ understanding Demonstration of ability to apply skills Tests and examinations (may be Assessing extended) Learning as Individual Time limits Sense-Making (Cognitive Some limited access to materials Constructivist) Rubrics, exemplars (James, 2008)
  38. 38. Assessing Learning as Building Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  39. 39. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Assessing Learning as Building Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  40. 40. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Assessing Learning as Building Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  41. 41. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Learning expressed through participation in real-life problems Assessing Learning as Building Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  42. 42. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Learning expressed through participation in real-life problems Assessing Agency in the use of resources Learning as Building Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  43. 43. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Learning expressed through participation in real-life problems Assessing Agency in the use of resources Learning as Building Learning expressed in various forms Knowledge with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  44. 44. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Learning expressed through participation in real-life problems Assessing Agency in the use of resources Learning as Building Learning expressed in various forms Knowledge Portfolios with Others (Sociocultural) (James, 2008)
  45. 45. Assessment alongside learning (situated) Importance of community Learning expressed through participation in real-life problems Assessing Agency in the use of resources Learning as Building Learning expressed in various forms Knowledge Portfolios with Others (Sociocultural) Holistic and qualitative, not quantified (James, 2008)
  46. 46. Assessing Learning of What is Taught (Behaviourist)
  47. 47. Assessing Learning as Assessing Individual Learning of Sense-Making What is Taught (Cognitive (Behaviourist) Constructivist)
  48. 48. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  49. 49. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  50. 50. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  51. 51. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  52. 52. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  53. 53. Assessing Assessing Learning as Learning as Assessing Individual Building Learning of Sense-Making Knowledge What is Taught (Cognitive with Others (Behaviourist) Constructivist) (Sociocultural)
  54. 54. Suggestion One: Sociocultural Assessment Practices
  55. 55. Part Two Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  56. 56. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  57. 57. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  58. 58. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  59. 59. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  60. 60. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  61. 61. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  62. 62. Te Whariki is grounded in a sociocultural and ecological approach, reflected strongly in:
  63. 63. Te Whariki is grounded in a sociocultural and ecological approach, reflected strongly in: 1) The curriculum strands of belonging and contribution (also communication, exploration, and well-being).
  64. 64. Te Whariki is grounded in a sociocultural and ecological approach, reflected strongly in: 1) The curriculum strands of belonging and contribution (also communication, exploration, and well-being). 2) A guiding principle that children learn through relationships.
  65. 65. Te Whariki is grounded in a sociocultural and ecological approach, reflected strongly in: 1) The curriculum strands of belonging and contribution (also communication, exploration, and well-being). 2) A guiding principle that children learn through relationships. 3) A guiding principle that emphasizes the role of family and community.
  66. 66. Four Key Principles of Te Whariki: (also principles of assessment) Empowerment Holistic Development Family and Community Relationships Five strands: (essential areas of learning and development) Well-being Belonging Contributions Communication Exploration (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  67. 67. Four Key Principles of Te Whariki: (also principles of assessment) Empowerment Holistic Development Family and Community Relationships Five strands: (essential areas of learning and development) Well-being Belonging Contributions Communication Exploration (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  68. 68. Learning Stories • A narrative method to document children’s learning. • Learning is not a score or a level that children get or have, but something they continuously do. • Learning is dynamic. (Ministry of Education, 1996)
  69. 69. (Blaiklock, 2008)
  70. 70. Learning Stories • Focus on what students can, not what they cannot do can • Recognize uniqueness and individuality of each student • View learning as holistic, not subdivided into skills or holistic areas • Record children’s inquiries and enterprises • Record learning at home as well as in the setting • Draw families in • Document progression over time (Drummond, 2008)
  71. 71. Learning Stories what students can learning as holistic inquiries families learning at home progression over time individuality Children see that teachers/families/peers see value in their work, and that what they do has meaning (Drummond, 2008)
  72. 72. Learning Dispositions “Dispositions are important ‘learning outcomes’. They are encouraged rather than taught. To encourage robust dispositions to reason, investigate, and collaborate, children will be immersed in communities where people discuss rules, are fair, explore questions about how things work, and help each other.” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p. 44)
  73. 73. Resourcefulness and Agency • Imagining what might be • “Possible selves” (Marcus and Nurius, 1986) • “Growth mindset” (Dweck, • Recognizing, 2006) constructing, and sustaining affordance networks (Carr, 2008)
  74. 74. Suggestion Two: Explore learning stories as assessment strategy.
  75. 75. Part Three Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  76. 76. 1. High Quality Interactions based on thoughtful questions, careful listening and reflective responses. 2. Sharing of Criteria Students are clear about what is to be learned and what success would be like. 3. Timely Feedback About the quality of student work and how to make it better. 4. Agency (what’s next?) Next steps and required resources are identified. (Swaffield, 2008b)
  77. 77. (Swaffield, 2008b)
  78. 78. Three Steps • Feedback • Self-Assessment • Revisiting Episodes of Competence Image Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/41942132@N00/684595491
  79. 79. Spaces for Conversations Make learning visible Promote learning autonomy Deepen understanding http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/2219409374
  80. 80. Part Four Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  81. 81. My feedback skills?
  82. 82. Feedback: “... needs to provide information specifically relating to the task or process of learning that fills a gap between what is understood and what is aimed to be understood” “Specifically, feedback is more effective when it provides information on correct rather than incorrect responses and when it builds on changes from previous trails.” (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).
  83. 83. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/3234276255/
  84. 84. Suggestion Three: Assessment for Learning (meaningful, focused, timely feedback)
  85. 85. Community
  86. 86. Community Stories
  87. 87. Community Stories Conversations
  88. 88. Community Stories Conversations Episodes of Competence
  89. 89. Community Stories Conversations Episodes of Competence Feedback
  90. 90. Part Five Feedback Examples Assessment for Learning Ideas Suggestions Models for the Future Discussion Current Models
  91. 91. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/1776430181/
  92. 92. !quot;#$%&$'(
  93. 93. )*+,-%..*..&*/0$)quot;**0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/516978385/
  94. 94. 1233+*. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/2242185765/
  95. 95. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/2242977860/
  96. 96. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/2243037760/
  97. 97. http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/2242977810/
  98. 98. 45*.6#/. 78 !quot;#$%&'%$quot;(%)*+(%*,%$quot;(%$(#-quot;()%&.%$quot;(%/0'$1-(.$2)3% -+#'')**45%6'%$quot;&'%)*+(%7&,,()(.$%,)*4%8quot;#$%&$%8#'%$8(.$3% 3(#)'%#9*5 98 !quot;#$%#)(%3*2)%(:;()&(.-('%8&$quot;%#''(''4(.$%#'%#% '$27(.$5 :8 !quot;#$%#)(%$quot;(%<(.(=&$'%*,%#%+(#).&.9%'$*)3%#;;)*#-quot;5% !quot;#$%#)(%&$'%7)#8<#->'5%?#.%$quot;&'%#;;)*#-quot;%<(%2'(7% #-)*''%$quot;(%-2))&-2+245 ;8 @*%8quot;#$%(:$(.$%7*%3*2)%-2))(.$%#''(''4(.$%;)#-$&-('% ;)*4*$(%)('*2)-(,2+.(''%#.7%#9(.-35 <8 A($#&+(7%#.7%$&4(+3%,((7<#->%-#.%<(%$&4(1-*.'24&.9B% !quot;#$%#)(%'*4(%*,%$quot;(%'$)#$(9&('%$quot;#$%8(%-#.%2'(%$*% +(''(.%$quot;(%+*#75 <;
  99. 99. Bibliography: Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), pp. 7-74. Blaiklock, K. (2008). Are Learning Stories Working? PowerPoint presentation: http://tinyurl.com/ b5hufm Bredekamp, S., & Rosegrant, R. (Eds.) (1992). Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Carr, M. (2008). Can assessment unlock and open the doors to resourcefulness and agency? In Swaffield, S. (Ed.). Unlocking assessment. Understanding for reflection and application. New York: Routledge, pp. 36-54. Drummond, M. (2008). Assessment and values. A close and necessary relationship. In Swaffield, S. (Ed.). Unlocking assessment. Understanding for reflection and application. New York: Routledge, pp. 3-19. Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: the new psychology of success. New York: Random House. Glogowski, K. (2008). Tracing the emergence of a blogging/writing community: Critical transformations in a grade eight classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto. <<
  100. 100. Bibliography cont’d: Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. James, M. (2008). Assessment and learning. In Swaffield, S. (Ed.). Unlocking assessment. Understanding for reflection and application. New York: Routledge, pp. 20-35. Marcus, H. & Nurius, P. (1986, September). Possible selves. American Psychologist, pp. 954-69. Ministry of Education (1996). The Whariki early childhood curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media. Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the danger of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27, pp. 4-13). Swaffield, S. (Ed.). (2008a). Unlocking assessment. Understanding for reflection and application. New York: Routledge. Swaffield, S. (2008b). Feedback. The central process in assessment for learning. In Swaffield, S. (Ed.). Unlocking assessment. Understanding for reflection and application. New York: Routledge, pp. 57-72. <=

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